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ForL 8250 Topics in Pedagogy Burrhus Frederick Skinner Lourdes G. Osollo January 20, 2009 Dr. Peter Swanson.

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Presentation on theme: "ForL 8250 Topics in Pedagogy Burrhus Frederick Skinner Lourdes G. Osollo January 20, 2009 Dr. Peter Swanson."— Presentation transcript:

1 ForL 8250 Topics in Pedagogy Burrhus Frederick Skinner Lourdes G. Osollo January 20, 2009 Dr. Peter Swanson

2 Burrhus Frederick Skinner ●Born in 1904, Susquehanna, Pennsylvania ●Died in 1990 ●Dreamed of “freedom” in a controlled environment: baby crib/air crib ●“Operant conditioning chamber” ●“Box” ●Walden Two:fictional community

3 Intellectual “Family Tree” of B.F. Skinner Sechenov PavlovBekhterev DeweyAngell Donaldson Loeb Mach Bacon CrozierWatson Skinner Todd JT, Morris EK. Modern Perspectives on BF Skinner & Contemporary Behaviorism

4 Early Experiments Frogs reflexes with electroshocks (not conditioned but lowered threshold) Frogs reflexes with electroshocks (not conditioned but lowered threshold) Skinner admired Pavlov (secretion of saliva) Skinner admired Pavlov (secretion of saliva) Skinner: “descriptive”/”radical” behaviorist=behavior is determined by processes within the live organism Skinner: “descriptive”/”radical” behaviorist=behavior is determined by processes within the live organism

5 Early Experiments/Theory In 1930 discovered immediate reinforcement smooth ingestion curve rat moves lower legs nerves were spontaneous??? In 1930 discovered immediate reinforcement smooth ingestion curve rat moves lower legs nerves were spontaneous??? Interested on the “effects” that “reinforcers” produce in an “intact” organism in an “enclosed” space Interested on the “effects” that “reinforcers” produce in an “intact” organism in an “enclosed” space “Behavior was triggered or “shaped” by its consequences” “Behavior was triggered or “shaped” by its consequences”

6 Conditioned Reflexes and the notion of “Operant Conditioning” Conditioned Reflexes and the notion of “Operant Conditioning” Operant Conditioning vs Reflex & vs Pavlovian reflex (salivary) Operant Conditioning vs Reflex & vs Pavlovian reflex (salivary) Behaviors do not begin as reflexes Behaviors do not begin as reflexes Instrumental vs Operant. Behavior operated on the environment. Instrumental vs Operant. Behavior operated on the environment. Operant is defined in terms of its effects Purpose Consequences of an act Operant is defined in terms of its effects Purpose Consequences of an act

7 Reinforcements Can be + or - Can be + or - Contingencies change & improve the conditions behavior Contingencies change & improve the conditions behavior Aversive Control is < effective than + Control Aversive Control is < effective than + Control Society follows the negative Society follows the negative Some - critics: + Control techniques to shape behavior destroy man’s spirit Some - critics: + Control techniques to shape behavior destroy man’s spirit

8 Punishment/Control People naturally good, but Cultural Determinism sideways redirection People naturally good, but Cultural Determinism sideways redirection Personal responsibility is questioned! Personal responsibility is questioned! Skinner vs Rogers: “Client” will not find the controlling forces to redirect themselves within them (Judeo-Christian religion) Skinner vs Rogers: “Client” will not find the controlling forces to redirect themselves within them (Judeo-Christian religion) Control: The bully/weak Control: The bully/weak (Also see:Paolo Freire: “Pedagogy of the Oppressed”)

9 Punishment/Control Control by its means is not effective Control by its means is not effective Induction is better and long lasting Induction is better and long lasting At school SS punishment study At school SS punishment study without won’t without won’t with induction will be lasting with induction will be lasting

10 Reinforcement & Punishment Reinforcement (behavior increases) Reinforcement (behavior increases) Punishment (behavior decreases) Punishment (behavior decreases) Positive (something added) Positive (something added) Positive Reinforcement Something added increases behavior Positive Reinforcement Something added increases behavior Positive Punishment Something added decreases behavior Positive Punishment Something added decreases behavior Negative (something removed) Negative (something removed) Negative Reinforcement Something removed increases behavior Negative Reinforcement Something removed increases behavior Negative Punishment Something removed decreases behavior Negative Punishment Something removed decreases behavior See Operant Behavior in words of Skinner: See Operant Behavior in words of Skinner: =I_ctJqjlrHA

11 Skinner and Programmed Learning “Teaching Machines” Goal: To expedite learning and reduce contingencies that may limit it. This is contradictory Instruments Goal: To expedite learning and reduce contingencies that may limit it. This is contradictory Instruments Programming vs Order of the subject Programming vs Order of the subject Reinforcement and Stimulus Affective learning. Effective praising is “self-satisfying” Reinforcement and Stimulus Affective learning. Effective praising is “self-satisfying” “The humanist who induces, emulates and is enthusiastic about getting students to learn is controlling the student as the person who designs and programs a machine” - Skinner “The humanist who induces, emulates and is enthusiastic about getting students to learn is controlling the student as the person who designs and programs a machine” - Skinner

12 Skinner and Programmed Learning “Teaching Machines” Visited his daughter’s class and…. Visited his daughter’s class and…. The Student answers questions and rewarded. The Student answers questions and rewarded. “Teaching is out of date if the teacher is the only reinforcer” “Teaching is out of date if the teacher is the only reinforcer” Skinner country dishwashers and the like for mechanized classrooms Skinner country dishwashers and the like for mechanized classrooms

13 Human Culture and Behavior Culture should be reinforced: Culture should be reinforced: Priming: Show the students what to do Priming: Show the students what to do Prompting: Supply part of the answer as encouragement/mastery/completion Prompting: Supply part of the answer as encouragement/mastery/completion Vanishing: Covering with plastic pockets Vanishing: Covering with plastic pockets “Evangeline-Long Fellow” “Evangeline-Long Fellow” Read erase letters read completely erase all letters read it completely! Read erase letters read completely erase all letters read it completely!

14 Human Culture and Behavior In his view there are: continuous, interval and ratio reinforcements. In his view there are: continuous, interval and ratio reinforcements. In 1972 Skinner said: In 1972 Skinner said: “I am the person most concerned with controlling” “I am the person most concerned with controlling”

15 References Bjork, Daniel W. “B.F. Skinner, a life”., Harper Collins Publishers, New York, 1993 Bjork, Daniel W. “B.F. Skinner, a life”., Harper Collins Publishers, New York, 1993 Evans, J. Richard. “The Man and his Ideas”., E.P. Duttout Co., Inc. New York, 1968 Evans, J. Richard. “The Man and his Ideas”., E.P. Duttout Co., Inc. New York, 1968 Morris, K. Edward & Tood, T. James. “Modern Perspectives on B.F. Skinner and Contemporary Behaviorism”., Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut-London, 1995 Morris, K. Edward & Tood, T. James. “Modern Perspectives on B.F. Skinner and Contemporary Behaviorism”., Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut-London, 1995


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