Presentation on theme: "Building Behaviors Vermont BI Conference 2012. Skill Building Specifically teach behaviors and skills which are functional alternatives to challenging."— Presentation transcript:
Building Behaviors Vermont BI Conference 2012
Skill Building Specifically teach behaviors and skills which are functional alternatives to challenging behaviors Behaviors may be in the learner’s repertoire or may have to be shaped over time
What are behaviors that you might look to increase? List some positive behaviors to teach: Playground Lunchroom Classroom
Some Alternative Skills To Teach On Task Following class routine Work completion Making eye contact Following directions Gentle hands Polite words Self-calming Taking good time-outs Friendship skills Complementing others Greeting others Asking for help Manding Personal space/boundaries Specific problem solving skills
Reinforcement A behavior is followed by an event (consequence) which serves to strengthen that behavior Behavior Consequence More Behavior it is only reinforcement if the behavior increases consequently Increases the probability of the behavior occurring again
Reinforcement Types of Reinforcement Positive reinforcement Obtain a reward Negative reinforcement Avoid an aversive event
Reinforcement OUR DAILY LIVES ARE FILLED WITH REINFORCERS FOR THE BEHAVIORS WE ENGAGE IN: Setting an alarm clock gets us up on time Buying groceries gets us food to eat Laying out our clothes the night before gets us to work quicker Being with our loved ones gives us enjoyment and fulfillment Watching a comedy makes us laugh Taking an aspirin makes us feel better Infant crying produces a loving mom or dad
Types of Reinforcers Social Activity Token/Symbolic Sensory Tangible Edible/Drink
Premack Principle Grandma’s Rule- You have to eat your peas before you get your dessert.
SELECTING REINFORCERS Learn your clients interests, activities, hobbies How/where do they spend their time What do they do a lot of Ask the client Ask parents Trial and error
Reinforcer Assessment Activity Interview neighbor Identify possible reinforcers Prioritize top three reinforcers
Increasing the Effectiveness of Reinforcement Contingency Immediacy Power Schedule or Timing of Reinforcement Deprivation vs. Satiation
How immediate does reinforcement have to occur following a behavior for it to be effective? The more immediate, the stronger the effect. This is especially true for individual with significant communication deficits.
Building Behavioral Momentum “Layering” Of Reinforcement Immediately Throughout The Day End Of Day Throughout The Week Vary High and Low Probability Demands
A Simple Example of layered reinforcement Behavior=Talking out in class Present Reinforcer=Attention Prosocial Skills=Raising hand to obtain attention
A Simple A Simple Example (cont.) Reinforcement Immediate Call on child when hand is raised, specific praise Throughout the day Stars on chart for raising hand to get attention or Sticker on chart after classes in which hand raising happens, specific praise
A Simple A Simple Example (cont.) Reinforcement (cont.) Throughout/End of day Activity reward/privilege for earning a specific number of stars End of week Bigger activity reward for having a “good week”
Building Behavior Differential Reinforcement Consistently reinforce alternative or incompatible behaviors while withholding reinforcement for problematic behaviors Discussed in depth in “Decreasing Behaviors”
Helpful hints for effective use of reinforcement 1. Set an easily achieved initial expectation for reinforcement. 1. Look at what the current performance. 2. You can fade reinforcement by expecting higher levels of performance before reinforcement. 2. “reinforce abundantly, but don’t give way the store.” 3. Evaluate reinforcers frequently.
Helpful hints for effective use of reinforcement (need to Cooper it up) 4. Use direct rather than indirect contingencies when possible (ex. Putting M&M in jar vs. giving M&M to student for opening jar) 5. Combine response prompts and R+ 6. Reinforce each occurrence of the behavior initially
Helpful hints for effective use of reinforcement. 7. Use contingent attention and descriptive praise 8. Gradually decrease frequency of reinforcement over time 9. Gradually shift from contrived to naturally occurring reinforcers
Non-contingent reinforcement Reinforcement delivered on a schedule and not contingent on behavior May decrease problem behaviors because the reinforcment they were seeking is now available freely and frequently Think of an example where this might be effective
Functional communication training Teaching appropriate communicative behavior to replace problem behaviors Teaching strategies paired with differential reinforcement is used Think of examples where you have or could have used FCT
Contingency contracts A document that specifies a contingent relationship between a specific behavior and a specific reinforcer. 3 major components A description of the task (who, what, when, how well) A description of the reward (who, what, when, how much) Task record (a place to record task completion)
Contingency Contracts Task: the task side of the contract consists of four parts Who is the person who will be performing the task and getting the reward What is the task or behavior the person must perform When identifies the time that the task must be completed How well tells the specifics of the task Reward side of behavioral contract must be as specific and complete as the task side WHO: the person that will be judging task completion and control delivery of the reward WHAT: is the reward WHEN: specifies the time that the reward can be received by the person earning it HOW MUCH: is the amount of reward that can be earned
Contingency Contracts GUIDELINES: Contracts must be fair Contracts must be clear Contracts must be honest
Token Economies Behavior change system with 3 components: Specified list of target behaviors Tokens that participant(s) receive for emitting target behaviors A menu of back-up reinforcer items that participant(s) exchange for their earned tokens Share an example of a token system
Examples of Token Systems
Tokens embedded in data sheet
Examples of Token Systems
Level systems Type of token economy in which participants move up/down between different levels which are associated with different privileges and different amounts of independence and expectations
Group contingencies A common consequence (usually a reward) is contingent on the behavior of one member, one part, or the whole of a group. Ex: paw prints at Vergennes Elementary Independent Group Contingency= same reinforcement and behavior expectation, only those that achieve the goal get R+ Dependent Group Contingency= whole group recieves R+ based on the behavior of an individual or small group Interdependent Group Contingency= all individuals in group must meet expectations for all to receive R+
What skills are needed to be able to learn new behaviors from these methods? Imitation- being able to copy a model either verbally or behaviorally Following verbal directions (not just compliance, but also auditory discrimination and receptive and expressive language skills. What do you do if a student doesn’t have these skills? They will need specific programming to teach those skills You can use shaping and chaining
Shaping “Shaping is the process of systematically and differentially reinforcing successive approximations to a terminal behavior. Shaping is used in many everyday situations to help learners acquire new behaviors.” (p.421) Cooper, J.O., Heron, T.E., & Heward, W.L. (2007) Applied Behavioral Analysis (2 nd Ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ; Pearson Education
Examples of behaviors that can be taught through shaping Signing “more” Vocalizations Ex: Note: this technique is not often use alone, but is often a component of teaching, but is often paired with other techniques or a way to teach small components of larger behaviors. It can be especially helpful when teaching students who have weak imitation skills or limited verbal behaviors.
Differential Reinforcement The process of reinforcing target responses behaviors and not reinforcing other responses. Game time: Chose someone to be “it” and send them out of the room. The rest of the people decide what behavior they want to shape “it” to do. Keep it simple, like jumping or tapping the table. Decide how to reinforce the person when they are doing the target behavior. Let “it” back in the room and teach them to do the behavior through shaping.
Task analysis and behavior chains A behavior chain, simply, is a chain of behaviors that all link up to reach a end result. Each behavior link is the cue for the next behavior and causes a stimulus change that becomes the reinforcement for the previous behavior. Example: Brushing teeth End result: clean teeth and task completion Analysis of a link in the chain: Turning the water on. This causes the water to run which reinforces the action of turning the handle on the faucet. Seeing the water running is a visual cue for the next step of wetting the toothbrush.
Task Analysis Breaking a complex skill or chain of behaviors into smaller teachable units Should be individualized according to age, skill level, and prior experience with the task. Created by: Observing competent individuals perform the task Consultation with an expert Performing and analyzing the task oneself
Task Analysis Practice: Break off into groups of 3-4 Select a task and student from the hat As a group, create a task analysis for that skill. Try completing that skill by following the directions, adjust if needed.
Assessing the learner’s ability to perform the action Single opportunity method Assess of the learner’s ability to perform the behaviors in the task in the correct order. Cue them to start and once an error is made, all subsequent steps are marked as incorrect Multiple opportunity method Assesses the learner’s ability to perform each behavior in the task regardless of success with the previous task. Complete at least 3 trials
Teaching with chaining Forward chaining The task is taught in its naturally occurring order. Total-task chaining The task is taught at each step for every session. Backward chaining The task is initially completed by the instructor except for the final behavior in the chain. When the learner master’s the final step, instruction moves to the next-to last step.
Chaining Exercise Pair off Each pair will be assigned a picture to teach/learn (Already broken into steps) through chaining. Decide which method of chaining to use Decide how to teach steps (modeling, verbal direction, shaping, hand over hand) Decide reinforcement method Take turns being the teacher and student.
Things that effect behavior: Motivational Operations A motivational operation (MO) is something that changes either the value of a reinforcer OR changes the frequency of a behavior. Also referred to as establishing operations. It is very important to be aware of MOs when implementing behavior plans. Often these are the things that are out of your control that may be effecting how effective your supports are and the student’s behavior.
The effects of MOs Reinforcement: Smarties MO that increases the value of Smarties: Hunger, less Smarties available, new commercials on TV about Smarties, you are the only source of Smarties, it’s new and novel MO that decreases the value of Smarties Satiation, Smarties freely available, toothache, Smarties not cool anymore, illness, flooded with sugary snacks, overuse of this reinforcer
The effects of MOs Behavior: eating lunch MOs that increase the frequency of behavior Hunger, favorite meal is being served, more food available, more choices MOs that decrease the frequency of behavior Not hungry, preferred food isn’t available, other activities are competing with lunch (loud conversations), toothaches, illness, had a giant Arizona Ice Tea at snack
Things that effect behavior: Setting Events Setting events are things that can impact behavior and treatment efficacy that are not directly related to the target behaviors or your interventions Related to MOs, setting events are things that may be out of your control, but are important to be aware of. Examples: Illness, how the morning went, injury, social interactions, past performance, sleep patterns
Antecedent Techniques Antecedent Techniques Eliminate the cue for the problem behavior Provide cues for alternative prosocial behaviors Reduce the motivation for the reinforcer maintaining the challenging behavior Increase the motivation for the reinforcer maintaining the alternative, more desirable behavior Increase the response effort for the problem behavior
Antecedent Techniques Decrease response effort for the alternative behavior Modify the environment to increase the consistency and predictability of expectations Schedules Maximize opportunities for choice and control Clear, concise expectations Modify curriculum/expectations to maximize independent success
Antecedent Techiques Cueing Procedures Obtain attention first State cue/direction using only a few words known to be in the student’s repertoire Wait for client to respond---avoid repetitive verbal cues Monitor cooperation Praise/reinforce cooperation
Antecedent Techniques Advance Verbal Cues/Rehearsal With or without visual prompts Examples: Novel activities Difficult social interactions Ending a preferred activity Transitions Where, what, reinforcement
Antecedent Techniques Self-Relaxation Implement in regular training, at precursor level and/or after an incident Some portable techniques Walking quietly Deep breathing Muscle tension and relaxation exercises Attention focusing exercises
ACTIVITY Practice Progressive Muscle Relaxation