2The Union FailsCSA formed in early 1861 with South Carolina leading the way.NC was hesitant to join the ConfederacyLarge Unionist movement (leaders who wanted to stay in the Union)Secessionists (leaders who wanted to leave the Union)
3QuestionsA. What was the name for those who wanted to join the Confederacy?B. What was the name for those who wanted to remain in the Union?
4NC’s Conditional Support Unionists “support” BUT…Did not want any military action taken against southern statesConfederates fired upon Fort Sumter in Charleston on April 12, President Lincoln called for volunteers to “put down the rebellion” the Unionists were finishedMay 20, 1861 delegates in NC voted unanimously to secede from the Union
5QuestionsA. Unionists in North Carolina did not want __________ to be taken against the Confederate States?B. What did North Carolina decided to do when President Lincoln ordered Federal troops to fire on Fort Sumter?
6NC’s war effort Called an “unwilling Hercules” why? Last to secede Provided more troops than % of population1/6 of soldiers but 1/9 of populationMore troops than any other southern state125K troops, suffered ¼ of ALL casualties (20K from battle wounds and 20K from infection)More men drafted from NC than any other stateOnly Confederate state with an active peace movement
7Questions A. What was NC called regarding the Civil War effort? True/FalseB. There were more troops from NC than any other Confederate State.C. More men were drafted from NC than any other stateD. North Carolina was the only state in the CSA with an active peace movement.
8NC in the fight Provided LARGE numbers of soldiers 37 generals from NC BUT only ONE led a whole army.NC slogan after the Civil War: NC troops were “first at Bethel, farthest at Gettysburg and last at Appomattox.”Gained the nickname “Tar Heels” because they stayed and fought until the very end.
9Questions A. What slogan did NC earn during the Civil War? B. What was a nickname for NC’s troops during the Civil War?
10North Carolinians at war Early on much of the War took place in VirginiaBethel, VA, only Confederate soldier killed was from NCGettysburg, Tar Heels fought hard and crossed Union lines sustaining heavy casualtiesAppomattox, site of final surrender, ¼ of all Confederates laying down arms were from NCHelped save General Lee in MarylandCommitted a HUGE mistake, at Chancellorsville, while surrounding Union troops, NC troops accidentally wounded Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson a Confederate General… he later died from his wounds!!!
11Questions A. Most battles were fought in what CSA state? B. Who did NC troops accidentally shoot at Chancellorsville?C. NC troops were farthest at ________.
14Defending NC’s coast Fighting along the Coast Union planned to attack Richmond through the Albemarle SoundUnion captured Confederate forts on Outer Banks and soon controlled the sounds.Union maintained naval blockade, where a fleet of ships patrolled the ocean outside all southern ports; the intention was to keep the Confederacy from receiving supplies
15QuestionsA. Surrounding the CSA’s coastline with Union ships was called a _________ _________.B. What was the purpose?
16NC’s largest battle Bentonville Last major fight between the North and South in the Civil WarLargest battle fought in North CarolinaGeneral William T. Sherman pushed towards Goldsboro, which contained a vital RR crossing, remember what lines crossed there?Pieces of several Confederate Armies gathered north of Fayetteville, around 13K troopsSherman had about 60K at his disposalBattle lasted 3 days, March 19, 20, 21
17QuestionsA. The last major battle in the Civil War and the largest battle in NC was the battle at ____________.B. How many days did the above battle last?
18Harper HouseHome of John and Amy Harper and 7 of their 9 children. (The oldest two were in the Confederate Army)Union soldier knocked on the door and told them their home had been chosen as the site of a battlefield hospitalThey had around an hour to grab what belongings they could and move to the upstairs where they would remain for the next 3 days.
21Harper Hospital?Union and Confederate soldiers would be treated at the Harper HouseSome soldiers were treated and returned to fight, while others faced amputations and the ongoing threat of disease and infectionSoldiers amputated limbs were tossed outside the windows onto the Harper’s lawn, all the while they lived upstairs!!! EEWWW!!!!!Like on the next slide so don’t freak out…
38Blockade RunningNC’s coastline, which had hindered it for years, now provided an advantage for the South.North could not navigate the Cape Fear because of shallow waterBlockade Runners – low-lying steamships that were painted gray to match the ocean, were able to slip in and out of Cape Fear waters.Went to British ports in the Bahamas, loaded up on supplies then came back to NC. “Ran” through blockades and carried supplies inland where they could be loaded onto the Wilmington Weldon RR, which ran to Virginia, and supplied Confederate troops.Wilmington & Weldon RR was so important it became known as “the lifeline of the Confederacy.”
39QuestionsA. What was able to navigate the shores of NC and break through Union ships?B. What were they in search of?C. Where did they go to get them?
40Blockade Running cont’d More than 100 blockade runnersOver ½ were captured or sunk100 ships made more than 400 trips to the West IndiesEstimated $65 million worth of goods carried by blockade runnersEstimated 50% of all food and supplies to Lee’s army in VA came through Wilmington
41Questions A. How many blockade runners were there? B. What was the percentage of supplies blockade runners provided to the Army of Northern Virginia?
42Zebulon Baird Vance Important dude! Governor of NC during the Civil War
43Zebulon B. VanceZeb and Jefferson Davis, President of the CSA do NOT get alongVance puts the needs of NC FIRST, before those of the CSA.Very compassionate towards troops and their families.
44Questions A. North Carolina’s governor during the Civil War was? B. Whose interests were his main concern?
45Zeb’s thoughts on the War Put himself “out there”, wrote letters to Jefferson Davis arguing certain points of contention:A. Conscription – the draft, began in 1862, handled by CSA government, not statesB. Exemptions – Own 20 or more slaves, did not have to fight. Vance wrote to Davis, “this made the Civil War a rich mans war and a poor man’s fight.”
46QuestionsA. How did Zeb communicate with the CSA President, Jefferson Davis?B. What is conscription?C. Vance’s famous quote regarding exemptions: they made it “a ___ man’s war and a ____ man’s fight.”
47More of Zeb’s thoughts C. Taxes – CSA created layers of taxes Sales tax – taxing goodsOccupation tax – taxing gross salesIncome tax – personal tax on level of incomeTax in kind – tax on annual farm production( ex. Grew 50 bushels of potatoes or more, 10% tax)Vance resists, feels taxation should be a state issue
48QuestionsA. Identify two types of taxes that began during the Civil War?B. Who did Vance want to control the issue of taxation?
49More of Vance’s issuesD. Appointments – military and political leaders1. 7 full generals in the Confederate Army, NONE from NC (and we supplied most of the troops)2. Cabinet of the CSA – no one from NC appointed until the end of the War and then only served a short amount of time
50Questions A. How many generals in the Confederate Army were from NC? B. What problem did Governor Vance have with the President Davis’ cabinet?
51And more issuesE. Supplying troops – CSA said, send clothes to us, we will supply troops1. NC had 46 textile mills, more than any other Confederate State2. Vance said, no, we will supply ourselves and send what we have left to you; Davis agreed
52Questions A. What could NC supply to CSA troops? B. Vance and Davis agreed that these troops would be supplied first.
53The Biggest Issue F. Suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus Do not have to produce documents telling why someone is being charged with a crime1. Makes criminal process faster2. Denies a FUNDAMENTAL CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT. CSA and USA would both suspend this right.
54QuestionsA. Being required to produce documents telling someone why they are being charged with a crime is called __________________.B. Who would suspend this right?
55The last issue, for you at least G. Desertion – AWOL, skipping town, etc.USUALLY, for a short amount of time, problem at home, with the farm, kids, etc.1. All CSA has this problem, BUT2. NC supplied most troops so law of averages says they will have the most deserters, and they did.3. 23K soldiers (approx returned) 423 officers
56Questions A. Why did most soldiers desert? B. Why did NC have the largest number of deserters?
57Other factors for desertion 1. NC’s proximity to VA’s battlefieldsConvenient place to run to when you have had enough2. Geographical Features of NCA. Eastern swamps – good place to hide, no one wants to hunt deserters in there.B. Mountains – hard to find people who do not want to be found
58QuestionsWhat were the two geographical features of North Carolina that made it a good place to go when deserting?
59IroncladsConfederates hoped to take away the Union advantage at sea with ironclads – ships heavily armored with iron.Confederates captured the Merrimack and turned it into an ironclad renamed the Virginia.Union built its own ironclad, the MonitorThe battle between the two lasted for hours. In the end the Virginia had to retreat, saving the Union fleet.Began a revolution in naval warfare, gone were wooden ships powered by the wind.CSS Neuse, now housed in Kinston, is a Civil War ironclad. Take a look at
60Questions A. What was the name for a ship heavily clad with iron? B. Kinston houses one of these ships, named the ____________ .
61The CSA and War Jefferson Davis had a tough job He was fighting people with better training, weapons, supplies, etc.A NATION fighting a group of statesAdd into the mix, state’s rights, “I will give you what I want you to have and do what I wantUnder huge pressure and resistance from Confederate StatesHard position, Davis had to “create” a government then go directly to war!
62QuestionsWhat were two reasons Jefferson Davis’ job as President of the CSA was not easy?