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Ms. Garratt Honors World History Chapter 9: Sections 1 – 4.

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Presentation on theme: "Ms. Garratt Honors World History Chapter 9: Sections 1 – 4."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Ms. Garratt Honors World History Chapter 9: Sections 1 – 4

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4  Transformative which will gradually impact the political, economic and social lives of the entire  Begins in 1780s in England  Agricultural Rev spurs its development

5  Impact of enclosures  New agricultural methods  Farms become more profitable  Displacement of small farmers  New technology/discoveries  Seed drill – Jethro Tull  Crop rotation  Fertilizers  Breeding – Robert Bakewell  McCormick Reaper

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7  (1) Natural Resources:  Water power & coal for energy  Iron ore to construct machines, tools, buildings  Rivers for transportation  Harbors for export

8  2) Business infrastructure  Entrepreneurial class (business people)  Banking system for loans  Acquisition of capital  Parliament – laws passed to protect & encourage industrial development

9  (3) Political Stability  Key to development in any country  Parliament passes laws to protect & encourage capital and foreign ventures.  Overseas trade & commerce provides opportunities for investment

10  Due to Agricultural Revolution workers were displaced  Migrated to the cities (urbanization)  Worked in factories or coal or iron ore mines

11  Populaton explosion meant there were people to consume products  Economic prosperity of middle classes  Economies of scale for lower classes

12  Britain was leader in techno innovation.  IR began in textile industry  Flying Shutting  Spinning Jenny  Spinning mule  Power looms  Water frame  Water power  Factories

13 FACTORY WORKCOTTAGE INDUSTRY

14  Harbors  Canals  Roads  Macadams  Turnpikes  Steam Engine  James Watt  Matthew Boulton  Locomotives

15  (1) cheap form of transportation  (2) creates hundreds of thousands of jobs for miners & rr workers  (3) boosts agric & fishing industries  (4)enables suburban living and travel

16  Factories located by energy sources  Cities lacked:  Development plans  Sanitary or building codes  Adequate police/fire protection  Sufficient housing  Cities contained:  Unpaved streets  Garbage heaps  Slums  Epidemics

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18  Sweatshops  Child Labor  Low Wages  12- hour days in some cases  6-7 days a week  Hazardous working conditions  No workers compensation for injuries  Exploitation

19  Factory Act 1833  Illegal under the age of 9  9-13 only 8 hrs a day  Mines Act 1842  Prevents women & children in mines  Ten Hours Act 1847  National Child Labor Committee  Supported by unions  Reversed by Supreme Court

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25  Liberalism which challenged mercantilism  Arose out of the enlightenment  Belief that free market was most efficient way to generate wealth  Tariffs restricted trade & wealth

26  Wealth of Nations 1776  Three natural laws of economics  Law of self interest  Law of competition  Law of Supply & Demand (S/D)  International division of labor

27  Existed in Middle Ages – long distance trade  Industrial Capitalism  Capitalists owned the factors of production  Free trade liberalism  Invest for profit  No government regulation or intervention  Would generate wealth & prosperity for society

28  Stock  Shareholders  No personal liability  Monopolies will develop  Andrew Carnegie  John D. Rockefeller

29  Middle class (bourgeoisie) used to refer to townspeople  New industrial middle emerges (bankers, factory owners,skilled workers, merchants, entrepreneurs)  Benefitted from IR in short run  Became richer than many aristocrats  Not until late 1800s were they considered social equals

30  Factory Act 1813  Pollution  Unregulated business

31  US  Samuel Slater  War of 1812  Belgium  Germany  Why it didn’t spread to some countries or did so very slowly

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33  He wrote Essay on the Principle of Population  Predicted pop would outpace food production  Without checks on pop (war, epidemics…) poverty would increase  Urged pop control  His predictions never materialized  Food supply increased  Living conditions improved  Fewer children

34  What was the cause of this explosion?  Stable food supply  Declining death rate  Reduced risk of famine  Better hygiene and sanitation  Less disease  Increased infant mortality

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36  Agreed that poor were having too many children  Noted that when wages were high families had more children  More children increased the supply of workers which led to lower wages & higher employment  Held out no hope for escape from poverty  “Dismal science”  Both Malthus & Ricardo opposed gov assistance  Best cure for poverty was “unrestricted laws of the free market”  Individuals had to work hard & limit family size

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38  Jeremy Bentham – 1700s  Role of gov was to promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people  Urged gov involvement  Ideas should be based on their “utility”  John Stuart Mill 1800s  Questioned unregulated capitalism  Pushed for legal and prison reforms

39  Robert Owen  Reformer  New Lanark & New Harmony  Mill owner who created utopian towns

40  Factors of production should be owned by the public & operate for the benefit of all.  Gov intervention necessary to plan the econ rather than rely on free market capitalism  Control of key industries (mines, factories, railroads) would end poverty & promote equality  Charles Fourier and Saint-Simone

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42  Communist Manifesto 1848  History is conflict between “haves” and “have nots”  History goes through cycles determined by economics  “Haves” own all the means of production  The oppressed proletariat will eventually violently overthrow the bourgeoisie

43  After violent revolution a “dictatorship of the proletariat” would be formed  After abolition of economic differences a “classless society” would form  The state (a tool of the bourgeoisie) would then “wither away”.  No government would be necessary

44  Reformers not revolutionaries.  Denounced by Marx  Believed that by winning the right to vote socialist goals would be achieved gradually by working within the system.  Workers did win many reforms such as:  Better working conditions  Shorter hours  Higher pay  Workman’s compensation

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47  Jobs  Wealth  Technological progress & inventions  Raised standard of living (sol)  Diet  Housing  Mass produced goods  Expanded edu opportunities  Not until after 1850 did workers

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