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Supply Kirk, Muldoon, Lange, McKinnon Quotes and cartoon on one page to paste in.

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Presentation on theme: "Supply Kirk, Muldoon, Lange, McKinnon Quotes and cartoon on one page to paste in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Supply Kirk, Muldoon, Lange, McKinnon Quotes and cartoon on one page to paste in

2 NUCLEAR ISSUES IN NZ in the 1970s and 1980s

3 We are learning…… about ways that NZ stood up for nuclear issues in the 1970s and 1980s to deepen our understanding of our unique identity as New Zealanders today and…. to practice explaining different perspectives on controversial events using paraphrasing and quotations.

4 French Nuclear Testing in the Pacific USA, USSR, France, India and China confirmed to have the bomb by 1970s. Nuclear testing began in Pacific in 1950s By 1962, USA had exploded 106 Bombs on Bikini Atoll Britain exploded 21 Bombs

5 French Nuclear Testing in the Pacific By the time France finished testing in the Pacific in early 1996 over 250 nuclear detonations had occurred Over New Zealanders sign petition calling for a nuclear free Pacific in the 1950s The Labour Party made anti-nuclear issues its foreign policy in the same decade

6 Nuclear Powerplants Nuclear Testing

7 French Nuclear Testing in the Pacific 1966 – France carried out its first atmospheric test at Mururoa Atoll. Atmospheric testing had been banned by International agreement in A 1971 poll showed 82% of New Zealanders were opposed to French testing in the Pacific NZ and Australia took France to the World Court. Found guilty. France ignored. USA and Britain were unwilling to do anything.

8 French Nuclear Testing in the Pacific Private organisations sailed boats into the testing area and were manhandled by the French navy Labour Prime Minister Norman Kirk sent two Navy Frigates to the test zone in Australians sent a supply ship. This shocked the world and gave the French bad media attention. So they moved their testing underground.

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10 French Nuclear Testing in the Pacific When National were elected as government under Robert Muldoon in 1975, he stopped our anti-French stance, worried that it would damage our agricultural exports to Europe.

11 French Nuclear Testing in the Pacific July 10 th 1985, French agents blew up and sank the Rainbow Warrior. A Portugese photographer was killed. Two of the ten French agents were captured. France initially denied responsibility then later owned up. Only Australia joined New Zealand in condemning France. USA and Britain did not. The Wall Street Journal supported the French action.

12 French Nuclear Testing in the Pacific The United Nations ordered France to pay 13 million in compensation and NZ released the two agents to be imprisoned. The French government did not keep its word and released them after two years and they were met with a hero’s welcome. The whole incident became a defining moment in developing an independent New Zealand identity.

13 French Nuclear Testing in the Pacific In 1992, France declared a short halt in underground testing but resumed in They finally stopped in The issue of possible mong-term damage to Mururoa atoll had not been settled by the year 2000.

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15 Song Che Fu – lyrics to Chains - lyrics/ lyrics/

16 TASKS We are learning…… to practice explaining different perspectives on controversial events in paragraphs using paraphrasing and quotations. I am successful if my paragraph includes… 1.A topic sentence that states the person’s stance on the issue/event (eg against or supports) 2.At least two more sentences that explain the persons stance by giving reasons for their stance. These can include their background, race, gender, class, religion, political affiliation. 3.You should also explain the reasons that they give for their stance. Quote the person then paraphrase what the quote means in your own words. 4.The persons actions can also indicate their stance. What is Labour P.M Norman Kirk’s perspective on French Nuclear Testing? Explain his perspective using paraphrases and quotes. Discuss in groups first Write answers Model Answer: As Prime minister of NZ, Norman Kirk is opposed to French Nuclear Testing in the Pacific. He is a member of the Labour Party which had opposed Nuclear Testing in the Pacific since the 1950s. He says that despite New Zealand being a ‘small nation’, the country will not give in to the ‘injustice’ of French nuclear testing. His actions also reflect his perspective. He has sent Frigates to the testing zone to ‘bring alive the conscience of the world’. In other words, he wants to compel the world to view French testing as wrong. EXTENSION: Lange quote Q 8-11 p.111

17 US Nuclear Ship Visits visits by US ships alone to NZ ports. US policy was always that they would ‘neither confirm nor deny’ the presence of nuclear armaments on their vessels. Ships could either be nuclear powered or have nuclear missiles on board. By the 1970s, US was our main ally. Communism was no longer seen as a realistic threat in the Pacific.

18 US Nuclear Ship Visits Between opposition to ships with nuclear technology increased from 33% to 39%. 60% of New Zealanders still believed maintaining a strong alliance with US (ANZUS) was more important. City councils declared themselves nuclear free eg Devonport in Auckland. 400 different groups now made up the growing anti- nuclear movement.

19 US Nuclear Ship Visits By 1984, 70% did not want nuclear ships in NZ. However, 70% of Kiwis still wanted to remain part of Anzus. The new Labour Prime minister David Lange knew that if he ignored the anti-nuclear stance of the public and the Labour Party he would lose his place as Prime Minister.

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21 US Nuclear Ship Visits David Lange tried to negotiate with the US. They proposed to send a ship that was not nuclear powered and did not usually carry nuclear weapons. They would ‘neither confirm nor deny’ the presence of nuclear armaments on their vessels. This was not good enough to satisfy the Labour party people also turned out to a protest march to voice their opposition. So he refused the US ship’s visit.

22 US Nuclear Ship Visits The US did not like this and some Americans reacted violently. One critic called NA ‘ a piss-ant little country south of nowheresville’. All military and intelligence links with NZ were immediately and threats were made to cut NZ trade access to US markets. These threats did not eventuate. Even Australia would not support our position. ANZUS was declared ‘inoperative’ and NZ was downgraded from being an ‘ally’ to a ‘friend’.

23 US Nuclear Ship Visits Public support for our anti-nuclear stance remained at 70%. In 1989, the Cold War ended and the need for an ANZUS alliance with the USA was no longer compelling.

24 Read Source F, p111: false alarm for World War Three

25 We are learning…… to practice explaining different perspectives on controversial events in paragraphs using paraphrasing and quotations. I am successful if my paragraph includes… 1.A topic sentence that states the person’s stance on the issue/event (eg against or supports) 2.At least two more sentences that explain the persons stance by giving reasons for their stance. These can include their background, race, gender, class, religion, political affiliation. 3.You should also explain the reasons that they give for their stance. Quote the person then paraphrase what the quote means in your own words. 4.The persons actions can also indicate their stance. Model Answer: As Prime minister of NZ, Norman Kirk is opposed to French Nuclear Testing in the Pacific. He is a member of the Labour Party which had opposed Nuclear Testing in the Pacific since the 1950s. He says that despite New Zealand being a ‘small nation’, the country will not give in to the ‘injustice’ of French nuclear testing. His actions also reflect his perspective. He has sent Frigates to the testing zone to ‘bring alive the conscience of the world’. In other words, he wants to compel the world to view French testing as wrong. TASK 1 What is National P.M Robert Muldoon’s perspective on US Naval ship visits? Explain his perspective using paraphrases and quotes. Recap the ‘Western values’ and ‘ideals’ we share with USA Discuss in groups first Write answers EXTENSION: Lange quote Q 8-11 p.111 Cartoon Discuss in pairs Q p. 113

26 END OF LESSON REFLECTION about ways that NZ stood up for nuclear issues in the 1970s and 1980s to deepen our understanding of our unique identity as New Zealanders today and…. to practice explaining different perspectives on events using a mixture of paraphrasing and quotations. 1.Did learning this make you proud to be a New Zealander? Why? Why not? 2.Rate your ability to understand written perspectives on nuclear issues (1- 10) - 1 being the lowest 3.Rate your ability to communicate your understanding of people’s perspectives on nuclear issues in writing (1-10)


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