3Learning ObjectivesUse the systems development process outlined in this chapter and the model of IS components from Chapter 1 as problem-solving frameworks to help you propose information systems solutions to simple business problems.Describe and give examples to illustrate how you might use each of the steps of the information systems development cycle to develop and implement a business information system.
4Learning ObjectivesExplain how prototyping can be used as an effective technique to improve the process of systems development for end users and IS specialists.Understand the basics of project management and their importance to a successful systems development effort.Identify the activities involved in the implementation of new information systems.
5Learning ObjectivesCompare and contrast the four basic system conversion strategies.Describe several evaluation factors that should be considered in evaluating the acquisition of hardware, software, and IS services.Identify several change management solutions for end user resistance to the implementation of new information systems.
6Case 1: In-House Development is Alive and Well Proprietary software can give companies an competitive edgeBut in-house development isn’t cheapH&R Block, Morgan Stanley and others still choose in-house developmentWhen and why?
7Case Study QuestionsJeff Brandmaier, senior VP and CIO at H&R Block Inc., describes in-house developed applications as “the stuff that gives you competitive advantage.” Why do you think he feels this way?Can a modern organization be competitive without developing any applications in-house? Why or why not?The case points out that despite the use of vendor applications, there is “still a lot of manually intensive work that goes on in the development process.” Why do you think vendor applications still require in-house developers?
8Real World Internet Activity Despite all the media coverage concerning the loss of jobs in IS/IT, there is still a strong and growing need for in-house developers. Using the Internet,See if you can find examples, beyond those discussed in the case, of companies that are doing their development in-house.Are they using the SDLC or some other method?
9Real World Group Activity In-house development is costly, to be sure. Yet many companies believe that their core applications require personal attention by their developers. In small groups,Discuss how an organization determines what applications to buy from a vendor and what applications to develop in-house.What are the criteria for making the decision?
10The Systems ApproachA problem solving technique that uses a systems orientation to define problems and opportunities and develop appropriate and feasible solutions.Analyzing a problem and formulating a solution involves the following interrelated activities:Recognize and define a problem or opportunity using systems thinkingDevelop and evaluate alternative system solutionsSelect the system solution that best meets your requirementsDesign the selected system solutionImplement and evaluate the success of the designed system
11What is Systems Thinking? Seeing the forest and the trees in any situation by:Seeing interrelationships among systems rather than linear cause-and-effect chains whenever events occurSeeing processes of change among systems rather than discrete snapshots of change, whenever changes occurSee the system in any situation:Find the input, processing, output, feedback and control componentsGoing back to the components we learned in chapter 1.
12Systems Thinking Example You can better understand a sales problem or opportunity by identifying the components of a sales system
13Systems Analysis and Design SA & DOverall process by which IS are designed and implemented within organizationsTwo most common approaches to SA & DObject-oriented analysis and designSystems Development Life Cycle
14Systems Development Lifecycle (SDLC) Five stages. Will discuss each of them in turn
15Systems Investigation Stage Do we have business opportunities?What are our business priorities?How can information technologies provide information systems solutions that address our business priorities?
16Feasibility Study A preliminary study where are determined the information needs of prospective usersthe resource requirements, costs, benefits,and feasibility of a proposed projectare determined
18Operational Feasibility How well the proposed systemsupports the business priorities of the organization.solves the identified problem.fits within the existing organizational structure.Schedule feasibility – can we solve the problem in a reasonable period
20Cost/Benefit Analysis Costs versus BenefitsTangible costs and benefits can be quantified with a high degree of certaintyExample: decrease in operating costsIntangible costs and benefits are harder to estimateExample: improved customer service
21Technical Feasibility Determine if reliable hardware and software capable of meeting the needs of a proposed system can be acquired or developed by the business in the required timeHardwareSoftwareNetwork
22Human Factors Feasibility AssessEmployee, customer, supplier acceptanceManagement supportThe right people for the various new or revised rolesNo matter how elegant the technology, the system will not work if the end users and managers do not support it.
23Legal/Political Feasibility AssessPossible patent or copyright violationsSoftware licensing for developer side onlyGovernmental restrictionsChanges to existing reporting structure
24Systems Analysis An in-depth study of end user information needs That produces functional requirements that are used as the basis for the design of a new information system
25Systems Analysis Detailed study of The information needs of a company and end users.The activities, resources, and products of one or more of the present information systems being used.The information system capabilities required to meet information needs of users and stakeholdersEnd users are important members of the development team
26Organizational Analysis Study of the organization including:Management StructurePeopleBusiness ActivitiesEnvironmental SystemsCurrent Information SystemsDocument input, processing, output, storage and control
27Logical Analysis Construction of a logical model of the current system A blueprint of what the current system does
28Functional Requirements Analysis and Determination Determine specific business information needsDetermine what type of information each business activity requires.Determine the information processing each system activity is needed to meet these needs.
29Functional Requirements End user information requirements that are not tied to the hardware, software, network, data, and people resources that end users presently use or might use in the new systemWhat the system must doFunctional Requirement categoriesUser InterfaceProcessingStorageControl
30Systems DesignModify the logical model until it represents a blueprint for what the new system will doPhysical design:How the system will accomplish its objectives
31Prototyping The rapid development and testing of working models Used in design phaseEspecially useful when end user requirements are hard to define
32Prototyping Life Cycle When prototyping is used, life cycle is changed. Design phase is split between analysis and implementation.
33Prototyping Can be used for small and large systems Develop quickly But if system is large, usually prototype just partsDevelop quicklyRefine until acceptable
34User Interface DesignFocuses on supporting the interactions between end users and their computer-based applicationsFrequently prototype the user interface
35Checklist for Corporate Websites Remember the customer – successful websites are built solely for the customer, not to make company vice presidents happyAesthetics – successful designs combine fast-loading graphics and simple color palettes for pages that are easy to readBroadband Content – the Web’s coolest stuff can’t be accessed by most Web surfers; don’t make it the focus of a site
36Checklist for Corporate Websites Easy to navigate – make sure it’s easy to get from one part of site to anotherSearchability – make sure to have a useful search engineIncompatibilities – test site with target web browsersRegistration forms – short registration forms are a useful way to gather customer dataDead links – be sure to keep links updated
37System Specifications Formalize design ofUser interface methodsProductsDatabase structuresProcessingControl proceduresSpecifications for hardware, software, network, data, and personnel
38End User Development IS professional plays a consulting role End user does his/her own application developmentContrast in traditional life cycle:End user is customerIS profession does development
39End User DevelopmentSource: Adapted from James N. Morgan, Application Cases in MIS, 4th ed. (New York: Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 2002), p. 31.
40Encouraging End User Web Development Look for tools that make senseSpur creativitySet some limitsGive managers responsibilityMake users comfortable
41Case 2: Implementation Success or Failure Success or failure is in the eye of beholderAt Indiana University, implementation of PeopleSoft ERPLeft students without access to promised financial aidProblem was not with softwareWhat was the problem?
42Case Study QuestionsAs with any story, there are always two sides. Indiana University sees the problem as a surprise; outside observers see the problem as predictable and preventable. What do you think? Why?Is it possible that some implementation problems cannot be easily foreseen or prevented? Give some examples.What could Indiana University have done differently to prevent this unfortunate event from occurring? Is there evidence to suggest that they learned from this experience?
43Real World Internet Activity In many cases, we tend to hear about implementation failures more often than implementation successes. Using the Internet,See if you can find some examples of implementation success stories.Why were they successful?
44Real World Group Activity The project described in the case was an example of a large-scale software deployment of vendor software. In small groups,Discuss the differences between implementing vendor-supplied software and in-house developed software.Should an in-house project be implemented differently than a vendor supplied application? Why or why not?
45Systems Implementation Hardware and software acquisitionSoftware developmentTesting of programs and proceduresConversion of data resourcesConversion alternativesEducation and training of end users and specialists who will operate a new system
49Project A project Each project has Is a set of activities with a clear beginning and endEach project hasGoalsObjectivesTasksLimitations
50Managing a projectTo manage a project need:ProcessToolsTechniques
51Five phases of project management Initiating/definingState the problems/goalsIdentify the objectivesSecure resourcesExplore costs/benefits in feasibility studyFoundation for the entire projectNeed to define the problem that the project is supposed to solve or achieve or dooms the projectNeeded for any project: but this is exactly what is done in systems investigation phase of SDLC
52Five phases of project management PlanningIdentify and sequence activitiesIdentify the “critical path”Estimate time and resources needed for completionWrite a detailed project planExecutingCommit resources to specific tasksAdd additional resources/personnel if necessaryInitiate project workAnalysis and Design are associated with project execution in the SDLC
53Five phases of project management ControllingEstablish reporting obligationsCreate reporting toolsCompare actual progress with baselineInitiate control interventions if necessary
54Five phases of project management ClosingInstall all deliverablesFinalize all obligations/commitmentsMeet with stakeholdersRelease project resourcesDocument the projectIssue final report
55Evaluating Hardware, software and services Must acquire hardware, softwareHow do we evaluate and select it?Companies may ask suppliers to present bids and proposalsMay score different productsDetermine evaluation factorsAssign each product points on each factorMay require benchmark testsSimulate processing of task and evaluates the performance
56Hardware Evaluation Factors PerformanceCostReliabilityCompatibilityTechnologyErgonomicsConnectivityScalabilitySoftwareSupportNote that don’t just choose hardware on what’s fastest and cheapest
58Examples of IS Services Developing a company websiteInstallation or conversion of hardware or softwareEmployee trainingHardware maintenanceSystem integrationSystem designContract programmingConsulting services
60System Testing Testing and debugging software Testing website performanceTesting new hardwareReview of prototypes of displays, reports and other output
61Data ConversionConverting data elements from old database to new databaseCorrecting incorrect dataFiltering out unwanted dataConsolidating data from several databasesOrganizing data into new data subsets
62Importance of Data Conversion Improperly organized and formatted data is major causes of failures in implementing new systems.
63Documentation User documentation Systems documentation Sample data entry screens, forms, reportsSystems documentationCommunication among people responsible for developing, implementing and maintaining systemImportant in diagnosing errors and making changes
64Training End users must be trained to operate new system Educate managers and end users in how the new technology impacts the company’s business operations and management
65ConversionConversion from use of present system to operation of new system
67Direct Conversion Turn off old system Turn on new system Direct is least expensive methodRiskiest method
68Parallel Conversion New and old systems run simultaneously until end users and project coordinators are satisfied that the new system is functioning correctlyLow riskHighest cost method: perform all functions with both systems
69Pilot Conversion When new system is installed in multiple locations Convert to new system in single locationOnce complete in pilot location,Evaluate and make any necessary changesIn the pilot site, you can either use direct or parallel method
70Phased Conversion Incremental approach to conversion Bring in new system as a series of functional componentsLower riskTakes the most time
71Systems maintenance Corrective: fix bugs and logical errors Adaptive: add new functionality to accommodate changes in business or environmentPerfective: improve performancePreventive: reduce chances of failure
72Post-implementation review Ensure new system meets the business objectivesPeriodic review or audit
73Implementation Challenges New system involves major organizational changeManage changes toBusiness processesOrganizational structuresManagerial rolesWork assignmentsStakeholder relationships
74User Resistance New way of doing things generates resistance Key to solving isUser involvement in organizational changes and development of new systemsUser involvementEnd users on systems development teamsEnd user ownership of new system
75Reasons for User Resistance to Knowledge Management Systems
76Change Management Dimensions Source: Adapted from Grant Norris, James Hurley, Kenneth Harley, John Dunleavy, and John Balls, E-Business and ERP:Transforming the Enterprise, p by John Wiley & Sons Inc. Reprinted by permission.
77Change ManagementInvolve as many people as possible in planning and application developmentMake constant change an expected part of the cultureTell everyone as much as possible about everything as often as possibleMake liberal use of financial incentives and recognitionWork within the company culture, not around it
78Process of Change Management Source: Adapted from Martin Diese, Conrad Nowikow, Patric King, and Amy Wright, Executive’s Guide to E-Business: From Tactics to Strategy, p by John Wiley & Sons Inc. Reprinted by permission.
79Case 3: There’s Nothing Like a Good Process Nothing derails an IT development project faster than sloppy project managementProcess management is the art and science of creating and continuously improving the process of developing and delivering systemsBest practices in process management:Industry best practicesWithin-the-company best practices
80Case Study QuestionsWhat is process management? How does it differ from project management or traditional development methodologies like the SDLC?Is the SDLC an example of good process management?What is meant in the case by the phrase:“implementing a standard approach to systems development helps experienced staff and new hires to be more productive, because they spend less time wondering how to do something and more time doing it?”
81Real World Internet Activity We know that good project and process management are keys to successful systems development and implementation projects. Using the Internet,See if you can find examples of companies that subscribe to the tenets set forth in the case.Is there evidence to suggest that such companies are realizing competitive benefits as a result?
82Real World Group Activity We discussed issues related to user resistance, involvement, and change management in this chapter. In small groups,Discuss how these issues relate to good process management.What specific change management approaches are involved in ensuring high quality process management?