Presentation on theme: "Using the PBIS Framework to Prevent Bullying Behavior"— Presentation transcript:
1Using the PBIS Framework to Prevent Bullying Behavior Illinois School Mental Health Conference June 26-27, 2012Lisa Boyd, Resource Teacher, Sandburg Elementary, SPS186Brian C. Meyer Operations Director, IL PBIS NetworkCindy Martsch, Internal Coach, Sandburg Elementary, SPS186
2Session Outcomes Session Description: This session will provide research, systems, and examples of implementing effective and sustaining bullying prevention within a school-wide system of multi-tiered supports. A systems framework, redefinition of the bullying construct, and explicit social skills instruction, will be emphasized to focus the social attention among students on building an appropriate and positive school climate.By the end of the overview, you will be able to:Define bullying behaviorsIdentify ineffective practices in current bullying prevention programsIdentify core features of effective bullying prevention, and how they fit within the PBIS frameworkKnow the student routines and staff supports needed for effective bullying prevention.
3First, is there a need for bullying prevention in your school or district? If so, how do we build the necessary systems to support bully prevention efforts?
4The Logic: Why invest in Bullying Prevention? The National School Safety Center (NSSC) called bullying the most enduring and underrated problem in U.S. schools.(Beale, 2001)Nearly 30 percent of students have reported being involved in bullying as either a perpetrator or a victim(Cook, Williams, Guerra, & Kim, 2010; Nansel, et al., 2001; Swearer & Espelage, 2004)Victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to skip and/or drop out of school.(Berthold & Hoover, 2000; Neary & Joseph, 1994)Victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to suffer from underachievement and sub-potential performance in employment settings.(Carney & Merrell, 2001; NSSC, 1995)84.6% of LGBT students reported being verbally harassed, 40.1% reported being physically harassed and 18.8% reported being physically assaulted at school in the past year because of their sexual orientation(GLSEN, 2009)Students on the autism spectrum are more likely to be victimized than their non-disabled peers(Little, 2002)40-60% of students with intellectual disabilities report being bullied. But not at a level of intensity or chronicity that differs from typically developing adolescent( Christensen, Fraynt, Neece & Baker, 2012)
5Additional ResearchEspelage, D. L., & Swearer, S. (2003). Research on school bullying and victimization: What have we learned and where do we go from here? School Psychology Review. 23(3)Good, C. McIntosh, K., & Gietz, C. (2011). Integrating bullying prevention into school-wide positive behavior support. Teaching Exceptional Children. 44 (1)Illinois PBIS Network (2010). Technical assistance brief: effective bulling prevention (BP) within a school-wide system of positive behavior interventions & supports. Retrieved fromMayer, M.J. (2008). Fact Sheet #1: Overview of school violence prevention. Retrieved from Consortium to Prevent School Violence websiteRoss, S., Horner, R., & Stiller, B. (2008). Bully prevention in positive behavior support in Elementary Schools/Middle Schools. OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Eugene, OR.Sugai, G., & Horner, R. (2011). Reducing the effectiveness of bullying behavior in schools. OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports website. Eugene, OR.
6Three Words…Introduce yourself to your shoulder partner (name, organization, position). Name three words that you associate with bullying behaviors.
7What is Bullying? What Does it Look Like? “Bullying” is repeated aggression, harassment, threats or intimidation when one person has greater status or power than the another.What Does it Look Like?Physical aggressionRepeated acts of isolationName callingCyber bullyingRumorsThreatsComments about race, gender, socio-economic status, disability, sexual orientation“Not stopping a repeated pattern of behavior that has been addressed”- Carla Lasley, Principal Grant Middle School, Grant SD110
8What Reinforces Bullying? Bullying is behavior, not a trait, or diagnosis, or a person.“Always with the ‘ing”What rewards Bullying Behavior?Likely many different rewards are effectiveMost common are:Attention from bystandersAttention and reaction of “victim”Self-delivered praiseObtaining objects (food, clothing)Bullying is seldom maintained by feedback from adultsIt is important not to label students. Attention is a key reward from bullying.Scott Ross, University of Oregon
9Research Summary What DOES NOT Work Well: Profiling approaches to identify potentially dangerous students don’t work and hurt innocent studentsZero tolerance policies do very little to prevent or reduce school violenceRepeated suspensions of students with behavior problems does little to change anti-social behaviors and often accelerates a negative cycle of school failure and delinquencyPrimarily punitive disciplinary approaches that neither teach nor reinforce appropriate behavior are not very effective at changing student behaviorStand alone curriculum does not sustain, and difficult to implementBullying groups/ Group counselingMotivational Speakers, regardless of how funny we are, or the emotions we invokeBully posters/ Campaigns reinforce the anti-social behaviorLabeling students and attempting to punish can increase bullyingPeer mediationBullying labels and language/ Teaching students how NOT to bully
10Research Summary: Common Elements of an Ineffective Bullying Prevention Effort: Problem #1: Many bullying prevention programs focus on only the bully and the victimIgnores the role of the bystandernot enough attention on ALL kidsProblem #2: Inadvertent “teaching of bullying” with possible contraindicated practicesLabeling behavior as bullying rather than being disrespectful; peer mediation; certain “counseling” groups; anti-bullying posters or pledges, etc.Problem #3: Blame the bullyLabeling kidsOver-emphasis on student ‘responsibility’ for changeProblem #4: Ignore role of “bystanders”Fails to address the social attention given by bystanders that reinforces the bullying behavior (cheering, gathering, watching)Problem #5: Initial effects gained without sustained impactNon-data based decisions & interventions, generic intervention responses,Do not scale, sustain, and/or generalize – most gone 2 years after implementationProblem #6: Expensive effortThis information is found in Chapter 8 of Bullying Prevention Curriculum on national website and explained in detail there. Any current curriculum that schools are using…..coaches should compare to these problem areas.The focus should be on teaching how to show respect.
11Core Elements of an Effective Bullying Prevention Effort: Bullying prevention that is efficient and “fits” WITHIN existing behavior support effortsBullying PREVENTION; not just remediationEarly intervention. Teach pro-social school-wide expectations. Address multiple levels of the student’s ecology (school, peer, family)Bullying prevention within a SYSTEMS APPROACH that help to make the program sustainable.Tiered Supports. Consistent reinforcement. Data-based decision making.
12Bullying Prevention starts here School-Wide Systems for Student Success: A Response to Intervention (RtI) ModelAcademic SystemsBehavioral SystemsTier 3/Tertiary Interventions %Individual studentsAssessment-basedHigh intensity1-5% Tier 3/Tertiary InterventionsIndividual studentsAssessment-basedIntense, durable proceduresTier 2/Secondary Interventions %Some students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid responseSmall group interventionsSome individualizing5-15% Tier 2/Secondary InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid responseSmall group interventionsSome individualizingTier 1/Universal Interventions %All studentsPreventive, proactive80-90% Tier 1/Universal InterventionsAll settings, all students-SYSTEMICPreventive, proactiveData, Systems, PracticesFaculty implementationStudent use of BPDecision rules for Tier 2/3 supportsBullying Prevention starts hereIllinois PBIS Network, Revised May 15, Adapted from “What is school-wide PBS?” OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Accessed at12
13Six Features of PBIS that Contribute to Effective Application of Bullying Prevention: The use of evidence based instructional principles to teach expected behaviors to all students. (Behavioral lesson plans from Matrix)The monitoring and acknowledgement of students for engaging in appropriate behavior. (Three tiers of acknowledgements: high- frequency, intermittent, long term)Specific instruction and pre-correction to prevent bullying behavior from being rewarded by victims or bystanders. (Direct instruction of school-wide expectations)The correction of problem behaviors using a consistently administered continuum of consequences. (T-Chart)The collection and use of information about student behavior to evaluate and guide decision making. (Data)The establishment of a team that develops, implements, and manages. (Universal Team)
14A strong foundation for installing Bulling Prevention Fully Implementing IL PBIS Schools Have Fewer ODRs related to Bullying BehaviorDisrespectHarassmentFightingAggressionA strong foundation for installing Bulling Prevention
15Average ODRs for ‘Bullying’ Behaviors Comparison of Fully & Partially Implementing IL PBIS Schools 43% Difference
16A three part approach to school-wide Bullying Prevention Establish a whole-school social culture where positive behavior is “expected” and rewards for bullying are NOT provided.Provide training and support for adults to (a) train, (b) precorrect, and (c) provide consequences for bullyingProvide direct, individualized support for students who engage in “bullying” or “victim” behaviors.
17Implementing Bullying Prevention: 3 Phases for Students Step 1: Teach Respect School-wideStep 2: Build consensus for preventing bullyingStep 3: Select a stop signalStep 4: Orient then Train all students in four skills/routines (Stop, Bystander Stop, Stopping, Recruiting Help)ExplorationInstallationImplementation
18Students: Step 1 Teach Respect to All Students Should be initially taught as part of beginning of the year kick-off.Students should be able to identify between respectful and disrespectful behavior student to student, student to adult, and adult to studentNote: teach what respect is, not what bullying isTier 1 team monitors school-wide data monthly, acknowledges strengths, and coordinates re-teaching of school-wide expectations as necessaryOn SWIS you can look at 1) physical aggression, 2) fighting, and 3) bullying/harassment ODRs to see patterns in data.Scott Ross, University of Oregon
19Students: Step 2 Building Consensus Collect student climate survey dataIs relational aggression perceived as a problem?Hold student Forums for MS/HSDifferent formats possibleShare results with whole student-bodyScott Ross, University of Oregon
20Students: Step 2 Building Consensus Student Climate SurveyIn your school:DISAGREE…………AGREE1. You feel safe2. Other students treat you respectfully?3. You treat other students respectfully?4. Adults treat you respectfully?5. You treat adults in your school respectfullyIn the past week:6. Has anyone treated you disrespectfully?7. Have you asked someone to “stop?”8. Has anyone asked you to “stop?”9. Have you seen someone else treated disrespectfully?Use this survey for pre and post data. In the curriculum, there is also a staff perception survey available on
21Students: Step 2 Building Consensus Student Forum (MS/HS)Design:8-10 students selected for leadership/contribution60-90 minIntroduction and Logic:School should be a safe and welcoming place.Disrespectful behavior is maintained if (a) it results in attention from students, and (b) is not addressed by adults.Content of discussion:1. Is disrespectful behavior a problem? What is the impact of disrespectful behavior on ability of others to succeed in school.2. Disrespectful behavior typically keeps happening because it results in attention from peers.3. We need common (school-wide) routines for:A) Stop Routine (What would be an acceptable word/gesture to indicate “stop?”)If someone is disrespectful toward youIf you encounter someone being disrespectful toward others (bystander)CyberspaceB) Stopping Routine (what should someone do when asked to “stop?”)C) Recruiting help routing (what is the appropriate way to get help or report a problem?)4. What would be best way to introduce/train these routines?.
22Students: Step 3 Selecting a Stop signal “Stop” signal selectedFor MS/HS: Use data and input from Student Forum to develop socially acceptable and effective “stop” signalExample:If someone is directing problem behavior to you, ask them to “stop.”Gesture and wordReview how the stop signal should look and soundFirm hand signalClear voiceReview how the stop signal should not look
23Example “Stop Signal”If someone is directing problem behavior to you, ask them them to “stop.”Gesture and wordReview how the stop signal should look and soundFirm hand signalClear voice
24Students: Step 4 Student Orientation and Skill Training Format:Conduct a 30 min training in each classroomLogic: Everyone should treat everyone else with respectEveryone should avoid rewarding disrespectful behaviorTips:Teach all students to remove the rewards that sustain bullyingDo NOT use the label “bullying” with students. Rather, teach how to respond if someone is not respectful.Learning requires a respectful setting.Discussion:Given school-wide expectations, what does it mean to be respectful?Provide examples of being respectful in class, on playground, in cafeteriaWhat does it look like if someone is NOT respectful?Provide examplesNote: do not have students demonstrate disrespectful behavior.What should you do?If you experience someone doing these behaviors to you?If you see someone else in these situations?If someone tells YOU that your behavior is disrespectful?
25Students: Step 4 Teach Student Skills, Practice Five Student Skills to Demonstrate and Practice (in groups of three, students should practice each skill at least 3-5 times)School-wide behavioral expectation: Understanding respect, know what it means to be “respectful”Stop Routine: when faced with disrespectful behaviorBystander Stop Routine: when observing disrespectful behaviorStopping Routine: if someone tells you to “stop”Recruiting Help Routine: to recruit adult help if you feel unsafe.
26Stop Routine If you encounter behavior that is NOT respectful Stop Walk TalkSay and Show“STOP”Walk AwayTalk to an Adult
27Bystander Stop Routine Remember: Even if all you do is “watch” a bad situation, you are providing attention that rewards disrespectful behavior.If you see someone else being treated disrespectfully:Say and show “stop” to the person being disrespectfulOffer to take the other person away for a little bit.If they do not want to go, that is okay…just walk away.
28Stopping RoutineEventually, every student will be told to stop. When this happens, they should do the following thingsStop what you are doingTake a deep breathGo about your day (“no big deal”)These steps should be followed even when you don’t agree with the “stop” message.
29Recruiting Help Routine: Walk Away: Sometimes, even when students tell others to “stop”, problem behavior will continue. When this happens, students are to "walk away" from the problem behavior.Remember that walking away removes the attention for problem behaviorEncourage students to support one another when they use the appropriate Stop Walk Talk responseTalk: If a behavior continues after a student walks away, the student should talk to an adult.
30For Faculty/Staff: Core Features of an Effective Bullying Prevention Effort Agreement on logic/need for bullying prevention effortStrategy for teaching students core skillsStrategy for follow-up and consistency in respondingClear data collection and data use processAdvanced support optionsPlan for effective implementation of bullying prevention.
31Implementing Bullying Prevention: 4 Phases for STAFF Step 1: Review and monitor dataStep 2: Train Tier 1 teamStep 3: Faculty orientation; logic; response proceduresStep 4: Stop signal agreementStep 5: Build lesson plans; teach; schedule boostersStep 6: Use and review data; build coaching capacityExplorationInstallationImplementationFull Implementation
32Staff: Step 1 Review and Monitor Data ODR DataSWIS: harassment/bullying, fighting, physical aggressionStudent climate surveyFaculty/family reportsMake sure school is maintaining any reports from faculty or family members about bullyingHave there been reports from parents or staff that bullying is occurring?Use SWIS ODR data on: 1) Physical aggression, 2) Bullying/Harassment, and 3) FightingScott Ross, University of Oregon
33Staff: Step 2 Train Tier 1 team Tier 1 team is trained in BP-PBIS bullying prevention strategies.Read and Analyze BP-PBIS Curriculum.Consider current PBIS system in place and its capacity to effectively integrate BP within the system.Scott Ross, University of Oregon
34Staff: Step 3 Faculty Orientation; Logic; Response Procedures Faculty can define logic for BP-PBISCommon “stop” signal adopted for whole schoolFaculty can teach “student training” skillsFaculty reward/recognize student use of BP “stop” routineFaculty manage “student reporting” routineFaculty can deliver “booster training”Faculty can deliver “pre-corrects”Faculty collect and use data for decision making
35Staff: Step 3 Faculty Response Procedure When any problem behavior is reported, adults follow a specific response sequence:Ensure the student’s safety.Is the bullying still happening?Is the reporting child at risk?What does the student need to feel safe?What is the severity of the situationDetermine if “stop” response was usedIf “stop” used provide praise, and connect with perpetratorIf “stop” response was not used, practice the Stop-Walk-Talk routine with the student reporting a problem.Determine if “stop” response was followedIf “stop” not followed, practice how to stop when asked.
36Staff: Step 3 Faculty Response Procedure (con’t) Faculty Response Procedure for when students “talk”When a Student reports disrespectful behavior:"Did you tell ______ to stop?"If yes: "How did ____ respond?”If no: Practice the 3 step response (stop-walk-talk)."Did you walk away?"If no: Practice the 3 step response.“Okay, I will take it from here.”
37Staff: Step 4 Stop Signal Agreement Stop signal is agreed uponFor MS/HS: Stop signal is agreed upon after student forum
38Staff: Step 5 Implementation Build Lesson PlansTeach to All students; Inform familiesReteach with Booster Schedule
39Staff: Step 5 Build your BP curriculum and teaching plans Use National PBIS Center’s BP-PBIS Curriculum:Ross, S., Horner, R., & Stiller, B. (2008). Bully prevention in positive behavior support in Elementary Schools/Middle Schools. OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Eugene, OR. Available at:MS/HS: National PBIS Center’s Expect Respect curriculumCurrent draft is in research phase, anticipated availability Sept 2012Develop your own behavioral lesson plansScott Ross, University of Oregon
40Staff: Step 5 Teach BP-PBIS to All Students; Inform Families Teach School-wide behavioral expectation:Understanding what respect is and is notTeach all three stop routines, plus recruiting help routinePractice with all students, in groups of three (initiator, target of problem behavior, bystander):Students should practice each of three routines at least 5 times, for a total of 15 times per student.Develop and implement plan for informing all families of logic, expectations, intervention, and outcomesScott Ross, University of Oregon
41Staff: Step 5 Schedule and conduct “boosters” Build in “booster” training eventsWeek One: In-class follow up/reminder.Identify situations where “stop” workedIdentify situations where “stop” did NOT work.Two months after initial student training, hold a brief review of Stop-Walk-Talk routine.Select examples that are like three problem events that been reported.Four months after initial student training, consider holding another brief review of Stop-Walk-Talk routine.
42Scott Ross, University of Oregon Staff: Step 6 (Full Implementation) Use and review data; build coaching and training capacityMonitor fidelity and impact (Tier 1 monthly team meeting):Whole building data: SWIS/ODR’sProcess data:Data before and after initial implementation, then boostersStudent Climate Survey (as needed)Scott Ross, University of Oregon
43Staff: Step 6 con’t Coaching and Training Capacity Developed What help is needed from district?BP outcomes included as part of PBIS district level reportWho will provide orientation & training for:Those staff/students entering after beginning of year?Playground, cafeteria, bus, hallway staff?What materials and protocols will need to be developed?Integration into existing PBIS materials; not separate initiativeImpact on district policy?Scott Ross, University of Oregon
45Research Example Good, McIntosh, Poirier, (2011) After initial implementation of SWPBS in the school year, a middle school of 500 students in Canada embedded BP-PBS during the school year. Out of school suspensions dropped approximately 65% after implementing SWPBS;After implementing BP-PBS, office discipline referrals for the school year for bullying decreased by approximately 41%.
46Number of ODRs for bullying behavior per month pre- and post-implementation of the BP-PBS program
47Pilot Study in Elementary School in Oregon Ten minute observations were conducted on three students as selected by the principal, along with a composite peer during lunch recess to evaluate the effectiveness of the program.Results indicated a significant reduction in problem behavior after the intervention was delivered (55-69% reduction).In addition, other students on the playground were significantly more likely to respond appropriately when they were bullied.
4872% Number of Incidents of Bullying Behavior 3.14 1.88 .88 48 BaselineAcquisitionFull BP-PBS ImplementationRobSchool 1Number of Incidents of Bullying BehaviorBruceCindySchool 2ScottAnneSchool 3Ken72%422.214.171.124School Days
4922% decrease 21% increase 49 BP-PBS, Scott Ross Recipients of bullying said “stop” 30% of the time (a 28% increase from baseline),helped the victim “walk” away 13% of the time (a 10% increase),delivered a positive response 8% of the time (an 11% decrease),delivered a negative response 15% of the time (a 19% decrease),and delivered no response 34% of the time (a 9% decrease).Bystanders of bullying said “stop” 22% of the time (a 21% increase),helped the victim “walk” away 13% of the time (an 11% increase),delivered a positive response 17% of the time (a 22% decrease),delivered a negative response 8% of the time (a 10% decrease),and delivered no response 41% of the time (a 1% increase).49BP-PBS, Scott Ross
50District-wide Effort Reduces Bullying Behavior Across Middle Schools Matthews and Wauconda Middle Schools, SD 118 are using the PBIS framework to address bullying prevention (BP) with promising results.BP implementation started in January Comparing Jan.-Mar to the same time period in 2012, ODRs for bullying related behaviors decreased by 73% at Matthews and by 22% at Wauconda. Matthews in particular has seen a reduction in ODRs per 100 students per day for bullying related behaviors, from 0.25 in Sep to 0.07 in MarThe district is continuing with its BP plan by expanding to elementary schools next year.
51Wauconda Middle Schools’ ODRs for Bullying Related Behaviors # ODRs for Bullying Behaviors
52BP ResourcesIllinois PBIS Network’s Bullying Prevention Webpage:Curriculum: Bullying Prevention in PBIS for Elementary Schools: National Center on PBIS, 2008Bulling Prevention in PBIS for Middle Schools: National Center on PBIS, 2008.BP Planning GuideSurveys, Assessment Tools, and Guides: Student Climate SurveyStaff BP Implementation SurveyBP Planning Guide *Technical Assistance Brief:Effective Bulling Prevention (BP) within a School-wide System of Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports (PBIS): Illinois PBIS Network, Dec 2010.