2Skill BuildingSpecifically teach behaviors and skills which are functional alternatives to challenging behaviorsBehaviors may be in the learner’s repertoire or may have to be shaped over time
3What are behaviors that you might look to increase? List some positive behaviors to teach:PlaygroundLunchroomClassroom
4Some Alternative Skills To Teach On TaskFollowing class routineWork completionMaking eye contactFollowing directionsGentle handsPolite wordsSelf-calmingTaking good time-outsFriendship skillsComplementing othersGreeting othersAsking for helpMandingPersonal space/boundariesSpecific problem solving skills
5ReinforcementA behavior is followed by an event (consequence) which serves to strengthen that behaviorBehavior Consequence More Behaviorit is only reinforcement if the behavior increases consequentlyIncreases the probability of the behavior occurring again
6Reinforcement Types of Reinforcement Positive reinforcement Obtain a rewardNegative reinforcementAvoid an aversive event
7ReinforcementOUR DAILY LIVES ARE FILLED WITH REINFORCERS FOR THE BEHAVIORS WE ENGAGE IN:Setting an alarm clock gets us up on timeBuying groceries gets us food to eatLaying out our clothes the night before gets us to work quickerBeing with our loved ones gives us enjoyment and fulfillmentWatching a comedy makes us laughTaking an aspirin makes us feel betterInfant crying produces a loving mom or dad
8Types of Reinforcers Social Activity Token/Symbolic Sensory Tangible Edible/Drink
9Premack PrincipleGrandma’s Rule- You have to eat your peas before you get your dessert.
10SELECTING REINFORCERS Learn your clients interests, activities, hobbiesHow/where do they spend their timeWhat do they do a lot ofAsk the clientAsk parentsTrial and error
11Reinforcer Assessment Activity Interview neighborIdentify possible reinforcersPrioritize top three reinforcers
12Increasing the Effectiveness of Reinforcement ContingencyImmediacyPowerSchedule or Timing of ReinforcementDeprivation vs. Satiation
13The more immediate, the stronger the effect. How immediate does reinforcement have to occur following a behavior for it to be effective?The more immediate, the stronger the effect.This is especially true for individual with significant communication deficits.
14Building Behavioral Momentum “Layering” Of ReinforcementImmediatelyThroughout The DayEnd Of DayThroughout The WeekVary High and Low Probability Demands
15A Simple Example of layered reinforcement Behavior=Talking out in classPresent Reinforcer=AttentionProsocial Skills=Raising hand to obtain attention
16A Simple Example (cont.) ReinforcementImmediateCall on child when hand is raised, specific praiseThroughout the dayStars on chart for raising hand to get attention orSticker on chart after classes in which hand raising happens, specific praise
17A Simple Example (cont.) Reinforcement (cont.)Throughout/End of dayActivity reward/privilege for earning a specific number of starsEnd of weekBigger activity reward for having a “good week”
18Building Behavior Differential Reinforcement Consistently reinforce alternative or incompatible behaviors while withholding reinforcement for problematic behaviorsDiscussed in depth in “Decreasing Behaviors”
19Helpful hints for effective use of reinforcement Set an easily achieved initial expectation for reinforcement.Look at what the current performance.You can fade reinforcement by expecting higher levels of performance before reinforcement.“reinforce abundantly, but don’t give way the store.”Evaluate reinforcers frequently.
20Helpful hints for effective use of reinforcement (need to Cooper it up) Use direct rather than indirect contingencies when possible (ex. Putting M&M in jar vs. giving M&M to student for opening jar)Combine response prompts and R+Reinforce each occurrence of the behavior initially
21Helpful hints for effective use of reinforcement. Use contingent attention and descriptive praiseGradually decrease frequency of reinforcement over timeGradually shift from contrived to naturally occurring reinforcers
22Non-contingent reinforcement Reinforcement delivered on a schedule and not contingent on behaviorMay decrease problem behaviors because the reinforcment they were seeking is now available freely and frequentlyThink of an example where this might be effective
23Functional communication training Teaching appropriate communicative behavior to replace problem behaviorsTeaching strategies paired with differential reinforcement is usedThink of examples where you have or could have used FCT
24Contingency contracts A document that specifies a contingent relationship between a specific behavior and a specific reinforcer.3 major componentsA description of the task (who, what, when, how well)A description of the reward (who, what, when, how much)Task record (a place to record task completion)
25Contingency Contracts Reward side of behavioral contract must be as specific and complete as the task sideWHO: the person that will be judging task completion and control delivery of the rewardWHAT: is the rewardWHEN: specifies the time that the reward can be received by the person earning itHOW MUCH: is the amount of reward that can be earnedTask: the task side of the contract consists of four partsWho is the person who will be performing the task and getting the rewardWhat is the task or behavior the person must performWhen identifies the time that the task must be completedHow well tells the specifics of the task
26Contingency Contracts GUIDELINES:Contracts must be fairContracts must be clearContracts must be honestMust be a fair relationship between the difficulty and amount of the task and the quality and amount of the rewardMust specify each person’s expectations exactlyAn honest contract exists if the rward is delivered a the time and in the amount specified when the task is completed as specified Don’t promise too much
27Token Economies Behavior change system with 3 components: Specified list of target behaviorsTokens that participant(s) receive for emitting target behaviorsA menu of back-up reinforcer items that participant(s) exchange for their earned tokensShare an example of a token system
32Level systemsType of token economy in which participants move up/down between different levels which are associated with different privileges and different amounts of independence and expectations
33Group contingenciesA common consequence (usually a reward) is contingent on the behavior of one member, one part, or the whole of a group.Ex: paw prints at Vergennes ElementaryIndependent Group Contingency= same reinforcement and behavior expectation, only those that achieve the goal get R+Dependent Group Contingency= whole group recieves R+ based on the behavior of an individual or small groupInterdependent Group Contingency= all individuals in group must meet expectations for all to receive R+
34Imitation- being able to copy a model either verbally or behaviorally What skills are needed to be able to learn new behaviors from these methods?Imitation- being able to copy a model either verbally or behaviorallyFollowing verbal directions (not just compliance, but also auditory discrimination and receptive and expressive language skills.What do you do if a student doesn’t have these skills?They will need specific programming to teach those skillsYou can use shaping and chaining
35Shaping“Shaping is the process of systematically and differentially reinforcing successive approximations to a terminal behavior. Shaping is used in many everyday situations to help learners acquire new behaviors.” (p.421)Cooper, J.O., Heron, T.E., & Heward, W.L. (2007) Applied Behavioral Analysis (2nd Ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ; Pearson Education
36Examples of behaviors that can be taught through shaping Signing “more”VocalizationsEx:Note: this technique is not often use alone, but is often a component of teaching, but is often paired with other techniques or a way to teach small components of larger behaviors. It can be especially helpful when teaching students who have weak imitation skills or limited verbal behaviors.
37Differential Reinforcement The process of reinforcing target responses behaviors and not reinforcing other responses.Game time: Chose someone to be “it” and send them out of the room. The rest of the people decide what behavior they want to shape “it” to do. Keep it simple, like jumping or tapping the table. Decide how to reinforce the person when they are doing the target behavior. Let “it” back in the room and teach them to do the behavior through shaping.
38Task analysis and behavior chains A behavior chain, simply, is a chain of behaviors that all link up to reach a end result. Each behavior link is the cue for the next behavior and causes a stimulus change that becomes the reinforcement for the previous behavior.Example: Brushing teethEnd result: clean teeth and task completionAnalysis of a link in the chain:Turning the water on. This causes the water to run which reinforces the action of turning the handle on the faucet. Seeing the water running is a visual cue for the next step of wetting the toothbrush.
39Task AnalysisBreaking a complex skill or chain of behaviors into smaller teachable unitsShould be individualized according to age, skill level, and prior experience with the task.Created by:Observing competent individuals perform the taskConsultation with an expertPerforming and analyzing the task oneself
40Task Analysis Practice: Break off into groups of 3-4 Select a task and student from the hatAs a group, create a task analysis for that skill.Try completing that skill by following the directions, adjust if needed.
41Assessing the learner’s ability to perform the action Single opportunity methodAssess of the learner’s ability to perform the behaviors in the task in the correct order. Cue them to start and once an error is made, all subsequent steps are marked as incorrectMultiple opportunity methodAssesses the learner’s ability to perform each behavior in the task regardless of success with the previous task.Complete at least 3 trials
42Teaching with chaining Forward chainingThe task is taught in its naturally occurring order.Total-task chainingThe task is taught at each step for every session.Backward chainingThe task is initially completed by the instructor except for the final behavior in the chain. When the learner master’s the final step, instruction moves to the next-to last step.
43Chaining Exercise Pair off Each pair will be assigned a picture to teach/learn (Already broken into steps) through chaining.Decide which method of chaining to useDecide how to teach steps (modeling, verbal direction, shaping, hand over hand)Decide reinforcement methodTake turns being the teacher and student.
44Things that effect behavior: Motivational Operations A motivational operation (MO) is something that changes either the value of a reinforcer OR changes the frequency of a behavior. Also referred to as establishing operations.It is very important to be aware of MOs when implementing behavior plans.Often these are the things that are out of your control that may be effecting how effective your supports are and the student’s behavior.
45The effects of MOs Reinforcement: Smarties MO that increases the value of Smarties:Hunger, less Smarties available, new commercials on TV about Smarties, you are the only source of Smarties, it’s new and novelMO that decreases the value of SmartiesSatiation, Smarties freely available, toothache, Smarties not cool anymore, illness, flooded with sugary snacks, overuse of this reinforcer
46The effects of MOs Behavior: eating lunch MOs that increase the frequency of behaviorHunger, favorite meal is being served, more food available, more choicesMOs that decrease the frequency of behaviorNot hungry, preferred food isn’t available, other activities are competing with lunch (loud conversations), toothaches, illness, had a giant Arizona Ice Tea at snack
47Things that effect behavior: Setting Events Setting events are things that can impact behavior and treatment efficacy that are not directly related to the target behaviors or your interventionsRelated to MOs, setting events are things that may be out of your control, but are important to be aware of.Examples: Illness, how the morning went, injury, social interactions, past performance, sleep patterns
48Antecedent Techniques Eliminate the cue for the problem behaviorProvide cues for alternative prosocial behaviorsReduce the motivation for the reinforcer maintaining the challenging behaviorIncrease the motivation for the reinforcer maintaining the alternative, more desirable behaviorIncrease the response effort for the problem behavior
49Antecedent Techniques Decrease response effort for the alternative behaviorModify the environment to increase the consistency and predictability of expectationsSchedulesMaximize opportunities for choice and controlClear, concise expectationsModify curriculum/expectations to maximize independent success
50Antecedent Techiques Cueing Procedures Obtain attention first State cue/direction using only a few words known to be in the student’s repertoireWait for client to respond---avoid repetitive verbal cuesMonitor cooperationPraise/reinforce cooperation
52Antecedent Techniques Advance Verbal Cues/RehearsalWith or without visual promptsExamples:Novel activitiesDifficult social interactionsEnding a preferred activityTransitionsWhere, what, reinforcement
53Antecedent Techniques Self-RelaxationImplement in regular training, at precursor level and/or after an incidentSome portable techniquesWalking quietlyDeep breathingMuscle tension and relaxation exercisesAttention focusing exercises