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ACHIEVEMENT AND OPPORTUNITY IN AMERICA: Where Are We? What Can

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1 ACHIEVEMENT AND OPPORTUNITY IN AMERICA: Where Are We? What Can
We Do? Critical Steps for Nevada? SHOW ME THE DATA: ADVANCING STANDARDS TO MEASURE SUCCESS University of Nevada Reno Reno, Nevada February, 2013

2 America: Two Enduring Stories

3 Work hard, and you can become anything you want to be.
1. Land of Opportunity: Work hard, and you can become anything you want to be.

4 2. Generational Advancement:
Through hard work, each generation of parents can assure a better life — and better education — for their children.

5 Powerful narratives. No longer true.

6 Within the U.S., income inequality has been rising.

7 Earnings among the lowest income families have declined, even amid big increases at the top.
Source: The College Board, “Trends in College Pricing 2011” (New York: College Board, 2010), Figure 16A.

8 Instead of being the most equal, the U. S
Instead of being the most equal, the U.S. has the third highest income inequality among OECD nations. United States Note: Gini coefficient ranges from 0 to 1, where 0 indicates total income equality and 1 indicates total income inequality. Source: United Nations, U.N. data, 2011

9 Not just wages, but mobility as well.

10 U.S. intergenerational mobility was increasing until 1980, but has sharply declined since.
From the Aaronson and Mazumder report: “In particular, mobility increased from 1940 to 1980, but fell sharply during the 1980s and failed to revert, perhaps even continued to decline, in the 1990s.” From the Aaronson and Mazumder report, the figure for 2000 (0.58) is not statistically significant. The figure for 1990 (0.46) almost mirrors the number cited for the US in the cross-country analysis on the next slide. Source: Daniel Aaronson and Bhashkar Mazumder. Intergenerational Economic Mobility in the U.S.,1940 to Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago WP : Dec

11 Now, instead of being the “land of opportunity,” the U. S
Now, instead of being the “land of opportunity,” the U.S. has one of lowest rates of intergenerational mobility. Source: Tom Hertz, “Understanding Mobility in America” (Washington, D.C.: Center for American Progress, 2006).

12 But at the individual level, it really is.
At the macro level, better and more equal education is not the only answer. But at the individual level, it really is.

13 College Grads Earn More
Note: Data include full-time, year-round workers, those working less than full-time year-round, and those who did not work. Julian and Kominski, “Education and Synthetic Work-Life Earnings Estimates,” U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.

14 College Grads Less Likely to be Unemployed
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Table A-4,

15 They also stand out on the other things we value.

16 College graduates more likely to vote
Note: Data include both those who are and are not registered to vote. U.S. Census Bureau, “Voting and Registration in the Election of November 2008,” May 2010

17 Note: Data represent percentage of total population that reported volunteering from September 2008 to September 2009 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Volunteering in the United States 2009” (2010)

18 College Grads of all races far more likely to be in “Very Good” or “Excellent” Health
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Commission for a Healthier America, 2009

19 Gallup, “Strong Relationship Between Income and Mental Health” (2007)

20 What schools and colleges do, in other words, is hugely important to our economy, our democracy, and our society.

21 So, how are we doing?

22 First, some good news. After more than a decade of fairly flat achievement and stagnant or growing gaps in K-12, we appear to be turning the corner with our elementary students.

23 Fourth-Grade Reading: NAEP LTT Record performance with gap narrowing
*Denotes previous assessment format NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES

24 Fourth-Grade Math: NAEP LTT Record performance with gap narrowing
*Denotes previous assessment format Source: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES

25 Looked at differently (and on the “other” NAEP exam)…

26 1996 NAEP Grade 4 Math NAEP Data Explorer, NCES

27 2011 NAEP Grade 4 Math NAEP Data Explorer, NCES

28 Middle grades are up, too.

29 Over the last decade, all groups have steadily improved and gaps have narrowed
*Accommodations not permitted NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 299)

30 Clearly, much more remains to be done in elementary and middle school.
Too many students still enter high school way behind.

31 The same is NOT true of our high schools.
But at least we have some traction on elementary and middle school problems. The same is NOT true of our high schools.

32 Achievement is flat in reading.
NAEP Long-Term Trends, NCES (2004)

33 Math achievement is flat over time.
* Denotes previous assessment format National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress

34 And gaps between groups are mostly wider today than in the late 80s and early 90s.

35 12th-Grade Reading: No progress, gaps wider than 1988
*Denotes previous assessment format NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES

36 12th-Grade Math: Results mostly flat, gaps same or widening
*Denotes previous assessment format NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES

37 And these are the students who remain in school through 12th grade.

38 Students of color are less likely to graduate from high school on time.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Public School Graduates and Dropouts from the Common Core of Data: School Year ” (2011).

39 Moreover, no matter how you cut the data, our students aren’t doing well compared with their peers in other countries.

40 Of 34 OECD countries, the U.S. ranks 12th in reading literacy.
U.S.A. OECD Higher than U.S. average Not measurably different from U.S. average Lower than U.S. average “Highlights from PISA 2009,” NCES, 2010

41 Of 34 OECD countries, the U.S. ranks 17th in science.
U.S.A. Higher than U.S. average Not measurably different from U.S. average Lower than U.S. average “Highlights from PISA 2009,” NCES, 2010

42 Of 34 OECD countries, the U.S. ranks 25th in math.
U.S.A. Higher than U.S. average Not measurably different from U.S. average Lower than U.S. average “Highlights from PISA 2009,” NCES, 2010

43 Only place we rank high? Inequality.

44 Among OECD countries, the U. S
Among OECD countries, the U.S. has the fourth largest science gap between high-SES and low-SES students. U.S.A. OECD PISA 2006 Results, OECD, table 4.8b

45 Among OECD countries, the U. S
Among OECD countries, the U.S. has the fifth largest reading gap between high-SES and low-SES students. U.S.A. OECD PISA 2009 Results, OECD, Table II.3.1

46 We used to make up for at least some of this by sending more of our students to college than anybody else.

47 Though no longer #1, we’re still relatively strong in overall educational attainment
Note: Adults with a postsecondary degree include those who have completed either a tertiary-type B program (programs that last for at least two years, are skill-based, and prepare students for direct entry into the labor market) or a tertiary-type A program (programs that last at least three, but usually four, years, are largely theory-based, and provide qualifications for entry into highly-skilled professions or advanced research programs) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Education at a Glance 2011 (2011)

48 But our world standing drops to 15th for younger adults
United States OECD Average Note: Adults with a postsecondary degree include those who have completed either a tertiary-type B program (programs that last for at least two years, are skill-based, and prepare students for direct entry into the labor market) or a tertiary-type A program (programs that last at least three, but usually four, years, are largely theory-based, and provide qualifications for entry into highly-skilled professions or advanced research programs) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Education at a Glance 2011 (2011)

49 We’re near the bottom in intergenerational progress
OECD Average United States Note: Adults with a postsecondary degree include those who have completed either a tertiary-type B program (programs that last for at least two years, are skill-based, and prepare students for direct entry into the labor market) or a tertiary-type A program (programs that last at least three, but usually four, years, are largely theory-based, and provide qualifications for entry into highly-skilled professions or advanced research programs) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Education at a Glance 2011 (2011)

50 That’s a quick look at the country as a whole. What about Nevada?

51 You’ve seen your state assessment and graduation data before.

52 Students of Color Less than Half as Likely to Exceed State Reading Standards
Source: Nevada Department of Education

53 Students of Color 2-3 Times More Likely to Perform at Lowest Level in Math
Source: Nevada Department of Education

54 Students of Color More Likely to Fall Short of State Reading Standards in High School
Note to Kati: I believe that students have to pass this assessment to graduate (they get makeup tries in their senior year) Source: Nevada Department of Education

55 Low Graduation Rates for All Groups of Students
Note to Kati: I did not want to use the cohort rate numbers, because they don’t seem to make sense. NV reports the number of graduates and the number of cohort members. However, when you divide those two numbers, you don’t get what they report for the adjusted cohort graduation rate. So, the state must be adjusting to “number of cohort members” figure – but since I don’t know how, I didn’t use those numbers. Source: NCES, “ Public School Graduates and Dropouts from the Common Core of Data: School Year : First Look,” (2013),

56 Percent of NV ACT-Takers Meeting College-Ready Benchmarks

57 Percent of NV ACT-Takers Meeting All Four College-Ready Benchmarks

58 What about performance on the national assessment?
There’s some good news here.

59 Nevada’s Students Improving Faster than National Average in Reading
Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES.

60 Latino Students in Nevada Improved at One of the Fastest Rates Nationwide
Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES.

61 Low-Income Students in Nevada Improved Nearly Twice as Fast as Low-Income Students Nationwide
Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES.

62 Nevada’s Students Improving Faster than National Average in Math
Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES.

63 Latino Students in Nevada Improved at One of the Fastest Rates Nationwide
Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES.

64 But clearly we’ve got to move faster, because performance still trails that in other states.

65 Nevada’s Overall Performance Trails Other States
NV NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 238)

66 Nevada’s Overall Performance Trails Other States
NV NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 299)

67 All about demographics?

68 Nevada Schools: More Diverse Than Many States
Source: Nevada Department of Education

69 But, even when you compare “same” group of students, Nevada’s children are behind.

70 In Nevada, Latino Students Below the National Average for Latinos
NV NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 238)

71 Black Students Below National Average in Nevada
NV NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 238)

72 Far Below the National Average for White Students
NV NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 238)

73 And the same patterns exist in 8th grade math.

74 Lower Income Students in Nevada Behind Peers in Other States
NV NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 299)

75 Higher Income Students in Nevada Trail Peers Nationwide
NV NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 299)

76 Post High School?

77 Relatively few of Nevada’s graduates go on to college
Postsecondary Education Opportunity, “Chance for College by Age 19 by State, ”

78 When High School Dropout Rate is Factored In, the Picture is Worse (HS Grad Rate x College Continuation Rate, 2008) 45.8% Postsecondary Education Opportunity, “Chance for College by Age 19 by State, ”

79 And of those who enter, few graduate.

80 Among those who start in four-year colleges, Nevada has one of the lowest Bachelor’s degree attainment rates Nevada First-time, full-time freshmen completing a BA within 6 years U.S. Department of Education , United States Education Dashboard.

81 Six-Year College Graduation Rates Hispanic, 2009
62.5% First-time, full-time freshmen completing a BA within 6 years U.S. Department of Education , United States Education Dashboard.

82 Six-Year College Graduation Rates African American, 2009
40% First-time, full-time freshmen completing a BA within 6 years U.S. Department of Education , United States Education Dashboard.

83 Six-Year College Graduation Rates White, 2009
72.9% First-time, full-time freshmen completing a BA within 6 years U.S. Department of Education , United States Education Dashboard.

84 Only place Nevada’s performance is strong relative to other states
Only place Nevada’s performance is strong relative to other states? Community College Student Success

85 Among those in Associate’s programs, Nevada has one of the highest completion rates
First-time, full-time freshmen completing an AA or certificate within 3 years U.S. Department of Education , United States Education Dashboard.

86 Put this all together, and few young adults in Nevada have completed a postsecondary degree.

87 Nevada has one of the lowest rates of young adults with at least an associate’s degree
2009 American Community Survey data from NCHEMS Information Center ,

88 Not a place you want to be.
In sum, Nevada is below average in a country whose results are increasingly below the international average. Not a place you want to be.

89 What Can You Do?

90 First, don’t accept the excuses.

91 What we hear many say: They’re poor. They don’t speak English.
Their parents don’t care. They come to school without breakfast. They don’t have enough books. They don’t have enough parents.

92 On the college level, we hear much the same thing:
Our students are unprepared. They come from a culture of poverty. They have to work too many hours. Their families don’t value college education.

93 But if there’s truly nothing that we can do, why are low-income students and students of color performing so much higher in some schools? Some colleges? Even some whole states?

94 Mary McLeod Bethune Elementary School New Orleans, Louisiana
341 students in grades PK – 6 97% African American 88% Low Income Note: Enrollment and demographic data are from Louisiana Department of Education

95 Big Gains at Bethune Elementary
Louisiana Department of Education

96 Exceeding State Averages at Bethune Elementary
Louisiana Department of Education

97 Outperforming the State at Bethune Elementary
Updated Source: Louisiana Department of Education

98 Halle Hewetson Elementary School Las Vegas, NV
938 students in grades PK – 5 87% Latino 5% African American 100% Low Income 62% Limited English Proficient Note: Data are for school year Source: Nevada Department of Education

99 Big Improvement at Halle Hewetson Elementary
Source: Nevada Department of Education

100 Outperforming the State at Halle Hewetson Elementary
Source: Nevada Department of Education

101 Outperforming the State at Halle Hewetson Elementary
Source: Nevada Department of Education

102 Exceeding State Standards at Halle Hewetson Elementary
Source: Nevada Department of Education

103 Big gains in some districts, too.

104 In Boston and Houston, Latino students made far faster progress between 2003 and 2011 than in the country as a whole Note: Chart includes only districts that participated in, and had members of this specific subgroup, in both the 2003 and 2011 NAEP TUDA administrations . Source: NCES, NAEP Data Explorer

105 African-American students in Atlanta and Boston improved at twice the rate of their counterparts nationally Note: Chart includes only districts that participated in, and had members of this specific subgroup, in both the 2003 and 2011 NAEP TUDA administrations . Source: NCES, NAEP Data Explorer

106 Colleges Can Close Gaps, Too: Virginia Commonwealth University
Six-Year Graduation Rates at VCU ( ) First-time, full-time freshmen who graduated from the same college they started from 6 years ago VCU’s fall 2009 undergraduate enrollment was 20, % were black students. The 2004 black freshman class (for 2010 grad rates) had 669 students. Black graduation rates increased over 15 percentage points during this time frame. Black and white students now graduate at nearly the same rate. VCU points to its University College model, which is built around a cohesive core curriculum and centralized support system (proactive, data-driven advising; learning center, tutoring services, writing center, new student programs, targeted advising for undeclared majors) for incoming freshmen. After implementing this new model, the % of students who dropped, failed, or withdrew decreased significantly in core classes, translating to more students in good standing at the end of the first year, thereby higher retention rates. VCU now working to extend aspects of the model into the sophomore/junior years to further improve grad rates. Source: Education Trust analysis of IPEDS data.

107 You can help by pointing to the successes—here in Nevada and elsewhere--and by pressing for similar results.

108 Second, start early, especially with low-income children.

109 High quality pre-school is the best investment we can make
High quality pre-school is the best investment we can make. It pays to prevent problems rather than ameliorate them later.

110 Third, get behind the Common Core Standards.

111 But adopting the standards and the new tests isn’t enough.
You’ve got to make sure that all students take the courses in high school that lead to college readiness.

112 And a few more “workshops” on the new standards won’t do the trick.
We need to help teachers remake what they do every day, especially the assignments they give to their students.

113 Students can do no better than the assignments we give them.

114 Grade 10 Writing Assignment
A frequent theme in literature is the conflict between the individual and society. From literature you have read, select a character who struggled with society. In a well-developed essay, identify the character and explain why this character’s conflict with society is important.

115 Grade 10 Writing Assignment
Write a composition of at least 4 paragraphs on Martin Luther King’s most important contribution to this society. Illustrate your work with a neat cover page. Neatness counts.

116 Grade 7 Writing Assignment
Essay on Anne Frank Your essay will consist of an opening paragraph which introduced the title, author and general background of the novel. Your thesis will state specifically what Anne's overall personality is, and what general psychological and intellectual changes she exhibits over the course of the book You might organize your essay by grouping psychological and intellectual changes OR you might choose 3 or 4 characteristics (like friendliness, patience, optimism, self doubt) and show how she changes in this area. Source: Unnamed school district in California, school year.

117 Grade 7 Writing Assignment
My Best Friend: A chore I hate: A car I want: My heartthrob: This school, not far away, 97% free and reduced price lunch, 99% latino. FILL IN THE BLANK. OTHERS: A NEAT EXPRESSION __________ Colleagues at ET: Students can do no better than the assignments given. Source: Unnamed school district in California, school year.

118 High Performing Schools and Districts
Have clear and specific goals for what students should learn in every grade, including the order in which they should learn it; Provide teachers with common curriculum, assignments; Have regular vehicle to assure common marking standards; Assess students regularly to measure progress; and, Don’t leave student supports to chance.

119 In other words, they strive for consistency in everything they do.
And they bring that consistency to school discipline, as well.

120 Fourth, keep up the work on teacher effectiveness, even though it is hard.

121 Students in Dallas Gain More in Math with Effective Teachers: One Year Growth From 3rd-4th Grade
Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.

122 DIFFERENCES IN TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS ACCOUNT FOR LARGE DIFFERENCES IN STUDENT LEARNING
The distribution of value-added scores for ELA teachers in LAUSD

123 ACCESS TO MULTIPLE EFFECTIVE TEACHERS CAN DRAMATICALLY AFFECT STUDENT LEARNING
CST math proficiency trends for second-graders at ‘Below Basic’ or ‘Far Below Basic’ in 2007 who subsequently had three consecutive high or low value-added teachers

124 So, there are VERY BIG differences among our teachers.

125 We pretend that there aren’t.
BUT… We pretend that there aren’t.

126

127 Make sure your state and districts are acting on this knowledge by:
Putting into place an honest evaluation system, that takes student growth into account; Training principals and expert teachers in evaluation and feedback techniques; Providing support to teachers who are struggling; Working hard to hold onto the strongest ones, and chasing out the weak ones; and, Assuring that all groups of children get their fair share of strong teachers.

128 Fifth, principals matter hugely
Fifth, principals matter hugely. States and districts need clear plan to grow new leaders.

129 This is way too important to be left to higher education.

130 Sixth, higher education needs your attention, too.

131 Current College Completion Rates: 4-Year Colleges
Fewer than 4 in 10 (38%) entering freshmen obtain a bachelor’s degree within 4 years Within six years of entry, that proportion rises to just under 6 in 10 (58%) If you go beyond IPEDS, and look at graduation from ANY institution, number grows to about two-thirds. NCES (March 2012). First Look: Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2009; Graduation Rates, 2003 and 2006 Cohorts; and Financial Statistics Fiscal Year Ed Trust analysis of BPS:09.

132 But graduation rates vary widely across the nation’s postsecondary institutions
Ed Trust analysis of College Results Online dataset 2010.

133 Some of these differences are clearly attributable to differences in student preparation and/or institutional mission. n/a

134 But…when you dig underneath the averages, one thing is very clear: Some colleges are far more successful than their students’ “stats” would suggest. Ed Trust analysis of College Results Online dataset 2009.

135 College Results Online www.collegeresults.org

136 Colleges need to be pressed to work harder to make sure those they admit actually get the degrees they are seeking.

137 Finally, mind the gaps in opportunity and achievement.

138 True, gaps in achievement begin before children arrive at the schoolhouse door.
But, rather than organizing our educational system to ameliorate this problem, we organize it to exacerbate the problem.

139 We spend less on their education…

140 Low-Poverty Districts –$773 per student High-Minority versus
Funding Gaps Within States: National inequities in state and local revenue per student Gap High-Poverty versus Low-Poverty Districts –$773 per student High-Minority versus Low-Minority Districts –$1,122 Source: Education Trust analyses of U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Census Bureau data for the school year.

141 We expect less of them.....

142 Students in poor schools receive As for work that would earn Cs in affluent schools.
Source: Prospects (ABT Associates, 1993), in “Prospects: Final Report on Student Outcomes”, PES, DOE, 1997.

143 We teach them less…

144 Even African-American students with high math performance in fifth grade are unlikely to be placed in algebra in eighth grade Source: NCES, “Eighth-Grade Algebra: Findings from the Eighth-Grade Round of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of (ECLS-K)” (2010).

145 Students of color are less likely to attend high schools that offer calculus.
Percent of Schools Offering Calculus Source: U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights , Civil Rights Data Collection

146 And we assign them disproportionately to our least experienced, least well-educated, and least effective teachers…

147 Students at high-minority schools more likely to be taught by novice
Students at high-minority schools more likely to be taught by novice* teachers. Data is from the Schools & Staffing Survey (SASS) SASS surveys a nationally representative sample of teachers. Analysis examines out-of-field teaching in core academic classes at secondary & middle school: Core academic classes are English, math, social studies and science. “Out-of-field” is defined as a teacher lacking both an in-field regular certification and a major in the subject of the classes she/he was assigned to teach Secondary classes include departmentalized classes in grades 7-12. Middle grades include 5-8. Only teachers assigned to departmentalized classes count towards middle grades. Note: High minority school: 75% or more of the students are Black, Hispanic, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander. Low-minority school: 10% or fewer of the students are non-White students. Novice teachers are those with three years or fewer experience. Source: Analysis of Schools and Staffing Survey data by Richard Ingersoll, University of Pennsylvania 2007.

148 Math classes at high-poverty, high-minority secondary schools are more likely to be taught by out-of-field* teachers. Data is from the Schools & Staffing Survey (SASS) SASS surveys a nationally representative sample of teachers. Analysis examines out-of-field teaching in core academic classes at secondary & middle school: Core academic classes are English, math, social studies and science. “Out-of-field” is defined as a teacher lacking both an in-field regular certification and a major in the subject of the classes she/he was assigned to teach Secondary classes include departmentalized classes in grades 7-12. Middle grades include 5-8. Only teachers assigned to departmentalized classes count towards middle grades. Note: High-poverty school: 55 percent or more of the students are eligible for free/reduced-price lunch. Low-poverty school :15 percent or fewer of the students are eligible for free/reduced-price lunch. High-minority school: 78 percent or more of the students are black, Hispanic, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander. Low-minority school : 12 percent or fewer of the students are non-white students. *Teachers with neither certification nor major. Data for secondary-level core academic classes (math, science, social studies, English) across the U.S. Source: Education Trust Analysis of Schools and Staffing Survey data.

149 Tennessee: High-poverty/high-minority schools have fewer of the “most effective” teachers and more “least effective” teachers. Note: High poverty/high minority means at least 75 percent of students qualify for FRPL and at least 75 percent are minority. Source: Tennessee Department of Education “Tennessee’s Most Effective Teachers: Are they assigned to the schools that need them most?”

150 ½ as likely to get highly effective teachers
Los Angeles: Black, Latino students have fewer highly effective teachers, more weak ones. READING/LANGUAGE ARTS Latino and black students are: 3X as likely to get low- effectiveness teachers ½ as likely to get highly effective teachers Source: Education Trust—West, Learning Denied, 2012.

151 The results are devastating.
Kids who come in a little behind, leave a lot behind.

152 Those practices aren’t good for kids
Those practices aren’t good for kids. And they are not good for our country.

153 We are taking the diversity that should be our competitive advantage in the international marketplace, and obliterating it. Don’t just stand by and watch, even if they are not “your” kids. Speak up. Demand the data. Demand progress.

154 Download this presentation and learn more about the Education Trust
Download this presentation and learn more about the Education Trust. Washington, D.C Royal Oak, MI 202/ / Oakland, CA 510/


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