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© 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Carrying IPSEC Authentication and ESP Headers Across SCPS-NP Networks Keith Scott.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Carrying IPSEC Authentication and ESP Headers Across SCPS-NP Networks Keith Scott."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Carrying IPSEC Authentication and ESP Headers Across SCPS-NP Networks Keith Scott

2 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved n A : Identify IP header fields necessary to support carrying IPv4 Authentication Header by the SCPS-NP, and draft a spec that shows how these fields shall be organized in relation to the SCPS-NP and the IPv4 AH CCSDS Action Item From 2000

3 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Issues With IPSec AH and SCPS-NP n NP as currently defined cannot carry enough information to reconstruct a correct IPv4 header in all cases (mainly when the packet originates as IP and is later translated to NP) –IP Fragmentation Information – Always required to correctly reconstruct IPv4 packets; current assumption is IPv4 reassembly before translation from IP to NP so that this information is not necessary for reconstruction –IP Options – Not necessarily required if security is not used but could be very important (e.g. router alert to support RSVP) –IPID – When security is not in use, could be artificially generated for reconstructed IPv4 packets n IPID and IP Options must be carried across the NP network for IPSec AH tunnel and transport modes –These fields (at least their lengths) are included in the IPSec signatures for the given modes

4 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Applicability n Dual IP/NP gateways (IPSec AH over IP at ends, IPSec over NP in the middle) n Single IP/NP gateway (IPSec AH over IP going into IPSec AH over SCPS-NP) n For end-to-end IPSec AH over SCPS-NP, could simply assert values for required fields (IPID) n Note: NOT requried for ESP (outer IP header isn’t signed for transport mode)

5 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Things that Need to be Carried to Support IPSec AH (and IP Options) n IP version can be reconstituted from NP TPID n IPv4 header length can be calculated from the reconstructed IPv4 header n Type of Service, if desired, can be carried in the expanded QoS field of SCPS-SP n IPv4 total length can be rebuilt from the SCPS-SP length field and the length of the reconstructed IPv4 header n IPID (2 bytes) – needed if AH is used; needs additional support in NP n IF IP PACKETS ARE NOT REASSEMBLED BEFORE BEING INJECTED INTO THE NP NETWORK, THEN THE FLAGS / FRAGMENT OFFSET MUST BE CARRIED (2 bytes) regardless of security n TTL is set at destination n Next protocol can be calculated from NP TPID n Header checksum is recalculated at destination n Source / Destination IP addresses n IP Options (see RFC4302 – some are mutable but even mutable ones are zerored out in AH signature computation so that the length of the reconstructed IPv4 header has to be right. Some are immutable and covered by AH signature). Gray: carried by current SCPS-NP header (note: extended QoS field required to carry TOS byte) Blue: needed if IPSec AH is used Red: needed regardless of security

6 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Observations n If IPv4 reassembly is guaranteed to occur before translation to NP, then IPv4 Flags and Fragment Offset fields can be omitted from NP and assumed zero on IPv4 packet reconstruction n Choice of whether to carry IP TOS byte (DSCP, ECN) in SCPS-NP Extended QoS bytes is independent of security –Mutable field not covered by AH, ESP

7 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Options n Option 1: Define a single new TPID to carry additional IPv4 header information –Within this new shim layer, use another TPID to identify the next layer (e.g. IPSec AH, IPSec ESP, TCP, UDP, …) n Option 2: Use control bits to signal some of the v4 header info, TPID may indicate presence of other info n Option 3: Define a new version of SCPS-NP to bring the newly added IPv4 fields under the (optional) SCPS-NP header checksum

8 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Option 1: Carry Extra IPv4 Information in a New, Dedicated TPID n Define a TPID (shim) to handle extra IPv4 header information n Use flags field in the shim to indicate which extra information is present n Use TPID in the shim to indicate next protocol n Overhead (in addition to required information) –1 byte if any of [fragmentation, AH, IP options] are used –Plus must also use at least 4 bit wide control field n Would require carrying IPID even for end-to-end AH over NP n Addresses all combinations of (fragmentation, AH, IP Options) n Includes IPID only if required n No changes to reserved control bits (just a new TPID) n Fewer compatibility issues with older versions? n New information NOT COVERED by optional SCPS-NP header checksum

9 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Option 1: Shim Header Format n 1 nibble TPID –TPID [4 bits] n 1 nibble flags –Fragmentation information present [1 bit] –IP Options present [1 bit] –Reserved [1 bit] n IPID field (present if TPID indicates AH as next proto) –2 bytes copied from the IPID field of the IPv4 header n IP Fragmentation segment (signaled from flags) –2 bytes copied from the IPv4 header (flags & fragment offset) n IP options segment (signaled from flags) –IPv4 options copied verbatim from IP header –Could remove length fields from fixed-length IP options that contain length fields n New TPIDs –IPv4 extended header information –IPv4 AH –IPv4 ESP IPID (0 or 2 octets) TPIDFlagsFragment Info (0 or 2 octets) OptLen (0 or 1 octet ) IPv4 Options (if present, variable) VPI Datagram Length TP IDControl(4, 12, or 20 bits) Dest Address (1, 4, or 16 octets) Src Address (0, 1, 4, or 16 octets) Basic QoS (0 or 1 octet) Hop Count (0 or 1 octet) Time Field [0,3,4, or self- delimiting 2—8 octets] Expanded QoS (0 or 1 octet) Header Checksum (0 or 2 octets) Time Field (cont’d) Next Proto (e.g. IPSec AH) (variable)

10 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Option 1 Operation n IP-to-NP –Include the new shim header info if any of the following are true: n IP next proto is IPSec AH ­Must include all IP options, IPID n IP packet is fragment and gateway does not reassemble ­Must include flags, fragment offset n NP-to-IP –If IPID information is not in the NP header, implementation sets ‘new’ IPIDs (should be monotone non-decreasing?)

11 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Option 2: Control Bits Signal Fragmentation, IP Options; TPID Signals IPID n Use a currently reserved control bit (bit 21) to indicate the presence of IP fragmentation information –If set, 2 bytes following NP header is (IPv4 flags, fragment offset) n Use another reserved control bit (bit 29, requires going from 4->12 bits of control) to signal IP options –If set, IP options are present –Could remove lengths from fixed-length IP options that contain length fields n NP TPID itself signals further extra information –If TPID is IPSec AH n Next 2 bytes after (NP header or frag info) are IPv4 IPID n IP Options, if set on the IP packet, MUST be included (not implementation- dependent) n Overhead –If fragmentation, must use at least 4 bit wide control field –If IP options are used, must use at least 12 bit wide control field –If neither fragmentation nor IP Options are used, no extra overhead n Would require carrying IPID even for end-to-end AH over NP n Addresses all combinations of (fragmentation, AH, IP Options) n Allocates two previously reserved bits in the NP control field n Includes IPID only if AH is used (in which case IPID is required) n Severe non-backward compatibility n New information NOT COVERED by optional SCPS-NP header checksum IPID (0 or 2 octets) Fragment Info (0 or 2 octets) VPI Datagram Length TP IDControl(4, 12, or 20 bits) Dest Address (1, 4, or 16 octets) Src Address (0, 1, 4, or 16 octets) Basic QoS (0 or 1 octet) Hop Count (0 or 1 octet) Time Field [0,3,4, or self- delimiting 2—8 octets] Expanded QoS (0 or 1 octet) Header Checksum (0 or 2 octets) Time Field (cont’d) Next Proto (e.g. IPSec AH) (variable) IPv4 Options (if present, variable)

12 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Option 2 Operation n IP-to-NP –Signal presence of fragmentation, IP options independently of each other and independent of security –IF AH is used, IPID is copied from IPv4 to correct place after SCPS-NP header checksum (and fragment and options) n NP-to-IP –If IPID information is not in the NP header, implementation sets ‘new’ IPIDs (should be monotone non-decreasing?)

13 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Option 3: Option 2 But With The New Information Covered By the SCPS-NP Header Checksum n Would require a new version (010) of SCPS-NP – different header format to bring the new information under the header checksum IPID (0 or 2 octets) Fragment Info (0 or 2 octets) VPI Datagram Length TP IDControl(4, 12, or 20 bits) Dest Address (1, 4, or 16 octets) Src Address (0, 1, 4, or 16 octets) Basic QoS (0 or 1 octet) Hop Count (0 or 1 octet) Time Field [0,3,4, or self- delimiting 2—8 octets] Expanded QoS (0 or 1 octet) Header Checksum (0 or 2 octets) Time Field (cont’d) Next Proto (e.g. IPSec AH) (variable) IPv4 Options (if present, variable)

14 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Option 3 Operation n As option 2

15 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Comparison n All options would require carriage of IPID field if AH is used, even if end-to-end AH over NP (i.e. no IP at all) –Probably not an issue; if using NP end-to-end why not use SP end-to- end? –Could define a different TPID to identify this case n Option Comparison Table NP Control Bits Needed OverheadIP Header info covered by NP header checksum ‘Routing Compatible’ with SCPS-NP Version 001 Option 10 1 byte if any of (fragmentation, IP options, AH) are used NoYes Option 22NoneNoYes Option 32NoneYesNo

16 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Open Issues n Specify mechanisms to remove IP Option ‘length’ fields from those IP options that are fixed length and that have length fields?

17 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Backup

18 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved IPSEC AH Coverage VersionHeader Length Type of Servicetotal length Identification TTLProtocolHeader Checksum Source IP Address Destination IP Address FlagsFragment offset Fields NOT covered by IPSEC IPv4 Source Address Traffic Class VersionFlow Label Payload LengthNext HeaderHop Limit Destination Address IPv6 IPv6 options in the Hop-by-Hop and Destination Extension Headers contain a bit that indicates whether the option might change (unpredictably) during transit. For any option for which contents may change en-route, the entire "Option Data" field must be treated as zero-valued octets when computing or verifying the ICV. The Option Type and Opt Data Len are included in the ICV calculation. All options for which the bit indicates immutability are included in the ICV calculation. See the IPv6 specification [DH98] for more information. The IPv6 extension headers that do not contain options are explicitly listed in Appendix A and classified as immutable, mutable but predictable, or mutable. See: RFC4302 VPI Datagram Length TP IDControl(4, 12, or 20 bits) Dest Address (1, 4, or 16 octets) Src Address (0, 1, 4, or 16 octets) Basic QoS (0 or 1 octet) Hop Count (0 or 1 octet) Time Field [0,3,4, or self- delimiting 2—8 octets] Expanded QoS (0 or 1 octet) Header Checksum (0 or 2 octets) Time Field (cont’d) SCPS-NP IPv4Flags:reserved (zero) more fragments don’t fragment Note: IPSec zeros out fields that are mutable, but leaves the zeros there. This means that the overall length is covered IP Options (optional; TLV encoded) 8 unused TPIDs 6 unused control (1,1,4)

19 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved n Transport mode ESP –IP header not covered; NP doesn’t have to carry anything n Transport mode AH n Fragmentation information still an issue for both cases IPSec Transport Mode

20 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved IPSec Tunnel Mode n For tunnel mode ESP, done except for fragmentation –ESP carries an entire, encrypted IP header –Outer IP header not covered by ESP n Tunnel mode AH, need same support as transport mode –Outer IP header covered by AH signature n Fragmentation information still an issue for both cases Figures from

21 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Motivations n SCPS-NP is not in wide usage, but is a stable international (CCSDS and ISO) standard n If it were to gain wider usage, there would probably be a strong desire to support functions like –Fragmentation –End-to-end (IPSec) security –IP Options (to support things like RSVP QoS)

22 © 2006 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Possible Scenarios Host Internet IP GW SCPS-NP NP Network GW IPSec (AH -- Tunnel or transport mode) Host Internet IP GW SCPS-NP NP Network IPSec (AH -- Tunnel or transport mode) Host SCPS-NP NP Network IPSec (AH -- Tunnel or transport mode)


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