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© 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST ACHIEVEMENT AND OPPORTUNITY IN AMERICA: Where Are We? What Can We Do? Critical Steps for Nevada? SHOW ME THE DATA: ADVANCING.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST ACHIEVEMENT AND OPPORTUNITY IN AMERICA: Where Are We? What Can We Do? Critical Steps for Nevada? SHOW ME THE DATA: ADVANCING."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST ACHIEVEMENT AND OPPORTUNITY IN AMERICA: Where Are We? What Can We Do? Critical Steps for Nevada? SHOW ME THE DATA: ADVANCING STANDARDS TO MEASURE SUCCESS University of Nevada Reno Reno, Nevada February, 2013

2 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST America: Two Enduring Stories

3 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST 1. Land of Opportunity: Work hard, and you can become anything you want to be.

4 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST 2. Generational Advancement: Through hard work, each generation of parents can assure a better life — and better education — for their children.

5 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Powerful narratives. No longer true.

6 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Within the U.S., income inequality has been rising.

7 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Earnings among the lowest income families have declined, even amid big increases at the top. Source: The College Board, “Trends in College Pricing 2011” (New York: College Board, 2010), Figure 16A.

8 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Note: Gini coefficient ranges from 0 to 1, where 0 indicates total income equality and 1 indicates total income inequality. Instead of being the most equal, the U.S. has the third highest income inequality among OECD nations. United States Source: United Nations, U.N. data, 2011http://data.un.org/DocumentData.aspx?q=gini&id=271

9 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Not just wages, but mobility as well.

10 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST U.S. intergenerational mobility was increasing until 1980, but has sharply declined since. Source: Daniel Aaronson and Bhashkar Mazumder. Intergenerational Economic Mobility in the U.S.,1940 to Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago WP : Dec

11 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Now, instead of being the “land of opportunity,” the U.S. has one of lowest rates of intergenerational mobility. Source: Tom Hertz, “Understanding Mobility in America” (Washington, D.C.: Center for American Progress, 2006).

12 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST At the macro level, better and more equal education is not the only answer. But at the individual level, it really is.

13 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST College Grads Earn More Julian and Kominski, “Education and Synthetic Work-Life Earnings Estimates,” U.S. Census Bureau, Note: Data include full-time, year-round workers, those working less than full-time year-round, and those who did not work.

14 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: College Grads Less Likely to be Unemployed U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Table A-4,

15 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST They also stand out on the other things we value.

16 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST College graduates more likely to vote U.S. Census Bureau, “Voting and Registration in the Election of November 2008,” May 2010 Note: Data include both those who are and are not registered to vote.

17 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Volunteering in the United States 2009” (2010) Note: Data represent percentage of total population that reported volunteering from September 2008 to September 2009

18 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: College Grads of all races far more likely to be in “Very Good” or “Excellent” Health Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Commission for a Healthier America, 2009

19 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Gallup, “Strong Relationship Between Income and Mental Health” (2007)

20 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST What schools and colleges do, in other words, is hugely important to our economy, our democracy, and our society.

21 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST So, how are we doing?

22 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST First, some good news. After more than a decade of fairly flat achievement and stagnant or growing gaps in K-12, we appear to be turning the corner with our elementary students.

23 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Fourth-Grade Reading: NAEP LTT Record performance with gap narrowing NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES *Denotes previous assessment format

24 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Fourth-Grade Math: NAEP LTT Record performance with gap narrowing Source: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES *Denotes previous assessment format

25 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Looked at differently (and on the “other” NAEP exam)…

26 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: 1996 NAEP Grade 4 Math NAEP Data Explorer, NCES

27 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: 2011 NAEP Grade 4 Math NAEP Data Explorer, NCES

28 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Middle grades are up, too.

29 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Over the last decade, all groups have steadily improved and gaps have narrowed NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 299) *Accommodations not permitted

30 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Clearly, much more remains to be done in elementary and middle school. Too many students still enter high school way behind.

31 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST But at least we have some traction on elementary and middle school problems. The same is NOT true of our high schools.

32 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Achievement is flat in reading. NAEP Long-Term Trends, NCES (2004)

33 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Math achievement is flat over time. National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress * Denotes previous assessment format

34 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST And gaps between groups are mostly wider today than in the late 80s and early 90s.

35 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: 12 th- Grade Reading: No progress, gaps wider than 1988 NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES *Denotes previous assessment format

36 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: 12 th -Grade Math: Results mostly flat, gaps same or widening NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES *Denotes previous assessment format

37 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST And these are the students who remain in school through 12 th grade.

38 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Public School Graduates and Dropouts from the Common Core of Data: School Year ” (2011). Students of color are less likely to graduate from high school on time.

39 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Moreover, no matter how you cut the data, our students aren’t doing well compared with their peers in other countries.

40 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Of 34 OECD countries, the U.S. ranks 12 th in reading literacy. U.S.A. OECD Higher than U.S. average Not measurably different from U.S. average Lower than U.S. average “Highlights from PISA 2009,” NCES, 2010

41 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: “Highlights from PISA 2009,” NCES, 2010 Higher than U.S. average Not measurably different from U.S. average Lower than U.S. average Of 34 OECD countries, the U.S. ranks 17 th in science. U.S.A.

42 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: “Highlights from PISA 2009,” NCES, 2010 Higher than U.S. average Not measurably different from U.S. average Lower than U.S. average Of 34 OECD countries, the U.S. ranks 25 th in math. U.S.A.

43 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Only place we rank high? Inequality.

44 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Among OECD countries, the U.S. has the fourth largest science gap between high-SES and low-SES students. PISA 2006 Results, OECD, table 4.8b U.S.A. OECD

45 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Among OECD countries, the U.S. has the fifth largest reading gap between high-SES and low-SES students. PISA 2009 Results, OECD, Table II.3.1 U.S.A. OECD

46 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST We used to make up for at least some of this by sending more of our students to college than anybody else.

47 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Note: Adults with a postsecondary degree include those who have completed either a tertiary-type B program (programs that last for at least two years, are skill-based, and prepare students for direct entry into the labor market) or a tertiary-type A program (programs that last at least three, but usually four, years, are largely theory-based, and provide qualifications for entry into highly-skilled professions or advanced research programs) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Education at a Glance 2011 (2011) Though no longer #1, we’re still relatively strong in overall educational attainment

48 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Education at a Glance 2011 (2011) Note: Adults with a postsecondary degree include those who have completed either a tertiary-type B program (programs that last for at least two years, are skill-based, and prepare students for direct entry into the labor market) or a tertiary-type A program (programs that last at least three, but usually four, years, are largely theory-based, and provide qualifications for entry into highly-skilled professions or advanced research programs) But our world standing drops to 15 th for younger adults United States OECD Average

49 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Note: Adults with a postsecondary degree include those who have completed either a tertiary-type B program (programs that last for at least two years, are skill-based, and prepare students for direct entry into the labor market) or a tertiary-type A program (programs that last at least three, but usually four, years, are largely theory-based, and provide qualifications for entry into highly-skilled professions or advanced research programs) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Education at a Glance 2011 (2011) We’re near the bottom in intergenerational progress OECD Average United States

50 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST That’s a quick look at the country as a whole. What about Nevada?

51 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST You’ve seen your state assessment and graduation data before.

52 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Students of Color Less than Half as Likely to Exceed State Reading Standards Source: Nevada Department of Education

53 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Students of Color 2-3 Times More Likely to Perform at Lowest Level in Math Source: Nevada Department of Education

54 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Students of Color More Likely to Fall Short of State Reading Standards in High School Source: Nevada Department of Education

55 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Low Graduation Rates for All Groups of Students Source: NCES, “ Public School Graduates and Dropouts from the Common Core of Data: School Year : First Look,” (2013),

56 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Percent of NV ACT-Takers Meeting College-Ready Benchmarks

57 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Percent of NV ACT-Takers Meeting All Four College-Ready Benchmarks

58 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST What about performance on the national assessment? There’s some good news here.

59 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Nevada’s Students Improving Faster than National Average in Reading Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES.

60 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Latino Students in Nevada Improved at One of the Fastest Rates Nationwide Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES.

61 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Low-Income Students in Nevada Improved Nearly Twice as Fast as Low-Income Students Nationwide Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES.

62 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Nevada’s Students Improving Faster than National Average in Math Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES.

63 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Latino Students in Nevada Improved at One of the Fastest Rates Nationwide Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES.

64 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST But clearly we’ve got to move faster, because performance still trails that in other states.

65 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 238) Nevada’s Overall Performance Trails Other States NV

66 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Nevada’s Overall Performance Trails Other States NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 299) NV

67 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST All about demographics?

68 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Nevada Schools: More Diverse Than Many States Source: Nevada Department of Education

69 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST But, even when you compare “same” group of students, Nevada’s children are behind.

70 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 238) In Nevada, Latino Students Below the National Average for Latinos NV

71 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 238) Black Students Below National Average in Nevada NV

72 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 238) Far Below the National Average for White Students NV

73 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST And the same patterns exist in 8 th grade math.

74 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Lower Income Students in Nevada Behind Peers in Other States NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 299) NV

75 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Higher Income Students in Nevada Trail Peers Nationwide NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 299) NV

76 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Post High School?

77 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Relatively few of Nevada’s graduates go on to college Postsecondary Education Opportunity, “Chance for College by Age 19 by State, ” Nevada

78 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: When High School Dropout Rate is Factored In, the Picture is Worse (HS Grad Rate x College Continuation Rate, 2008) Postsecondary Education Opportunity, “Chance for College by Age 19 by State, ” 45.8%

79 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST And of those who enter, few graduate.

80 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Among those who start in four-year colleges, Nevada has one of the lowest Bachelor’s degree attainment rates U.S. Department of Education, United States Education Dashboard. First-time, full-time freshmen completing a BA within 6 years Nevada

81 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Six-Year College Graduation Rates Hispanic, 2009 U.S. Department of Education, United States Education Dashboard. First-time, full-time freshmen completing a BA within 6 years 62.5%

82 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Six-Year College Graduation Rates African American, 2009 U.S. Department of Education, United States Education Dashboard. First-time, full-time freshmen completing a BA within 6 years 40%

83 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Six-Year College Graduation Rates White, 2009 U.S. Department of Education, United States Education Dashboard. First-time, full-time freshmen completing a BA within 6 years 72.9%

84 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Only place Nevada’s performance is strong relative to other states? Community College Student Success

85 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Among those in Associate’s programs, Nevada has one of the highest completion rates U.S. Department of Education, United States Education Dashboard. First-time, full-time freshmen completing an AA or certificate within 3 years Nevada

86 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Put this all together, and few young adults in Nevada have completed a postsecondary degree.

87 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Nevada has one of the lowest rates of young adults with at least an associate’s degree 2009 American Community Survey data from NCHEMS Information Center, Nevada

88 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST In sum, Nevada is below average in a country whose results are increasingly below the international average. Not a place you want to be.

89 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST What Can You Do?

90 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST First, don’t accept the excuses.

91 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST What we hear many say: They’re poor. They don’t speak English. Their parents don’t care. They come to school without breakfast. They don’t have enough books. They don’t have enough parents.

92 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST On the college level, we hear much the same thing: Our students are unprepared. They come from a culture of poverty. They have to work too many hours. Their families don’t value college education.

93 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST But if there’s truly nothing that we can do, why are low-income students and students of color performing so much higher in some schools? Some colleges? Even some whole states?

94 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Mary McLeod Bethune Elementary School New Orleans, Louisiana 341 students in grades PK – 6 – 97% African American 88% Low Income Louisiana Department of Education Note: Enrollment and demographic data are from

95 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Big Gains at Bethune Elementary Louisiana Department of Education

96 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Exceeding State Averages at Bethune Elementary Louisiana Department of Education

97 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Outperforming the State at Bethune Elementary Source: Louisiana Department of Education

98 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Halle Hewetson Elementary School Las Vegas, NV 938 students in grades PK – 5 – 87% Latino – 5% African American 100% Low Income 62% Limited English Proficient Source: Nevada Department of Education Note: Data are for school year

99 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Nevada Department of Education Big Improvement at Halle Hewetson Elementary

100 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Nevada Department of Education Outperforming the State at Halle Hewetson Elementary

101 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Nevada Department of Education Outperforming the State at Halle Hewetson Elementary

102 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Exceeding State Standards at Halle Hewetson Elementary Source: Nevada Department of Education

103 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Big gains in some districts, too.

104 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: NCES, NAEP Data Explorer Note: Chart includes only districts that participated in, and had members of this specific subgroup, in both the 2003 and 2011 NAEP TUDA administrations. In Boston and Houston, Latino students made far faster progress between 2003 and 2011 than in the country as a whole

105 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: NCES, NAEP Data Explorer Note: Chart includes only districts that participated in, and had members of this specific subgroup, in both the 2003 and 2011 NAEP TUDA administrations. African-American students in Atlanta and Boston improved at twice the rate of their counterparts nationally

106 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Colleges Can Close Gaps, Too: Virginia Commonwealth University Six-Year Graduation Rates at VCU ( ) First-time, full-time freshmen who graduated from the same college they started from 6 years ago Source: Education Trust analysis of IPEDS data.

107 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST You can help by pointing to the successes—here in Nevada and elsewhere--and by pressing for similar results.

108 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Second, start early, especially with low-income children.

109 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST High quality pre-school is the best investment we can make. It pays to prevent problems rather than ameliorate them later.

110 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Third, get behind the Common Core Standards.

111 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST But adopting the standards and the new tests isn’t enough. You’ve got to make sure that all students take the courses in high school that lead to college readiness.

112 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST And a few more “workshops” on the new standards won’t do the trick. We need to help teachers remake what they do every day, especially the assignments they give to their students.

113 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Students can do no better than the assignments we give them.

114 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Grade 10 Writing Assignment A frequent theme in literature is the conflict between the individual and society. From literature you have read, select a character who struggled with society. In a well-developed essay, identify the character and explain why this character’s conflict with society is important.

115 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Grade 10 Writing Assignment Write a composition of at least 4 paragraphs on Martin Luther King’s most important contribution to this society. Illustrate your work with a neat cover page. Neatness counts.

116 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Unnamed school district in California, school year. Essay on Anne Frank Your essay will consist of an opening paragraph which introduced the title, author and general background of the novel. Your thesis will state specifically what Anne's overall personality is, and what general psychological and intellectual changes she exhibits over the course of the book You might organize your essay by grouping psychological and intellectual changes OR you might choose 3 or 4 characteristics (like friendliness, patience, optimism, self doubt) and show how she changes in this area. Grade 7 Writing Assignment

117 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST My Best Friend:My Best Friend: A chore I hate:A chore I hate: A car I want:A car I want: My heartthrob:My heartthrob: Source: Unnamed school district in California, school year. Grade 7 Writing Assignment

118 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST High Performing Schools and Districts Have clear and specific goals for what students should learn in every grade, including the order in which they should learn it; Provide teachers with common curriculum, assignments; Have regular vehicle to assure common marking standards; Assess students regularly to measure progress; and, Don’t leave student supports to chance.

119 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST In other words, they strive for consistency in everything they do. And they bring that consistency to school discipline, as well.

120 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Fourth, keep up the work on teacher effectiveness, even though it is hard.

121 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Students in Dallas Gain More in Math with Effective Teachers: One Year Growth From 3 rd -4 th Grade Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.

122 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST DIFFERENCES IN TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS ACCOUNT FOR LARGE DIFFERENCES IN STUDENT LEARNING The distribution of value-added scores for ELA teachers in LAUSD

123 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST ACCESS TO MULTIPLE EFFECTIVE TEACHERS CAN DRAMATICALLY AFFECT STUDENT LEARNING CST math proficiency trends for second-graders at ‘Below Basic’ or ‘Far Below Basic’ in 2007 who subsequently had three consecutive high or low value-added teachers

124 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST So, there are VERY BIG differences among our teachers.

125 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST BUT… We pretend that there aren’t.

126 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source:

127 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Make sure your state and districts are acting on this knowledge by: Putting into place an honest evaluation system, that takes student growth into account; Training principals and expert teachers in evaluation and feedback techniques; Providing support to teachers who are struggling; Working hard to hold onto the strongest ones, and chasing out the weak ones; and, Assuring that all groups of children get their fair share of strong teachers.

128 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Fifth, principals matter hugely. States and districts need clear plan to grow new leaders.

129 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST This is way too important to be left to higher education.

130 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Sixth, higher education needs your attention, too.

131 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Current College Completion Rates: 4-Year Colleges  Fewer than 4 in 10 (38%) entering freshmen obtain a bachelor’s degree within 4 years  Within six years of entry, that proportion rises to just under 6 in 10 (58%)  If you go beyond IPEDS, and look at graduation from ANY institution, number grows to about two-thirds. NCES (March 2012). First Look: Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2009; Graduation Rates, 2003 and 2006 Cohorts; and Financial Statistics Fiscal Year Ed Trust analysis of BPS:09.

132 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST But graduation rates vary widely across the nation’s postsecondary institutions Ed Trust analysis of College Results Online dataset 2010.

133 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Some of these differences are clearly attributable to differences in student preparation and/or institutional mission. n/a

134 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST But…when you dig underneath the averages, one thing is very clear: Some colleges are far more successful than their students’ “stats” would suggest. Ed Trust analysis of College Results Online dataset 2009.

135 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST College Results Online College Results Online 2010.

136 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Colleges need to be pressed to work harder to make sure those they admit actually get the degrees they are seeking.

137 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Finally, mind the gaps in opportunity and achievement.

138 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST True, gaps in achievement begin before children arrive at the schoolhouse door. But, rather than organizing our educational system to ameliorate this problem, we organize it to exacerbate the problem.

139 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST We spend less on their education…

140 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Funding Gaps Within States: National inequities in state and local revenue per student Gap High-Poverty versus Low-Poverty Districts –$773 per student High-Minority versus Low-Minority Districts –$1,122 per student Source: Education Trust analyses of U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Census Bureau data for the school year.

141 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST We expect less of them.....

142 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: Prospects (ABT Associates, 1993), in “Prospects: Final Report on Student Outcomes”, PES, DOE, Students in poor schools receive As for work that would earn Cs in affluent schools.

143 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST We teach them less…

144 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Source: NCES, “Eighth-Grade Algebra: Findings from the Eighth-Grade Round of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of (ECLS-K)” (2010). Even African-American students with high math performance in fifth grade are unlikely to be placed in algebra in eighth grade

145 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Students of color are less likely to attend high schools that offer calculus. Source: U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights, Civil Rights Data Collection Percent of Schools Offering Calculus

146 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST And we assign them disproportionately to our least experienced, least well-educated, and least effective teachers…

147 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Students at high-minority schools more likely to be taught by novice* teachers. Source: Analysis of Schools and Staffing Survey data by Richard Ingersoll, University of Pennsylvania Note: High minority school: 75% or more of the students are Black, Hispanic, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander. Low-minority school: 10% or fewer of the students are non-White students. Novice teachers are those with three years or fewer experience.

148 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Math classes at high-poverty, high-minority secondary schools are more likely to be taught by out-of-field* teachers. Note: High-poverty school: 55 percent or more of the students are eligible for free/reduced-price lunch. Low-poverty school :15 percent or fewer of the students are eligible for free/reduced-price lunch. High-minority school: 78 percent or more of the students are black, Hispanic, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander. Low-minority school : 12 percent or fewer of the students are non-white students. *Teachers with neither certification nor major. Data for secondary-level core academic classes (math, science, social studies, English) across the U.S. Source: Education Trust Analysis of Schools and Staffing Survey data.

149 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Tennessee: High-poverty/high-minority schools have fewer of the “most effective” teachers and more “least effective” teachers. Source: Tennessee Department of Education “Tennessee’s Most Effective Teachers: Are they assigned to the schools that need them most?” Note: High poverty/high minority means at least 75 percent of students qualify for FRPL and at least 75 percent are minority.

150 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Los Angeles: Black, Latino students have fewer highly effective teachers, more weak ones. Latino and black students are: 3X as likely to get low- effectiveness teachers ½ as likely to get highly effective teachers READING/LANGUAGE ARTS Source: Education Trust—West, Learning Denied, 2012.

151 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST The results are devastating. Kids who come in a little behind, leave a lot behind.

152 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Those practices aren’t good for kids. And they are not good for our country.

153 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST We are taking the diversity that should be our competitive advantage in the international marketplace, and obliterating it. Don’t just stand by and watch, even if they are not “your” kids. Speak up. Demand the data. Demand progress.

154 © 2013 THE EDUCATION TRUST Washington, D.C. Royal Oak, MI 202/ / Oakland, CA 510/ Download this presentation and learn more about the Education Trust.


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