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Ms. Garratt Honors World History Chapter 9: Sections 1 – 4

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Presentation on theme: "Ms. Garratt Honors World History Chapter 9: Sections 1 – 4"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ms. Garratt Honors World History Chapter 9: Sections 1 – 4


3 Overview Transformative which will gradually impact the political, economic and social lives of the entire Begins in 1780s in England Agricultural Rev spurs its development

4 Second Agricultural Revolution
Impact of enclosures New agricultural methods Farms become more profitable Displacement of small farmers New technology/discoveries Seed drill – Jethro Tull Crop rotation Fertilizers Breeding – Robert Bakewell McCormick Reaper

5 Seed Drill - Jethro Tull

6 Why Britain? Natural Resources
Water power & coal for energy Iron ore to construct machines, tools, buildings Rivers for transportation Harbors for export

7 Why Britain? Business Infrastructure
Entrepreneurial class (business people) Banking system for loans Acquisition of capital Parliament – laws passed to protect & encourage industrial development

8 Why Britain? Political Stability
Key to development in any country Parliament passes laws to protect & encourage capital and foreign ventures. Overseas trade & commerce provides opportunities for investment

9 Why Britain? Surplus Labor
Due to Agricultural Revolution workers were displaced Migrated to the cities (urbanization) Worked in factories or coal or iron ore mines

10 Why Britain? Consumerism
Populaton explosion meant there were people to consume products Economic prosperity of middle classes Economies of scale for lower classes

11 Why Britain? Technological Inventions
Britain was leader in techno innovation. IR began in textile industry Flying Shutting Spinning Jenny Spinning mule Power looms Water frame Water power Factories

12 Major Inventions Change Workplace
Factory work Cottage industry

13 Transportation Harbors Canals Roads Steam Engine Locomotives Macadams
Turnpikes Steam Engine James Watt Matthew Boulton Locomotives

14 How Railroads Spurs Economic Growth
(1) cheap form of transportation (2) creates hundreds of thousands of jobs for miners & rr workers (3) boosts agric & fishing industries (4)enables suburban living and travel

15 Impact: Urbanization Factories located by energy sources
Cities lacked: Development plans Sanitary or building codes Adequate police/fire protection Sufficient housing Cities contained: Unpaved streets Garbage heaps Slums Epidemics


17 Working Conditions Sweatshops Child Labor Low Wages
12- hour days in some cases 6-7 days a week Hazardous working conditions No workers compensation for injuries Exploitation

18 Child Labor Factory Act 1833 Mines Act 1842 Ten Hours Act 1847
Illegal under the age of 9 9-13 only 8 hrs a day Mines Act 1842 Prevents women & children in mines Ten Hours Act 1847 National Child Labor Committee Supported by unions Reversed by Supreme Court




22 Who created this cartoon?

23 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

24 Liberalism & Industrialization
Liberalism which challenged mercantilism Arose out of the enlightenment Belief that free market was most efficient way to generate wealth Tariffs restricted trade & wealth

25 Adam Smith Wealth of Nations 1776 Three natural laws of economics
Law of self interest Law of competition Law of Supply & Demand (S/D) International division of labor

26 Capitalism Existed in Middle Ages – long distance trade
Industrial Capitalism Capitalists owned the factors of production Free trade liberalism Invest for profit No government regulation or intervention Would generate wealth & prosperity for society

27 Rise of Corporations Stock Shareholders No personal liability
Monopolies will develop Andrew Carnegie John D. Rockefeller

28 New Class Emerges Middle class (bourgeoisie) used to refer to townspeople New industrial middle emerges (bankers, factory owners,skilled workers, merchants, entrepreneurs) Benefitted from IR in short run Became richer than many aristocrats Not until late 1800s were they considered social equals

29 Case Study: Manchester, England
Factory Act 1813 Pollution Unregulated business

30 Spread of Industrialization in the US
Samuel Slater War of 1812 Belgium Germany Why it didn’t spread to some countries or did so very slowly

31 Dire Predictions: Dismal Science

32 Thomas Malthus He wrote Essay on the Principle of Population
Predicted pop would outpace food production Without checks on pop (war, epidemics…) poverty would increase Urged pop control His predictions never materialized Food supply increased Living conditions improved Fewer children

33 Population Explosion What was the cause of this explosion?
Stable food supply Declining death rate Reduced risk of famine Better hygiene and sanitation Less disease Increased infant mortality


35 David Ricardo – Iron Law of Wages
Agreed that poor were having too many children Noted that when wages were high families had more children More children increased the supply of workers which led to lower wages & higher employment Held out no hope for escape from poverty “Dismal science” Both Malthus & Ricardo opposed gov assistance Best cure for poverty was “unrestricted laws of the free market” Individuals had to work hard & limit family size

36 Hopeful Philosophies

37 Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham – 1700s John Stuart Mill 1800s
Role of gov was to promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people Urged gov involvement Ideas should be based on their “utility” John Stuart Mill 1800s Questioned unregulated capitalism Pushed for legal and prison reforms

38 Utopianism Robert Owen Reformer New Lanark & New Harmony
Mill owner who created utopian towns

39 Socialism Factors of production should be owned by the public & operate for the benefit of all. Gov intervention necessary to plan the econ rather than rely on free market capitalism Control of key industries (mines, factories, railroads) would end poverty & promote equality Charles Fourier and Saint-Simone

40 Prediction of Revolution

41 Marxism: Radical Socialism
Communist Manifesto 1848 History is conflict between “haves” and “have nots” History goes through cycles determined by economics “Haves” own all the means of production The oppressed proletariat will eventually violently overthrow the bourgeoisie

42 Communism After violent revolution a “dictatorship of the proletariat” would be formed After abolition of economic differences a “classless society” would form The state (a tool of the bourgeoisie) would then “wither away”. No government would be necessary

43 Revisionists Reformers not revolutionaries. Denounced by Marx
Believed that by winning the right to vote socialist goals would be achieved gradually by working within the system. Workers did win many reforms such as: Better working conditions Shorter hours Higher pay Workman’s compensation

44 Labor Unions & Reform

45 Reform Movement Spreads

46 Positive Impact of Industrialization
Jobs Wealth Technological progress & inventions Raised standard of living (sol) Diet Housing Mass produced goods Expanded edu opportunities Not until after 1850 did workers

47 Luddites






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