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Santilli’s New Fuels as Sources of Clean Combustion I. B. Das Sarma Jhulelal Institute of Technology Off. Koradi Octroi Post Lonara, Nagpur-441 111 INDIA.

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Presentation on theme: "Santilli’s New Fuels as Sources of Clean Combustion I. B. Das Sarma Jhulelal Institute of Technology Off. Koradi Octroi Post Lonara, Nagpur-441 111 INDIA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Santilli’s New Fuels as Sources of Clean Combustion I. B. Das Sarma Jhulelal Institute of Technology Off. Koradi Octroi Post Lonara, Nagpur-441 111 INDIA E-mail:

2 Acknowledgment The financial support for this work from The R. M. Santilli Foundation, Palm Harbor, Florida is gratefully acknowledged. The author is grateful to Prof. A.A. Bhalekar & Dr. V.M. Tangde for conducting ‘One day motivational workshop on Santilli’s New Mathematics’ at Smt. Bhagwati Chaturvedi College of Engineering, Nagpur, INDIA. Author is also grateful for the constant encouragement and valuable guidance in preparing this paper and presentation by-  Professor R. M. Santilli  Professor C. Corda  Professor R. Anderson  Professor A. A. Bhalekar  Dr. V. M. Tangde 2

3 Contents  Introduction  Modern Scenario of energy  Hadronic Energy of Non-nuclear Type  Hadronic Energy of Nuclear Type  Conclusion 3

4  It is based on Galilei and Poincaré symmetries, which are applicable only for Keplerian systems, requiring a nucleus. So, according to Prof. Santilli, Quantum mechanics cannot be exactly valid for nuclear structures because nuclei do not have their own nucleus to revolve around, as a consequence of which the basic Galilean and Poincaré symmetries must be broken, thus causing incontrovertible deviations from quantum axioms. 4 Insufficiencies of Quantum Mechanics

5  Hamiltonian nature of quantum mechanics restricts the understanding of nuclear forces. Hence, to represent the a nuclear force with a potential up to 35 different potentials have been added without achieving the required exact representation.  The linear, local and Hamiltonian character of quantum mechanics is effective for the classification of hadrons under their point-like approximation, but is inadequate for structure related problems due to expected nonlinear, nonlocal and non-Hamiltonian effects occurring within the hyper dense media inside hadrons. 5

6 Thus, Prof. Santilli states: According to the standard model, at the time of the neutron synthesis from protons and electrons inside a star, the permanently stable protons and electrons simply disappear from the universe to be replaced by conjectural quarks, and then the proton and the electron simply reappear at the time of the neutron decay. These beliefs are simply repugnant to me because excessively irrational, thus showing the conduction of particle physics via academic authority, rather than scientific veritas. 6

7 The theory fails to explain the following even for the simplest nucleus of deuterium:  The spin 1 of deuterium since quantum axioms require that the single stable bound state of two particles with spin ½, (proton and neutron) must be the singlet state with spin zero.  To represent the magnetic moment of deuterium.  The stability of unstable neutron when coupled to proton in a nucleus (e.g. deuterium). T ½ of neutron ≅ 15 minutes. 7

8  Quantum Mechanics is inapplicable for explaining the synthesis of neutron from a proton and an electron as occurring in stars because, in this case the Schrödinger equation becomes inconsistent.  It is unsuitable for all processes that are irreversible over time, like nuclear fusions, because quantum mechanics is reversible over time, thus admitting the time reversal event which violates energy conservation, causality and other basic laws.  It also fails to explain irreversible non-nuclear process like combustion. 8

9  It cannot predict quantitatively how two identical electrons attract each other to form a bond (as in a molecule).  It cannot be exactly valid for the study of chemical reactions. E.g. In case of the strictly irreversible reaction H 2 +O → H 2 O Quantum chemistry admits finite probability for the time reversal event, i.e. the spontaneous disintegration of the water molecule into its original constituents, H 2 O → H 2 + O However, this concept violates the principle of conservation of the energy. 9 Insufficiencies of Quantum Chemistry

10  Exact representation of molecular binding energies could be provided only by screening of the Coulomb potential (i.e. multiplication of fundamental Coulomb potential between two valence electrons, V = e 2 /r, by an arbitrary function f(r) of completely unknown origin). f(r) was obtained from experimental data and screened Coulomb potentials accurately represented binding energies. 10

11 However…  The conversion of Coulomb potential to its screened form requires a non-unitary transform. So, the screening of Coulomb potential causes major departures from the unitary structure of quantum mechanics.  The Coulomb potential is a fundamental invariant of quantum mechanics. Consequently, its screening causes the breaking of the fundamental Galilei symmetry under which conditions quantum mechanics cannot be accurate.  It is well known that the quantum of energy is solely possible for the Coulomb law and that any quantization of the energy is impossible for screened potentials. 11

12 Need for Hadronic Mechanics  Quantitative treatment of neutron synthesis from protons and electrons (occurring in stars).  Quantitative studies on the possible utilization of the inextinguishable energy contained inside the neutron.  The study of new clean energies and fuels that cannot even be conceived with the 20 th century doctrines and other basic advances. 12

13  Quantum mechanics was conceived for the study of interactions among particles at large mutual distances which is representable with differential equations defined over a finite set of isolated points.  Hadronic mechanics was formulated for the study of the additional nonlocal-integral interactions due to mutual wave overlapping. The interactions are defined over an entire volume and cannot be effectively approximated by their abstraction into finite number of isolated points.  The same interaction cannot be derived from a Hamiltonian or non-linear in their wave functions or their derivatives 1. 13 1.Elements of Hadronic Mechanics, Vol. I, Mathematical Foundation, R.M. Santilli, 2 nd Edition, 1995, Naukova Dumka Publishers, Kiev.

14 Hadronic Mechanics 14 Newtonian Mechanics Quantum Mechanics Hadronic Mechanics >10 -3 cm>10 -13 – 10 – 8 cm≤10 -13 cm Macroscopic bodies in motion Valid at atomic level of distances & structure Valid for inter-particle distance within 1 fm Prof. Santilli has founded more fundamental theory of the universe, named after the composite nuclear particle hadron as Hadronic Mechanics.

15 New Mathematics Prof. Santilli states that: There cannot be a really new theory without a really new mathematics, and there cannot be a really new mathematics without new numbers. He formulated various new mathematics that coincides at the abstract realization-free level with traditional mathematics, discovering new realizations of pre- existing abstract mathematical axioms, with consequential far reaching mathematical and physical implications. 15

16 Isomathematics  It is developed for quantitative invariant treatment of non-local, non-potential and non-linear interactions among extended particles under mutual penetration at short distance is today known under the name of Isomathematics.  ‘Iso’ denotes the preservation of conventional axioms 2. 16 2.Iso-, Geno-, Hyper-mechanics for Matter, their Isoduals, for Antimatter, and their Novel Applications in Physics, Chemistry and Biology, R.M. Santilli, Extended version of invited plenary talks at the Conference of the International Association for Relativistic Dynamics, Washington, D.C., June 2002; International Congress of Mathematicians, Hong Kong, August 2002; International Conference on Physical Interpretation of Relativity Theories, London, September 2002.

17  Isomathematics was initially proposed by Prof. R. M. Santilli 3 in 1978 and subsequently studied by several mathematicians, theoreticians and experimentalists 4-7.  Valence bonds include conventional local differential Coulomb interactions, as well as nonlocal, nonlinear and nonpotential interactions due to wave overlappings.  The former interactions can be represented with the conventional Hamiltonian, but the latter interactions can be represented via a generalization of the basic unit as a condition to achieve invariance (since the unit is the basic invariant of any theory). 17 3.R. M. Santilli: Hadronic J. 1, 224 (1978). 4.J. L. Lagrange, Mechanique Analytique (1788), reprinted by Gauthier-Villars, Paris (1888). 5.S. Lie, Over en Classe Geometriske Transformationer, English translation by E. Trell, Algebras Groups and Geometries 15, 395 (1998). 6.R. M. Santilli, Suppl. Nuovo Cimento 6, 1225 (l968). 7. R. M. Santilli, Hadronic J. 3, 440 (l979).

18  Isomathematics preserves all the axioms of 20 th century Lie- algebra but introduces the non-unitary multiplication unit (a scalar or tensorial quantity).  Thus, all the ordinary units can be istopically lifted (converted to its isotopic equivalent) by multiplying it with an isounit, Î.  Thus, divergent parameters can be made convergent i.e. achieving the broadening of unitary-canonical theories into non-unitary, non-canonical extensions  Isounit does not have an unit value as in ordinary mathematics but may have any positive value. I = +1→Î  The positive definiteness of iso-unit, Î is given by where 18

19 19

20 Genomathematics  The irreversibility of the macroscopic reality cannot be quantified by isomathematics is that because the Lie-Santilli isotheory is structurally reversible (theory coincides with its time reversal image for reversible Hamiltonians and isounits).  The resolution of this insufficiency required suitable broadening of the Lie-Santilli isotheory. In turn, the achievement of an invariant formulation of the latter theory required the construction of a new mathematics that Professor Santilli formulated 8 way back in 1978 under the name of genomathematics  The term genotopy means inducing configuration alternately can be understood as axiom inducing.  Alteration of the original axioms in favour of covering axioms admitting the original one as particular case. 20 8.R. M. Santilli, On a possible Lie-admissible covering of the Galilei relativity in Newtonian mechanics for non-conservative and Galilei form-noninvariant systems, Hadronic J., vol. 1, pp. 223 -423, 1978

21  The main idea of genomathematics is the selection of two different generalized units called genounits, the first Î > for the ordered multiplication to the right A > B, called forward genoproduct, and the second < Î for the ordered multiplicationto the left A < B, called backward genoproduct, according to the general rules.  The point at the foundations of the Lie-admissible theory is that the multiplications of the same numbers in different orderings are generally different, α > β ≠ β < α  So, this indicates possibility of introducing two orderd iso units called geno units 1 21

22 22  The 1st expression permits dual generaliztion one for ordering to the right yielding right genofield having elements are called right genonumber.  The one for ordering to the left yielding left genofield having elements are called left genonumber  The two genofields can be denoted with the unified symbol with the understanding that the orderings can be used only individually 1

23 Hypermathematics  Genonumbers were extended to yet new numbers today known as Santilli's hyperreal, hypercomplex and hyperquaternionic numbers to the right and to the left, or generically as hypernumbers that are multivalued, namely, not only the units and products to the right and to the left are different, but the hyperunit has an ordered set of values and, consequently, the multiplication yields an ordered set of results. E.g.: the hyper-lifting of results in  Santilli's hypernumbers are different than hyperstructures because the former use conventional operations while the latter use abstract operations.  Santilli's hypernumbers verify all axioms of a field, while conventional hyperstructures do not generally admit any unit at all, thus not being generally formulated over a field, with consequential severe restrictions in applications. 23

24 24  Genotheories are insufficient to represent the entire nature as they are unable to represent biological structures such as a cell or a seashell. The latter systems are indeed open-nonconservative- irreversible, yet they possess a structure dramatically more complex than that of a nonconservative Newtonian system. A study of the issue has revealed that the limitation of genotheories is due to their single- valued character.  As an illustration, mathematical treatments complemented with computer visualization have established that the shape of sea shells can be well described via the conventional single-valued three-dimensional Euclidean space and geometry according to the empirical perception of our three Eustachian tubes. A computer visualization of seashells studied by Illert that varies the isoeuclidean representation of seashell's growth while the conventional Euclidean representation does not.

25  Hyper-mathematics is characterized by the following hyperunits expressed for the lifting of the Euclidean unit  Mathematics is not 3m-dimensional, but rather it is 3- dimensional and m-multi-valued. Such a feature permits the increase of the reference axes, e.g., for m = 2 we have the six axes, while achieving compatibility with our sensory perception because at the abstract, realization-free level.  The hypermathematics characterized by hyperunit is indeed 3-dimensional. 25

26 26 Modern Scenario of Energy  Energy requirements is being mostly fulfilled by the conventional source of energy i.e. molecular combustion of fossil fuels, hydrogen or nuclear fission.  Fossil fuel combustion generates large amount of green house gases like CO 2, hydrocarbons, etc.  Hydrogen combustion depletes atmospheric O 2 by forming H 2 O.  Nuclear fission generates large amount of nuclear waste risking ecosystem and life.

27 27

28 28 Energy Sources Non-conventional Energy Sources Thermal Power Nuclear Power Hydel Power Conventional Energy Sources Solar Power Wind Power Tidal Power Geo-thermal Power Ocean-thermal Power

29 29  Clean energy is obtained by harnessing renewable energy sources like solar, wind, geothermal, tidal, etc.  They are generally dependent on geographical locations.  Also the power generated cannot be stored efficiently due to lack of efficient battery technology.  The modern day demand is that of clean energy source, which is cheap and abundant.  The fuels developed should be such that can be used in existing engines without any or major modifications.  This requirement is fulfilled by changing the approach from quantum mechanics to hadronic mechanics to hadronic chemistry.

30 30 Hadronic Fuels Nuclear Type MagneGas MagneHydrogen MagneWater Non-nuclear Type (Magnecular Combustion) Intermediate Controlled Nuclear Fusion (ICNF) Stimulated decay of neutron

31 31 Non-nuclear Type Hadronic Fuel (Magnecular Combustion)

32 Hydrogen Two H-atoms placed adjacent to each other without overlap of electron wave packets. They show conventional spherical charge distribution around their respective nucleus. Isochemical model of H 2 molecule with a stable iso- electronium at absolute zero revolving in the oo-shaped orbital 32

33 33 The new interactions at the foundations of hadronic mechanics originating from mutual contact and penetration of the wavepackets of particles at short distances that are non-Hamiltonian because non-linear, non-local and non- potential, thus requiring a non-unitary lifting of quantum mechanics, including its mathematics, physical laws and experimental verifications 9. 9.I. Gandzha and J. Kadeisvily; New Sciences For A New Era: Mathematical, Physical and Chemical Discoveries of Ruggero Maria Santilli; Sankata Printing Press, Kathmandu, Nepal, (2011).

34 34 A schematic view of the main mechanism underlying the creation of magnecules, here illustrated for the case of the hydrogen molecule. It consists in the use of sufficiently strong external magnetic fields which can progressively eliminate all rotations, thus reducing the hydrogen molecule to a configuration which, at absolute zero degrees temperature, can be assumed to lie in a plane. The planar configuration of the electron orbits then implies the manifestation of their magnetic moment which would be otherwise absent. The R.H.S of the above picture outlines the geometry of the magnetic field in the immediate vicinity of an electric arc as described in the text for the case of hadronic molecular reactors. the circular configuration of the magnetic field lines around the electric discharge, the tangential nature of the symmetry axis of the magnetic polarization of the hydrogen atoms with respect to said circular magnetic lines, and the consideration of hydrogen atoms at orbital distances from the electric arc 10 − 8 cm, resulting in extremely strong magnetic fields proportional to (10 − 8 ) − 2 = 10 16 Gauss, thus being ample sufficient to create the needed polarization. The reason for these results is the intrinsic geometry of the PlasmaArcFlow

35 35  It consists in the use of sufficiently strong external magnetic fields which can progressively eliminate all rotations, thus reducing the hydrogen molecule to a configuration which, at absolute zero degrees temperature, can be assumed to lie in a plane.  The planar configuration of the electron orbits then implies the manifestation of their magnetic moment which would be otherwise absent.  The r.h.s. of the above picture outlines the geometry of the magnetic field in the immediate vicinity of an electric arc as in hadronic molecular reactors.  The circular configuration of the magnetic field lines around the electric discharge, the tangential nature of the symmetry axis of the magnetic polarization of the hydrogen atoms with respect to said circular magnetic lines, and the consideration of hydrogen atoms at orbital distances from the electric arc 10 −8 cm, resulting in extremely strong magnetic fields proportional to (10 −8 ) −2 = 10 16 Gauss, thus being ample sufficient to create the needed polarization.  The reason for these results is the intrinsic geometry of the PlasmaArcFlow TM

36 Santilli Magnecules The search for a new bond between stable clusters of same atoms/molecules composing fossil fuels under the following: CONDITION 1: The new bond should be weaker than the valence bond as a necessary condition to decrease pollutants CONDITION 2: The new weaker bond should allow the formation of clusters that are stable at industrially used storage values of temperature and pressure, e.g., those for methane; and CONDITION 3: The new, weaker and stable bond should decompose itself at the combustion temperature to optimize the energy released by the combustion. These conditions could be fulfilled by a novel chemical species called ‘Santilli Magnecules’ or ‘Magnecules’. 36

37 d d An isolated conventional spherical configuration of H-atom at absolute zero degree temperature shows forces due to-  electric charge of electron  electric charge of proton  intrinsic magnetic moment of electron  intrinsic magnetic moment of proton. The same H-atom when its peripheral electron orbit is polarized into a plane, a fifth field 10 due to the magnetic dipole moment caused by the rotation of the electron in its planar orbit emerges. 37 10.The new fuels with magnecular structure, Ruggero Maria Santilli, International Academic Press, 2005

38 38  Magnecules, thus are novel chemical species having at least one magnecular bond other than usual covalent bond.  ‘–’ denotes covalent bond and ‘×’ denotes magnecular bond  The atoms are held together by magnetic fields originating due to toroidal polarization of the atomic electron orbits.  The rotation of the electrons within the toroid creates the magnetic field which is absent for the same atom with conventional spherical distribution of electron orbitals. The oo-shaped orbital of isoelectronium, under an external strong magnetic field gets polarized. The two H atoms acquire parallel but opposite magnetic polarities with null value at sufficient distance. The toroidal distribution of the isoelectronium orbital due to the isouncertainty principle of hadronic mechanics.

39  When two such polarized atoms are sufficiently close to each other and in north-south-north-south alignment, the resulting total force between the two atoms is attractive.  This polarization requires high magnetic field.  At atomic distances from electric arcs of 1000 A of current, the magnetic field is of the order of 10 11 Gauss, which is sufficient to polarize atomic orbitals into toroids for magnecular coupling. 39 Conceptual diagram of an elementary magnecule comprising two identical atoms whose bond is entirely of magnecular character, originating from opposing polarities North-South-North- South of the toroidal distributions of orbitals, as well as the polarization of nuclear and electron magnetic moments.

40 Classification of magnecules  Isomagnecules :  All single-valued characteristics  Reversible in time, when characterized by isochemistry  Genomagnecules:  All single-valued characteristics  Irreversible in time, when characterized by genochemistry  Hypermagnecules:  At least one multi-valued characteristic  Irreversible in time, when characterized by hyperchemistry 40

41 Structural classification of magnecules  Elementary :  Composed only of two molecules,  e.g.: {H – H} × {H – H}; {H – O – H} × {H – O – H} and so on  Magneplexes :  Entirely composed of several identical molecules  e.g.: {H – O – H} × {H – O – H} × {H – O – H} × {H – O – H} × {H – O – H} × …; and so on  Magneclusters:  Composed of several different molecules  e.g.: {H – H} × {C – O} × {O – C – O} × {C = O} × {H – H}× …; and so on 41

42 42

43 Characteristics of magnecules  Large atomic weights which are ten times or more than the conventional molecules.  Large peaks in macroscopic percentages in mass spectra, which do not belong to conventional molecules.  These peaks show same infra-red and ultra-violet signature as expected from the conventional molecules and/or dimers constituting the magnecule.  Said infrared and ultraviolet signatures are generally altered with respect to the conventional versions.  Magnecules have an anomalous adhesion to other substances. 43

44  Breaks down into fragments under high energetic collisions, with subsequent recombination with other fragments and/or conventional molecules.  They can build up or lose individual atoms, molecules during collision.  They have an anomalous penetration through other substances indicating a reduction of the average size of conventional molecules as expected under magnetic polarizations.  Gas magnecules show an anomalous solubility in liquids due to new magnetic bonds between gas and liquid molecules caused by magnetic induction.  Magnecules can be formed by molecules of immiscible liquids. 44

45  A gas with magnecular structure does not follow the ideal gas law.  Substances with magnecular structure have anomalous physical characteristics, as compared to the conventional molecules.  Magnecules release more energy in thermochemical reactions than that released by the same reactions among unpolarized molecular constituents.  All the above characteristic features disappear when the magnecules are brought to a sufficiently high temperature (Curie Magnecular Temperature), which varies from species to species. 45

46 MagneGas  Principle of synthesis of magnecules is similar to the magnetization of a ferromagnet where the orbits of unbounded electrons are polarized.  Thus, theoretically any matter whether solid, liquid or gas can be converted to magnecules provided it is subjected to sufficiently strong external magnetic field.  So, molecular H 2 and O 2 gases can be turned into their respective magnecular structure called MagneHydrogen TM (MH) and MagneOxygen TM (MO) by subjecting them to strong external magnetic field.  This field is obtained in a Hadronic reactor. 46

47 Hadronic Refinery 47 Santilli hadronic refineries for converting liquid waste into a clean burning, cost competitive gaseous fuel with magnecular structure. The pressure metal vessel; the submerged electrodes; the recirculation of the feedstock through the arc; the external AC-DC converter; the external automatic controls of the arc; and the collection of the produced magnecular fuel.

48 Six characteristic temperature ranges and associated regions 11 48 Underwater arc (30 to 40V DC, 500 to 1000A) T >1500 o CDissociation of H 2 O (∼110 kcal/mol), association of CO (∼255 kcal/mol) and CO 2 molecules Region close to arc800 o C to1500 o CAssociation of H 2 (∼104kcal/mol) and H 2 O Region close to arc700 o C to 800 o CVery small bubbles of CO, H 2, CO 2, and H 2 O gases Region close to arc150 o C to 700 o CVery small bubbles of CO, H 2, CO 2, and H 2 O gases Region close to arc100 o C to 150 o CAssociation of O 2 molecules and complexes (∼30 kcal/mol), small and big bubbles of CO, H 2, CO 2, O 2, and H 2 O gases Region far from the arc70 o C to 100 o CAssociation of complexes (∼30 kcal/mol), water condensation, big bubbles of CO, H 2, CO 2, and O 2 gases leaving the liquid 11.Structure and Combustion of Magnegases TM, R. M. Santilli and A. K. Aringazin, arXiv:physics/0112066v1 [physics.gen-ph] 20 Dec 2001

49 Efficiency of Hadronic Reactor  The efficiency of Hadronic reactor is expressed in two ways namely Scientific Efficiency and Commercial Efficiency.  Scientific Efficiency is always less than 1 as per the Carnot theorem.  However, the Hadronic reactors do not produce energy sufficient for the entire regeneration of the used electric energy for various reasons, such as dispersion, very low efficiency of current electric generators, etc. 49

50  Regardless of this limitation, the production of MagneGas (MH) in an electric power plant (to whom the cost of electricity is zilch) is very advantageous from an energy viewpoint because-  For every kW of used energy, they produce at least the equivalent of 3 kW of thermal energy in MagneGas (MH).  When MH is used as an additive to coal or petroleum combustion, the H-content of MagneGas can burn at least half of the combustible components in the plant exhaust that constitute environmental problems.  There are additional savings (of the order of several millions of dollars per year) in scrubbing and other means to clean the exhaust. 50

51  Thus, Magnegas Corporation has documented evidence that an electric power plant, by producing MagneGas locally and injecting it into the flame of the used fossil fuel, can increase the production of electricity by at least 30% with the same use of fossil fuel.  The credibility of this statement is evident and due to the fact that about 60% of the energy of fossil fuels is wasted due to formation of combustible CO, hydrocarbons and other contaminants in flue gas.  These combustible exhausts are burnt off when combined with the H 2 in MagneGas.  Hence the indicated 30% gain in the production of electricity from a given fossil fuel.  MH in fossil fuel decreases its volatility probably due to their anomalous adsorption, consequently attaining higher temperature which results in a cleaner combustion. Thus the consideration of commercial efficiency becomes evident for all practical purposes. 51

52 Detection of Magnecules  Appearance of unexpected heavy MS peaks.  Unknown character of the unexpected MS heavy peaks.  Lack of IR signature of the unknown MS peaks.  Changes in IR signatures.  Changes in magnecular weights.  Accumulation or emission of individual atoms or molecules.  Anomalous adhesion 52

53 MagneHydrogen  H 2 is diamagnetic and cannot acquire a total net magnetic polarity.  The orbit of each H atom acquires a toroidal polarization under sufficiently strong external magnetic field.  The opposite magnetic moments of the two H atoms explain the diamagnetic character of the hydrogen molecule.  Intrinsic magnetic moments of nuclei and electrons of H 2 molecule are also polarized.  Creating new chemical species having bigger specific weight due to formation of new bonds between pairs of individual H atoms. 53

54 MagneOxygen  It is formed comparatively easily as oxygen is paramagnetic.  So electrons acquire an overall magnetic polarity.  Significant increase of the specific weight of the oxygen requires the toroidal polarization of at least some of the peripheral atomic electrons, along with total magnetic polarization 54

55 Magnecular Water (HHO)  HHO gas is magnecular water having magneclusters like {H × H – O} or {H – H ⨯ O} magneplexes like {H – O – H} ⨯ {H – O – H}  Prior to Santilli's studies, a gaseous mixture of 2/3 ordinary hydrogen and 1/3 ordinary oxygen gases was known under the name of Brown gas.  Both HHO and Brown gas does not require atmospheric oxygen for combustion. Thus, does not deplete of atmospheric oxygen.  However they differ in the fact that the former has anomalous adsorption property and varying thermal content. 55

56  Magnecular combustion results in high energy output due to weak magnecular bond and stored magnetostatic energy.  This is exploited for the industrial development of novel clean fuels such as magnegas. Combustion of molecular hydrogen and oxygen H – H + ½ O 2 → H 2 O.  The homolytic clevage of H 2 and O 2 molecules for production of free radicals require 163.7 kcal/mol  The atom recombination to produce H 2 O releases 221.25 kcal/mol  So, the net energy release is 57 kcal/mol. 56 Magnecular Combustion

57 Combustion of magnecular hydrogen {H × H} + O → H 2 O Considering H × H bond dissociation energy to be zero The energy output is predicted to be approximately three times the value predicted by molecular structures with the same atomic constituents and combustion temperature. 57

58 Combustion of magnecules Magnecule + nO 2 → mH 2 O + kO 2 + lCO 2 +... + Δ kcal n, m, k, l,... are integers Magnecule is assumed to consist of both H 2 and CO.  This give increased energy released per each H 2 molecule. Energy balance for combustion of magnecule E[combustion] = mE[H 2 O]+kE[O 2 ]+lE[CO 2 ]+...−E[magnecule] E[H 2 O], E[O 2 ], E[CO 2 ],... are ground state energies of the molecular constituents E[magnecule] is ground state energy of the original magnecule. 58

59 Energy balance is calculated using dissociation energy of the magnecule, D[magnecule]. However, D[magnecule] is different for magnecules of different mass and composition. In case of chemical reactions, reaction constant K is considered. E.g H 2 + ½ O 2 → H 2 O(ΔH = −57.5 kcal, K = 10 40 at T = 25 o C) i.e. total combustion of H 2 gas at T = 25 o C. Generally, for all highly exothermic reactions (ΔH < −15 kcal/mol), the reaction constant is of high value. The opposite direction of the reaction, H 2 + ½ O 2 ← H 2 O is realized only at very high temperatures, at which K < 1. K = 1 indicates equilibrium, while K < 1 indicates backward reaction. 59

60 60 The relation between the reaction heat, ΔH and the reaction constant, K is − 2.303RT logK = ΔG where, ΔG =ΔH − TΔS R = 1.986 cal·K −1 ·mol −1 T is temperature in Kelvin, ΔS is the entropy of the reaction. The ΔS is numerically big if the initial reagents have molecular structures more ordered than the end products, i.e. there is an increase of entropy S during the reaction. The above outline on the reaction constant and reaction entropy helps us to conclude that the combustion of magnegas is characterized by a very high value of the reaction constant (perhaps even bigger than K = 10 40 at T = 25 o C).

61 61 Combustion of magnegas is a highly exothermic reaction as-  They have a structure more ordered than the combustion products.  So, during the combustion there is large increase of the entropy ΔS > 0, eventually very high value of the reaction constant K. However, ΔG is a function of temperature. For most elements, ΔG of oxidation reactions increases linearly with the temperature. So, resulting oxides are less stable at high temperatures than at low temperatures e.g. H 2 O dissociating at high temperature (~1000 o C) Factors favoring Magnecular Combustion

62 62 However, during oxidation of carbon to carbon monoxide C + CO 2 → 2CO ΔG decreases with the increase of the temperature. The number of moles increases about twice during the reaction. Hence, the entropy increases, ΔS > 0. Therefore, the CO molecule is more stable at high temperatures than at low temperatures consequently, a better quality of the exhaust is obtained at lower original temperatures of magnegas.

63 63 High reaction rate  Combustion of magnecules is faster than the combustion of their molecular constituents.  According to Santilli-Shillady isochemical models of molecular structures H 2 and O 2 molecules have the usual (spherical) shape due to rotations in their natural conventional and non- polarized states.  However, the isochemical model of the water shows that such configurations are not suited for the reaction of H and O into H 2 O. In particular, the orbitals of H 2 and O 2 require a toroidal configuration as a condition for their bonding.  Thus, magnetically polarized molecules of hydrogen and oxygen have a bigger reaction rate than the same molecules in un-polarized conditions, since they have a distribution of the valence electrons more suitable for the reaction itself.  Evidently, a bigger reaction rate implies a bigger power.

64 64  Combustion of a magnecule consisting of H 2 and CO, does not require the necessary previous dissociation of the O 2 molecule, because each O-atom in a magnetically polarized O 2 molecule has necessary orientation required for combustion.  So, the magnecular structure acts as a catalyst, in which both O-atoms of the O 2 molecule start to react with the nearest pair H 2 ⨯H 2, or H 2 ⨯CO, or CO⨯CO almost simultaneously.  This also implies that less amount of external energy is needed to activate the reaction, resulting, in an anomalous energy release in combustion. (activation energy is supplied by heat)  So, the combustion of magnegas can be initiated at smaller temperature, in comparison to that of the simple mixture of H 2 and CO gases.

65 Applications of HHO: Fuel additive  The anomalous adsorption makes it a perfect additive to other fuels.  The flash point of diesel was found to increase from 75°C to 79°C on purging with HHO.  Anomalous rise of just 4°C or 42°C?  This could be attributed to the magnecular structure of the HHO which influences to form magnecluster HHO and diesel molecules, thereby drastically increasing its flash point.  If HHO existed as normal molecular gas then the flash point would have decreased by half.  The adsorption of the HHO to the diesel molecules is also expected to significantly reduce the harmful emission of the original fuel (due to inherent O content) and increases the thermal output of the fuel in case of combustion. 65

66  HHO exhibits a wide range of thermal output.  In open air flame temperature is 150°C to large releases of thermal energy depending on the substance to which the flame is applied like instantaneous melting of W or bricks requiring ~9000°C.  This anomaly is due to presence of polarized H-atom in the HHO gas.  Instantaneous melting of bricks 9 is only possible due to the polarized hydrogen contained in the HHO gas which rapidly penetrates into the deep layers of the brick.  Smaller sectional area, increases penetration.  Polarized H-atoms induces polarization of the brick’s atomic orbitals, leading to attraction of the polarized H atoms. This leads to faster penetration within the solid lattice causing higher reactivity and consequently higher melting temperature. 66 Applications of HHO: Thermal Output

67 67 Nuclear Type Hadronic Fuel (Magnecular Combustion)

68 Basic nuclear processes 68 FissionFusion 235 U Fission Product 1: A= 90 to 100 Fission Product 2: A= 133 to 143 1 2

69 Nuclear Fusion 69  It has been considered the Holy Grail of energy  Nuclear fusion can be broadly classified as  Low energy nuclear fusion or ‘cold fusion’  Reported by Fleishmann, Pons and Hawkins (1989)  Major drawback: Non-reproducibility by other laboratories.  Reason: Could be due to insufficient energy required to expose the atomic nuclei from within the covering atomic electron cloud.

70 70  High energy nuclear fusion or ‘hot fusion’  Reported by various laboratories  Major drawback: Not self sustaining and compound nucleus undergoes fission leading to formation radioactive wastes.  Reason: Atomic electron clouds are completely stripped off. Kinetic energy of the nuclei are increased to overcome coulombic barrier and the energy attained by the compound nucleus is generally higher than the fission barrier which results in fission reaction or nuclear decay as prominent exit channels.  In view of this Santilli proposed new form of nuclear energy without ionizing radiations and radioactive waste predicted using hadronic mechanics.

71 Hadronic Energy of Nuclear Type  Nuclear energy conventionally obtained by fission reaction is hazardous due to generation of high energy ionizing radiation and radioactive waste.  The shielding from these radiations is cumbersome as well as expensive.  Disposal of the radioactive waste poses environmental risk.  The fission reactions could be adequately explained by quantum mechanics by considering the fragments as point mass.  However, the same theory fails to explain nuclear fusion because considering the reacting nuclei as point mass was not possible.  Hence the use of hadronic mechanics to explain nuclear fusion is necessary. 71

72 Intermediate Controlled Nuclear Fusion (ICNF) Basic assumptions proposed by Prof. Santilli are-  Nuclear force: Nuclear force can be partly represented with a Hamiltonian and partly is of non-potential type and cannot be represented with a Hamiltonian.  Stable nuclei: According to Heisenberg-Santilli Lie-isotopic equations the sub-nuclear particles are in contact with each other without appreciable overlap of their wave-functions. 72 Figure used by Santilli to illustrate that nuclei have no nuclei of their own and composed of particles in contact with each other having mutual penetration of about 10 -3 of their charge distributions. So, the nuclear force is expected to be partially of potential and partially of nonpotential type, with ensuing nonunitary character of the theory, and related applicability of hadronic mechanics.

73 73  Unstable nuclei and nuclear fusion: In case of Heisenberg- Santilli Lie-admissible equation Hermitean, H represents non-conserved total energy; Genotopic elements R and S represents non-potential interactions So, irreversibility is assured. Lie-admissible branch of hadronic mechanics is ideally suited to represent the decay of unstable nuclei and nuclear fusions, since both are irreversible over time.  Neutron synthesis: Neutron is assumed (originally conjectured by Rutherford) to be compressed hydrogen atom. p + + a + e - → n where ‘a’ is Santilli’s etherino (conventional Hilbert space)

74 Don Borghi’s experiment and Santilli’s hadronic mechanics appropriately explains the Rutherford’s conjecture on neutron as a compressed hydrogen atom. 74 An original drawing used by Santilli to illustrate physical differences between the hydrogen atom and the neutron synthesis from a proton and an electron (occurring in stars).

75 The main interactions absent in the hydrogen atom, but present in the neutron the nonlinear, nonlocal and nonpotential interactions due to deep wave overlapping of extended particles. Their non-Hamiltonian character mandates a nonunitary covering of quantum mechanics. 75

76 76 An illustration of the support by the industry of research on new clean energies requiring suitable coverings of 20 th century doctrines, depicting the conception by Michael McDonnough, President of BetaVoltaic, Inc., of the Rutherford-Santilli neutron that is at the foundation of its possible stimulated decay and related new clean energies.

77  Nuclear structure: Proton is the only stable particle and neutron is unstable comprising of proton and electron. Santilli assumed that nuclei are a collection of protons and neutrons, in first approximation, while at a deeper level a collection of mutated protons and electrons. 77

78 Controlled Nuclear Fusion (CNF)  It is systematic energy releasing nuclear fusion whose reaction rate is controllable via one or more mechanisms capable of performing the engineering optimization of the applicable laws.  The CNF is governed by Santilli's laws for controlled nuclear fusions:  The orbitals of peripheral atomic electrons are controlled such that nuclei are systematically exposed.  CNF occurs when nuclei spins are either in singlet planar coupling or triplet axial coupling. 78 A schematic view of the only two stable couplings permitted by hadronic mechanics for nuclear fusions; the singlet planar coupling (A) and the triplet axial coupling (B). All other spin configurations have been proved to produce strongly repulsive forces under which no CNF is possible.

79 79  The most probable CNF are those occurring at threshold energies and without the release of massive particles.  CNF requires trigger, an external mechanism that forces exposed nuclei to come in fm range.  Magnecules have systematic and controlled exposure of nuclei which have singlet planar or triplet axial coupling. The ICNF proposed by Santilli are of the generic type where, A is the atomic number Z is the nuclear charge J P is the nuclear angular momentum with parity u is the nuclear energy in amu units TR is trigger mechanism (high voltage DC arc in hadronic reactor)

80 80 Synthesis of nitrogen from carbon and deuterium by ICNF  It was expected in nature due to lightning. C(12,6,O +,12.0000)+D(2,1,1 +,2.0141)+TR →N(14,7,1 +,14.0030)+Heat ΔE = 0.0111 amu = 10.339MeV:  Threshold energy is supplied which is just sufficient to expose the atomic nuclei from within the electron cloud.  As the energy is not very high the resulting compound nucleus has excitation energy lesser than that required for particular or gamma- emission.  The above reaction is carried out in sealed tanks called hadronic reactors.  This synthesis is of industrial importance because it yields 10 10 BTU of energy per hour.

81 81 A schematic view of the Hadronic Reactor, based on an upgradation of the Hadronic Refineries showing emphasis on the production and use of a magnecular fuel in the latter, to the production and use of heat in the former.

82  The electric arc polarizes carbon and hydrogen atoms by forming the C × H × H magnecule, having triplet axial spin coupling.  Under a suitable trigger, the magnecule C × H × H should yield a nucleus with A=14, Z=8, J P =1 +  However, that does not exist (since O(14, 8) has spin J = 0).  So, according to Prof. Santilli the nature synthesizes a neutron from proton, electron and etherino as, C×H×H→C(12, 6, 0) + 2 x p + + e - + a →C(12, 6, 0) + H(2, 1, 1) → N(14, 8, 1)  The fusion reaction taking place in hadronic reactor using deuterium as fuel have shown to yield clean energy without formation of any radioactive species or ionizing radiations. 82

83 O(18,8,0 +,17.9991) + C(12,6,0 +,12.0000) + TR → Si(30,14,0 +,29.9737) + ΔE Δ E = 0.0254 u The reaction verifies all conservation laws. The whitish powder on the edge of carbon electrodes suggests synthesis of silica. The controlled fusion of oxygen and carbon into silica was done because CO 2 (green house gas) is a hadronic fuel for the production of clean energy. Hadronic reactor can be filled up with CO 2 at pressure. The DC arc efficiently separates it into O 2 and C. O 2 and C burns to produce CO that, in the presence of oxygen and an arc, reproduces CO 2. Thus recovering the energy used for the separation of CO 2. However, along with the conventional combustion, the hadronic reactor produces a net positive energy output due to the fusion of oxygen and carbon into silica. Examples of ICNF 83

84 C(12,6,0 +,12.0000) + He(4, 2,0 +,4.0026) + TR → O(16,8,0 +,15.9949) +ΔE E = 0.0077 u It also verifies all conservation laws. The interior of the reactor was cleaned, and various components replaced; a vacuum was pulled out of the interior chamber; the reactor was filled up with commercial grade helium at 100 psi. It was found that oxygen content decreased to a non- detectable amount but the CO increased from a non- detectable amount to 4:24%. 84

85 85  In the first step, the oxygen is synthesized at the tip of the DC arc when hitting the carbon in the cathode surface.  The ensuing large local heat production rapidly expels the synthesized oxygen from the DC arc, thus preventing any additional nuclear synthesis.  The creation of CO is consequential due to the great affinity of carbon and oxygen. View of the scorched electrode 12 12. Additional confirmation of intermediate controlled nuclear fusion without harmful radiations or waste, Ruggero Maria Santilli, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Lie-admissible Treatment of Irreversible Processes (ICLATIP - 3), Kathmandu University, Nepal, April (2011) pages 163-177

86 Particle Type Hadronic Energy: Stimulated Decay of Neutron  Low binding energy resulting in photo-disintegration of nuclei due to 2.22 MeV and 2.62 MeV photons respectively are well-known.  Similarly, stimulated decay of neutrons is also a well-known phenomenon. The prediction and its quantitative treatment can be done by hadronic mechanics. 86

87 87  According to Prof. Santilli, neutron is an unlimited source of energy because it decays releasing highly energetic electron and neutrino that can be easily trapped with a metal shield.  It is well-known that an isolated neutron is unstable and has half life of ~15 minutes.  However, as a constituent of nuclei, it shows high stability which has been attributed to a strong nuclear force of attraction.  The neutron shows stimulated decay as TR + n → p + + β – where β – has spin zero for the conservation law of the angular momentum. β – also be considered either as an electron and a neutrino or as an electron and an antietherino with opposing spin 1/2. This difference is irrelevant for the stimulated decay of the neutron.

88 88  Resonating photon hitting a nucleus excites the isoelectron inside a neutron irrespective of whether the photon penetrates or not inside the neutron.  The excited isoelectron leaves the neutron structure, thus causing its stimulated decay.  This is due to the fact that hadronic mechanics predicts only one energy level for the proton and the electron in conditions of total mutual immersion (as in neutron).  Range of hadronic mechanics is given by the radius of neutron (1 fm).  Thus, the excited isoelectron excites the proton and reassumes its conventional quantum features when moving in vacuum.  Numerous additional triggers are predicted by hadronic mechanics such as photons with a wavelength equal to the neutron size. Here, the whole neutron is excited, rather than the isoelectron in its interior, but the result is always the stimulated decay. Mechanism for stimulated decay

89 Double beta decay In this typical example of double decay first reaction is stimulated and the second is spontaneous 9. The original isotope should- 1) Admit stimulated decay of at least one of its peripheral neutrons via one photon with a resonating frequency verifying all conservation laws of the energy, angular momentum, etc. 2) The new nucleus formed should undergo spontaneous beta decay so that with one resonating photon there is production of two electrons whose kinetic energy is trapped with a metal shield to produce heat. 89

90 90 3) The original isotope is metallic so that, following the emission of two electrons, it acquires an electric charge suitable for the production of a DC current between the metallic isotope and the metallic shield. 4) The energy balance is positive. 5) The initial and final isotopes are light, natural and stable elements so that the new energy is clean (since the electrons can be easily trapped with a thin metal shield), and produce non-radioactive waste.

91 91 E.g. double beta decay of the Mo(100, 42, 0) γ r (0, 0, 1) + Mo (100, 42, 0) → Tc (100, 43, 1) + β – (0, -1, 0) Tc (100, 43, 1) → Ru (100, 44, 0) + β – (0, -1, 0) a)Mo(100, 42, 0) is naturally stable with mass 99.9074771 amu b)Tc(100, 43) has mass 99.9076576 amu and is naturally unstable with spontaneous decay into Ru(100, 44, 0) and half life of 15.8 s c)Ru(100, 44) is naturally stable with mass 99.9042197 amu. Although the mass of Mo(100, 42, 0) is smaller than that of Tc(100, 43, 1), yet the conservation of energy can be verified with a resonating frequency of 0.16803 MeV (obtained for n=1/7).

92 But the mass of the original isotope is bigger than that of the final isotope for a value much bigger than that of the resonating photon, with usable hadronic energy (HE) power nuclear reaction HE = M(100, 42) – M(100, 44) – E(γ) – 2 x E(e) = 3.034 – 0.184 – 1.022MeV = 1.828MeV where Santilli subtracts the conventional rest energy of the two electrons because it is not usable as a source of energy in this case. Under the assumptions of using a coherent beam with resonating photons hitting a sufficient mass of Mo(100, 42, 0) suitable to produce 10 20 stimulated nuclear transmutations per hour, we have the following:  Hadronic production of heat 2x10 20 MeV/h = 3x10 4 BTU/h,  Hadronic production of electricity 2x10 20 e/h = 200C/h=55 mA. 92

93 Conclusion The clean and sustainable energy requirements can be met using hadronic chemistry. Magnecular combustion can be considered superior to molecular combustion due to its weak bond, stored magnetostatic energy and highly ordered structure. ICNF seems to be more promising than hot or cold fusion in terms of reproducibility and energy input to output ratio. Preliminary studies indicate that stimulated beta decay also holds promising results in clean energy harnessing. 93


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