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Questions for lab 1.Halobacterium is an extremophile. In which conditions is it able to grow? In which conditions does it grow best? 2.In what ways do.

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Presentation on theme: "Questions for lab 1.Halobacterium is an extremophile. In which conditions is it able to grow? In which conditions does it grow best? 2.In what ways do."— Presentation transcript:

1 Questions for lab 1.Halobacterium is an extremophile. In which conditions is it able to grow? In which conditions does it grow best? 2.In what ways do halo change to respond to its environment?

2 Growth of halobacterium in light and dark, with and without oxygen

3 Remember ATP Cells need ATP for nearly all cellular processes that require energy, including growth Therefore, halo must be able to make ATP in the conditions that allow them to grow

4 PPP PPP CHEMICAL ENERGY INPUT ENERGY FOR CELLULAR WORK OUTPUT MORE stored energy ATP ADP P+ LESS stored energy

5 Results from lab 1.In what ways do halo change to respond to its environment? Becomes more purple

6 1 What makes halobacterium purple? 2 What is the purple membrane protein made of? 3 What is the purpose of the purple membrane protein? 5 What is the effect of the amount of light on the amount of purple membrane protein? 4 Why do halobacterium grow better in the light?

7 Halobacterium cell Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) Halo have a purple membrane protein called bacteriorhodopsin (BR)

8 Halobacterium cell Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) Halo have a purple membrane protein called bacteriorhodopsin (BR)

9 Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) Cell membrane Halo have a purple membrane protein called bacteriorhodopsin (BR)

10 Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) Cell membrane Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is made from a protein called bop and the molecule retinal Bop protein Bop + retinal = bacteriorhodopsin (BR) Retinal

11 BR converts light energy into chemical energy for making ATP Halobacterium cell Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) Note: other proteins are required for this process, but we will simplify and focus on BR LIGHT ATP

12 BR converts light energy into chemical energy for making ATP Halobacterium cell Note: other proteins are required for this process, but we will simplify and focus on BR Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) LIGHT ATP

13 Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) LIGHT ADP P + ATP Cell membrane BR converts light energy into chemical energy for making ATP

14 LIGHT PRESENT Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) LIGHT ADP P + ATP Cell membrane BR converts light energy into chemical energy for making ATP

15 LIGHT PRESENT Halo use bacteriorhodopsin (BR) to produce ATP using light energy LIGHT ABSENT (DARK) Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) ADP P + ATP LIGHT Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) ADP P + ATP LIGHT

16 LIGHT PRESENT Halo use bacteriorhodopsin (BR) to produce ATP using light energy LIGHT ABSENT (DARK) Halobacterium cell LIGHT ATP Halo use BR to produce ATP for growth and metabolism Halobacterium cell LIGHT Halo cannot use BR to produce ATP

17 Halobacterium cell Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) Halo change the expression of BR in response to the amount of light in their environment LIGHT

18 Halobacterium cell Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) Halo change the expression of BR in response to the amount of light in their environment LIGHT

19 Halobacterium cell LIGHT PRESENT LIGHT ABSENT (DARK) Halobacterium cell LIGHT When there is more light, halo respond by making more BR LIGHT When there is less light, halo make less BR Halo change the expression of BR in response to the amount of light in their environment

20 OUR QUESTION: How do Halobacterium cells control the amount of BR expressed in response to light? What is the gene and protein network that regulates the expression of BR?


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