Presentation on theme: "Using the PBIS Framework to Prevent Bullying Behavior Illinois School Mental Health Conference June 26-27, 2012 Brian C. Meyer Brian C. Meyer Operations."— Presentation transcript:
Using the PBIS Framework to Prevent Bullying Behavior Illinois School Mental Health Conference June 26-27, 2012 Brian C. Meyer Brian C. Meyer Operations Director, IL PBIS Network Lisa Boyd, Lisa Boyd, Resource Teacher, Sandburg Elementary, SPS186 Cindy Martsch, Cindy Martsch, Internal Coach, Sandburg Elementary, SPS186
Session Outcomes Session Description: This session will provide research, systems, and examples of implementing effective and sustaining bullying prevention within a school-wide system of multi-tiered supports. A systems framework, redefinition of the bullying construct, and explicit social skills instruction, will be emphasized to focus the social attention among students on building an appropriate and positive school climate. By the end of the overview, you will be able to: Define bullying behaviors Identify ineffective practices in current bullying prevention programs Identify core features of effective bullying prevention, and how they fit within the PBIS framework Know the student routines and staff supports needed for effective bullying prevention.
First, is there a need for bullying prevention in your school or district? If so, how do we build the necessary systems to support bully prevention efforts?
The Logic: Why invest in Bullying Prevention? The National School Safety Center (NSSC) called bullying the most enduring and underrated problem in U.S. schools. (Beale, 2001) Nearly 30 percent of students have reported being involved in bullying as either a perpetrator or a victim (Cook, Williams, Guerra, & Kim, 2010; Nansel, et al., 2001; Swearer & Espelage, 2004) Victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to skip and/or drop out of school. (Berthold & Hoover, 2000; Neary & Joseph, 1994) Victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to suffer from underachievement and sub-potential performance in employment settings. (Carney & Merrell, 2001; NSSC, 1995) 84.6% of LGBT students reported being verbally harassed, 40.1% reported being physically harassed and 18.8% reported being physically assaulted at school in the past year because of their sexual orientation ( GLSEN, 2009) Students on the autism spectrum are more likely to be victimized than their non-disabled peers (Little, 2002) 40-60% of students with intellectual disabilities report being bullied. But not at a level of intensity or chronicity that differs from typically developing adolescent ( Christensen, Fraynt, Neece & Baker, 2012)
Additional Research Espelage, D. L., & Swearer, S. (2003). Research on school bullying and victimization: What have we learned and where do we go from here? School Psychology Review. 23(3). 365-383. Good, C. McIntosh, K., & Gietz, C. (2011). Integrating bullying prevention into school-wide positive behavior support. Teaching Exceptional Children. 44 (1). 48-56. Illinois PBIS Network (2010). Technical assistance brief: effective bulling prevention (BP) within a school-wide system of positive behavior interventions & supports. Retrieved from www.pbisillinois.org/curriculum/bullying Mayer, M.J. (2008). Fact Sheet #1: Overview of school violence prevention. Retrieved from Consortium to Prevent School Violence website Ross, S., Horner, R., & Stiller, B. (2008). Bully prevention in positive behavior support in Elementary Schools/Middle Schools. OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Eugene, OR. Sugai, G., & Horner, R. (2011). Reducing the effectiveness of bullying behavior in schools. OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports website. Eugene, OR.
Three Words… Introduce yourself to your shoulder partner (name, organization, position). Name three words that you associate with bullying behaviors.
“Bullying” is repeated aggression, harassment, threats or intimidation when one person has greater status or power than the another. What Does it Look Like? Physical aggression Repeated acts of isolation Name calling Cyber bullying Rumors Threats Comments about race, gender, socio-economic status, disability, sexual orientation What is Bullying? “Not stopping a repeated pattern of behavior that has been addressed” - Carla Lasley, Principal Grant Middle School, Grant SD110
What Reinforces Bullying? Bullying is behavior, not a trait, or diagnosis, or a person. “Always with the ‘ing” What rewards Bullying Behavior? Likely many different rewards are effective Most common are: – Attention from bystanders – Attention and reaction of “victim” – Self-delivered praise – Obtaining objects (food, clothing) Bullying is seldom maintained by feedback from adults Scott Ross, University of Oregon
Research Summary What DOES NOT Work Well: Profiling approaches to identify potentially dangerous students don’t work and hurt innocent students Zero tolerance policies do very little to prevent or reduce school violence Repeated suspensions of students with behavior problems does little to change anti-social behaviors and often accelerates a negative cycle of school failure and delinquency Primarily punitive disciplinary approaches that neither teach nor reinforce appropriate behavior are not very effective at changing student behavior Stand alone curriculum does not sustain, and difficult to implement Bullying groups/ Group counseling Motivational Speakers, regardless of how funny we are, or the emotions we invoke Bully posters/ Campaigns reinforce the anti-social behavior Labeling students and attempting to punish can increase bullying Peer mediation Bullying labels and language/ Teaching students how NOT to bully
Research Summary: Common Elements of an Ineffective Bullying Prevention Effort: Problem #1: Many bullying prevention programs focus on only the bully and the victim – Ignores the role of the bystander – not enough attention on ALL kids Problem #2: Inadvertent “teaching of bullying” with possible contraindicated practices – Labeling behavior as bullying rather than being disrespectful; peer mediation; certain “counseling” groups; anti-bullying posters or pledges, etc. Problem #3: Blame the bully – Labeling kids – Over-emphasis on student ‘responsibility’ for change Problem #4: Ignore role of “bystanders” – Fails to address the social attention given by bystanders that reinforces the bullying behavior (cheering, gathering, watching) Problem #5: Initial effects gained without sustained impact – Non-data based decisions & interventions, generic intervention responses, – Do not scale, sustain, and/or generalize – most gone 2 years after implementation Problem #6: Expensive effort
Core Elements of an Effective Bullying Prevention Effort: Bullying prevention that is efficient and “fits” WITHIN existing behavior support efforts Bullying PREVENTION; not just remediation Early intervention. Teach pro-social school-wide expectations. Address multiple levels of the student’s ecology (school, peer, family) Bullying prevention within a SYSTEMS APPROACH that help to make the program sustainable. Tiered Supports. Consistent reinforcement. Data-based decision making.
Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions 1-5% Individual students Assessment-based High intensity 1-5%Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions Individual students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Tier 2/Secondary Interventions 5-15% Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Small group interventions Some individualizing 5-15% Tier 2/Secondary Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Small group interventions Some individualizing Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90% All students Preventive, proactive 80-90% Tier 1/Universal Interventions All settings, all students-SYSTEMIC Preventive, proactive Data, Systems, Practices Faculty implementation Student use of BP Decision rules for Tier 2/3 supports School-Wide Systems for Student Success: A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Illinois PBIS Network, Revised May 15, 2008. Adapted from “What is school-wide PBS?” OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Accessed at http://pbis.org/schoolwide.htm Bullying Prevention starts here
Six Features of PBIS that Contribute to Effective Application of Bullying Prevention: 1.The use of evidence based instructional principles to teach expected behaviors to all students. (Behavioral lesson plans from Matrix) 2.The monitoring and acknowledgement of students for engaging in appropriate behavior. (Three tiers of acknowledgements: high- frequency, intermittent, long term) 3.Specific instruction and pre-correction to prevent bullying behavior from being rewarded by victims or bystanders. (Direct instruction of school-wide expectations) 4.The correction of problem behaviors using a consistently administered continuum of consequences. (T-Chart) 5.The collection and use of information about student behavior to evaluate and guide decision making. (Data) 6.The establishment of a team that develops, implements, and manages. (Universal Team)
Fully Implementing IL PBIS Schools Have Fewer ODRs related to Bullying Behavior Disrespect Harassment Fighting Aggression A strong foundation for installing Bulling Prevention
Average ODRs for ‘Bullying’ Behaviors Comparison of Fully & Partially Implementing IL PBIS Schools 43% Difference 2009-10
A three part approach to school-wide Bullying Prevention Establish a whole-school social culture where positive behavior is “expected” and rewards for bullying are NOT provided. Provide training and support for adults to (a) train, (b) precorrect, and (c) provide consequences for bullying Provide direct, individualized support for students who engage in “bullying” or “victim” behaviors.
Implementing Bullying Prevention: 3 Phases for Students Step 1: Teach Respect School-wide Step 2: Build consensus for preventing bullying Step 3: Select a stop signal Step 4: Orient then Train all students in four skills/routines (Stop, Bystander Stop, Stopping, Recruiting Help) Exploration Installation Implementation
Students: Step 1 Teach Respect to All Students Should be initially taught as part of beginning of the year kick-off. Students should be able to identify between respectful and disrespectful behavior student to student, student to adult, and adult to student Note: teach what respect is, not what bullying is Tier 1 team monitors school-wide data monthly, acknowledges strengths, and coordinates re- teaching of school-wide expectations as necessary Scott Ross, University of Oregon
Students: Step 2 Building Consensus Collect student climate survey data Is relational aggression perceived as a problem? Hold student Forums for MS/HS Different formats possible Share results with whole student-body Scott Ross, University of Oregon
Students: Step 2 Building Consensus Student Climate Survey In your school: DISAGREE…………AGREE 1. You feel safe.1 2 3 4 5 2. Other students treat you respectfully? 1 2 3 4 5 3. You treat other students respectfully? 1 2 3 4 5 4. Adults treat you respectfully? 1 2 3 4 5 5. You treat adults in your school respectfully. 1 2 3 4 5 In the past week: 6. Has anyone treated you disrespectfully? 1 2 3 4 5 7. Have you asked someone to “stop?” 1 2 3 4 5 8. Has anyone asked you to “stop?” 1 2 3 4 5 9. Have you seen someone else treated disrespectfully? 1 2 3 4 5
Students: Step 2 Building Consensus Student Forum (MS/HS) Design: 8-10 students selected for leadership/contribution 60-90 min Introduction and Logic: School should be a safe and welcoming place. Disrespectful behavior is maintained if (a) it results in attention from students, and (b) is not addressed by adults. Content of discussion: 1. Is disrespectful behavior a problem? What is the impact of disrespectful behavior on ability of others to succeed in school. 2. Disrespectful behavior typically keeps happening because it results in attention from peers. 3. We need common (school-wide) routines for: – A) Stop Routine (What would be an acceptable word/gesture to indicate “stop?”) If someone is disrespectful toward you If you encounter someone being disrespectful toward others (bystander) Cyberspace – B) Stopping Routine (what should someone do when asked to “stop?”) – C) Recruiting help routing (what is the appropriate way to get help or report a problem?) 4. What would be best way to introduce/train these routines?
Students: Step 3 Selecting a Stop signal “Stop” signal selected For MS/HS: Use data and input from Student Forum to develop socially acceptable and effective “stop” signal Example: If someone is directing problem behavior to you, ask them to “stop.” Gesture and word Review how the stop signal should look and sound Firm hand signal Clear voice Review how the stop signal should not look
Example “Stop Signal” If someone is directing problem behavior to you, ask them them to “stop.” Gesture and word Review how the stop signal should look and sound Firm hand signal Clear voice
Students: Step 4 Student Orientation and Skill Training Format: Conduct a 30 min training in each classroom Logic: Everyone should treat everyone else with respect Everyone should avoid rewarding disrespectful behavior Tips: Teach all students to remove the rewards that sustain bullying Do NOT use the label “bullying” with students. Rather, teach how to respond if someone is not respectful. Learning requires a respectful setting. Discussion: Given school-wide expectations, what does it mean to be respectful? – Provide examples of being respectful in class, on playground, in cafeteria What does it look like if someone is NOT respectful? Provide examples Note: do not have students demonstrate disrespectful behavior. What should you do? If you experience someone doing these behaviors to you? If you see someone else in these situations? If someone tells YOU that your behavior is disrespectful?
Students: Step 4 Teach Student Skills, Practice Five Student Skills to Demonstrate and Practice (in groups of three, students should practice each skill at least 3-5 times) 1)School-wide behavioral expectation: Understanding respect, know what it means to be “respectful” 2)Stop Routine: when faced with disrespectful behavior 3)Bystander Stop Routine: when observing disrespectful behavior 4)Stopping Routine: if someone tells you to “stop” 5)Recruiting Help Routine: to recruit adult help if you feel unsafe.
Stop Routine If you encounter behavior that is NOT respectful Say and Show “STOP” Talk to an Adult Stop -------- Walk -------- Talk Walk Away
Bystander Stop Routine Remember: Even if all you do is “watch” a bad situation, you are providing attention that rewards disrespectful behavior. If you see someone else being treated disrespectfully: Say and show “stop” to the person being disrespectful Offer to take the other person away for a little bit. – If they do not want to go, that is okay…just walk away.
Stopping Routine Eventually, every student will be told to stop. When this happens, they should do the following things Stop what you are doing Take a deep breath Go about your day (“no big deal”) These steps should be followed even when you don’t agree with the “stop” message.
Recruiting Help Routine: Walk Away: Sometimes, even when students tell others to “stop”, problem behavior will continue. When this happens, students are to "walk away" from the problem behavior. Remember that walking away removes the attention for problem behavior Encourage students to support one another when they use the appropriate Stop Walk Talk response Talk: If a behavior continues after a student walks away, the student should talk to an adult.
For Faculty/Staff: Core Features of an Effective Bullying Prevention Effort 1)Agreement on logic/need for bullying prevention effort 2)Strategy for teaching students core skills 3)Strategy for follow-up and consistency in responding 4)Clear data collection and data use process 5)Advanced support options 6)Plan for effective implementation of bullying prevention.
Implementing Bullying Prevention: 4 Phases for STAFF Step 1: Review and monitor data Step 2: Train Tier 1 team Step 3: Faculty orientation; logic; response procedures Step 4: Stop signal agreement Step 5: Build lesson plans; teach; schedule boosters Step 6: Use and review data; build coaching capacity Exploration Installation Implementation Full Implementation
Staff: Step 1 Review and Monitor Data ODR Data SWIS: harassment/bullying, fighting, physical aggression Student climate survey Faculty/family reports Make sure school is maintaining any reports from faculty or family members about bullying Scott Ross, University of Oregon
Staff: Step 2 Train Tier 1 team Tier 1 team is trained in BP-PBIS bullying prevention strategies. Read and Analyze BP-PBIS Curriculum. Consider current PBIS system in place and its capacity to effectively integrate BP within the system. Scott Ross, University of Oregon
Staff: Step 3 Faculty Orientation; Logic; Response Procedures Faculty can define logic for BP-PBIS Common “stop” signal adopted for whole school Faculty can teach “student training” skills Faculty reward/recognize student use of BP “stop” routine Faculty manage “student reporting” routine Faculty can deliver “booster training” Faculty can deliver “pre-corrects” Faculty collect and use data for decision making
Staff: Step 3 Faculty Response Procedure When any problem behavior is reported, adults follow a specific response sequence: Ensure the student’s safety. Is the bullying still happening? Is the reporting child at risk? What does the student need to feel safe? What is the severity of the situation Determine if “stop” response was used If “stop” used provide praise, and connect with perpetrator If “stop” response was not used, practice the Stop-Walk-Talk routine with the student reporting a problem. Determine if “stop” response was followed If “stop” not followed, practice how to stop when asked.
Staff: Step 3 Faculty Response Procedure (con’t) Faculty Response Procedure for when students “talk” When a Student reports disrespectful behavior: "Did you tell ______ to stop?" If yes: "How did ____ respond?” If no: Practice the 3 step response (stop-walk-talk). "Did you walk away?" If yes: "How did ____ respond?” If no: Practice the 3 step response. “Okay, I will take it from here.”
Staff: Step 4 Stop Signal Agreement Stop signal is agreed upon For MS/HS: Stop signal is agreed upon after student forum
Staff: Step 5 Build your BP curriculum and teaching plans 1.Use National PBIS Center’s BP-PBIS Curriculum: Ross, S., Horner, R., & Stiller, B. (2008). Bully prevention in positive behavior support in Elementary Schools/Middle Schools. OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Eugene, OR. Available at: www.pbisillinois.org/curriculum/bullying www.pbisillinois.org/curriculum/bullying 2.MS/HS: National PBIS Center’s Expect Respect curriculum Current draft is in research phase, anticipated availability Sept 2012 3.Develop your own behavioral lesson plans Scott Ross, University of Oregon
Staff: Step 5 Teach BP-PBIS to All Students; Inform Families Teach School-wide behavioral expectation: Understanding what respect is and is not Teach all three stop routines, plus recruiting help routine Practice with all students, in groups of three (initiator, target of problem behavior, bystander): Students should practice each of three routines at least 5 times, for a total of 15 times per student. Develop and implement plan for informing all families of logic, expectations, intervention, and outcomes Scott Ross, University of Oregon
Staff: Step 5 Schedule and conduct “boosters” Build in “booster” training events Week One: In-class follow up/reminder. Identify situations where “stop” worked Identify situations where “stop” did NOT work. Two months after initial student training, hold a brief review of Stop-Walk-Talk routine. Select examples that are like three problem events that been reported. Four months after initial student training, consider holding another brief review of Stop-Walk-Talk routine.
Staff: Step 6 (Full Implementation) Use and review data; build coaching and training capacity Monitor fidelity and impact (Tier 1 monthly team meeting): Whole building data: SWIS/ODR’s Process data: Data before and after initial implementation, then boosters Student Climate Survey (as needed) Scott Ross, University of Oregon
Staff: Step 6 con’t Coaching and Training Capacity Developed What help is needed from district? BP outcomes included as part of PBIS district level report Who will provide orientation & training for: Those staff/students entering after beginning of year? Playground, cafeteria, bus, hallway staff? What materials and protocols will need to be developed? Integration into existing PBIS materials; not separate initiative Impact on district policy? Scott Ross, University of Oregon
This is a presentation of the IL PBIS Network. All rights reserved. Results
Research Example Good, McIntosh, Poirier, (2011) After initial implementation of SWPBS in the 2007-08 school year, a middle school of 500 students in Canada embedded BP-PBS during the 2008-09 school year. Out of school suspensions dropped approximately 65% after implementing SWPBS; After implementing BP-PBS, office discipline referrals for the school year for bullying decreased by approximately 41%.
Number of ODRs for bullying behavior per month pre- and post-implementation of the BP-PBS program
Pilot Study in Elementary School in Oregon Ten minute observations were conducted on three students as selected by the principal, along with a composite peer during lunch recess to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. Results indicated a significant reduction in problem behavior after the intervention was delivered (55-69% reduction). In addition, other students on the playground were significantly more likely to respond appropriately when they were bullied.
48 BaselineAcquisitionFull BP-PBS Implementation Number of Incidents of Bullying Behavior School Days School 1 Rob Bruce Cindy Scott Anne Ken School 2 School 3 3.14 1.88.88 72%
District-wide Effort Reduces Bullying Behavior Across Middle Schools Matthews and Wauconda Middle Schools, SD 118 are using the PBIS framework to address bullying prevention (BP) with promising results. BP implementation started in January 2012. Comparing Jan.-Mar. 2011 to the same time period in 2012, ODRs for bullying related behaviors decreased by 73% at Matthews and by 22% at Wauconda. Matthews in particular has seen a reduction in ODRs per 100 students per day for bullying related behaviors, from 0.25 in Sep. 2011 to 0.07 in Mar. 2012. The district is continuing with its BP plan by expanding to elementary schools next year.
Wauconda Middle Schools’ ODRs for Bullying Related Behaviors # ODRs for Bullying Behaviors
BP Resources Illinois PBIS Network’s Bullying Prevention Webpage: www.pbisillinois.org/curriculum/bullying www.pbisillinois.org/curriculum/bullying Curriculum: Bullying Prevention in PBIS for Elementary Schools: National Center on PBIS, 2008 Bullying Prevention in PBIS for Elementary Schools: Bulling Prevention in PBIS for Middle Schools: National Center on PBIS, 2008. Bulling Prevention in PBIS for Middle Schools BP Planning Guide Surveys, Assessment Tools, and Guides: Student Climate Survey Staff BP Implementation Survey BP Planning Guide * Technical Assistance Brief: Effective Bulling Prevention (BP) within a School-wide System of Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports (PBIS): Illinois PBIS Network, Dec 2010. Effective Bulling Prevention (BP) within a School-wide System of Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports (PBIS)