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USAID-CIFOR-ICRAF Project Assessing the Implications of Climate Change for USAID Forestry Programs (2009) 1 Integrating climate change into forestry: Mitigation.

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Presentation on theme: "USAID-CIFOR-ICRAF Project Assessing the Implications of Climate Change for USAID Forestry Programs (2009) 1 Integrating climate change into forestry: Mitigation."— Presentation transcript:

1 USAID-CIFOR-ICRAF Project Assessing the Implications of Climate Change for USAID Forestry Programs (2009) 1 Integrating climate change into forestry: Mitigation Topic 2, Section B

2 Objectives This presentation will explain the contribution of forests to climate change mitigation. You will also learn:  Which forest activities contribute to mitigating climate change  The why and how of carbon accounting Topic 2, Section B, slide 2 of 26

3  Do you understand the following concepts? Carbon Carbon dioxide Carbon flux Carbon sources Carbon emission Carbon sinks Carbon absorption Carbon removal Carbon stock Carbon storage Carbon sequestration  What is the difference between adaptation and mitigation in forestry? 3 Topic 2, Section B, slide 3 of 26 QUIZ

4 1. Forests and carbon at the global scale 2. Forests and carbon at the ecosystem scale 3. Forest activities that mitigate climate change 4. Why and how to do carbon accounting Topic 2, Section B, slide 4 of 26 Outline

5 1. Forests and carbon at the global scale Atmospheric increase 4.1 Billions of tonnes per year Fossil carbon emissions Ocean uptake Deforestation Residual land sink 7.2 Topic 2, Section B, slide 5 of 26

6 What is a ton of CO 2 ? Examples from daily life footprint:  Flying round-trip from New York to Los Angeles = 0.9 tonnes CO 2 /person  Driving an average car in the US = 5.4 tonnes CO 2 /year  Living in a detached family home with 4 bedrooms In California = 20 tonnes CO 2 /yr/family In Michigan = 51 tonnes CO 2 /yr/family National averages:  One person in the US = 25 tonnes CO 2 /yr  One person in India = 1 tonne CO 2 /yr Topic 6, Section B, slide 6 of 26

7 Historical forest carbon balance per region, Red= sources, Green=sinks The figures are shown in millions of tonnes Topic 2, Section B, slide 7 of 26

8 2. Forests and carbon at the ecosystem scale A forest = carbon stocks Leaves Branches Dead wood and litter Soils Roots Trunks Understory 1 kilogram of dry wood equals about 0.5 kilogram of carbon Stocks Topic 2, Section B, slide 8 of 26

9 Stocks: Examples Wet TFMoist with short dry season Moist with long dry season DryMontane Moist Montane Dry Africa310 ( ) 260 ( ) 123 ( ) 72 (16-195) Continental Asia 275 ( ) 182 (10-562) 127 ( ) (81-310) 50 Insular Asia348 ( ) ( ) 50 America347 ( ) 217 ( ) 212 ( ) 78 (45-90) 234 (48-348) 60 Tropical wet forest (IPCC, 2003): Aboveground biomass: 65 to 430 tC/ha Soils: 44 to 130 tC/ha Leaves Branches Dead wood and litter Soils Roots Trunks Understory Aboveground biomass stocks in tropical forests (t dry matter/ha = 2 x tC/ha) (IPCC, 2003) Topic 2, Section B, slide 9 of 26

10 Fluxes Atmospheric CO 2 Net absorption flux A forest = carbon fluxes with the atmosphere Products A forest = a set of carbon fluxes Atmospheric CO 2 Products Photosynthesis Respiration Mortality Mineralisation Humification Topic 2, Section B, slide 10 of 26

11 Fluxes: Examples Atmosphere ,8 6.3 Estimated annual total carbon flows in a tropical rainforest stand near Manaus, Amazonia in Brazil (Numbers are shown in tonnes of carbon per year per hectare) Atmosphere 5.9 Topic 2, Section B, slide 11 of 26

12 Links between stock and flux If stock increases…. Flux: Inbound Atmospheric CO 2 : Decreasing climate change Process:Carbon fixation or removal Forest:Carbon sink Example:Growing forest Topic 2, Section B, slide 12 of 26

13 Links between stock and flux If stock decreases… Flux: Outbound Atmospheric CO2: Increasing climate change Process:Carbon emission Forest:Carbon source Example:Decaying or burning forest Topic 2, Section B, slide 13 of 26

14 Links between stock and flux: Examples Year 0: Stock = 30 tonnes of carbon Year 7: Stock = 135 tonnes of carbon Mean absorption flux = (135-30) / (7-0) = 15 tonnes of carbon per hectare per year Topic 2, Section B, slide 14 of 26

15 Topic 2, Section B, slide 15 of 26 Quiz Which figure represents the simplified evolution of aboveground carbon stocks in the following cases? Unforested land A forest conversion to forested land use A forest unsustainably managed A plantation established on unforested land and harvested regularly A forest converted to a plantation A conserved primary forest Years Carbon stock Years Carbon stock Years Carbon stock Years Carbon stock Years Carbon stock Years Carbon stock

16 Comparing scenarios  For climate change mitigation, which is the best alternative?  A degraded pasture (A)  A forest plantation, even destroyed or burnt regularly (B)? Years Carbon A Years Carbon B Topic 2, Section B, slide 16 of 26 Answer: B Additional stored carbon in alternative B compared to A = carbon that does not contribute to climate change Years Carbon

17 Undisturbed Forests An undisturbed forest represents:  A large stock, but not a large sink. They are more or less in equilibrium.  There is much scientific debate on this point.  With the impact of climate change will undisturbed forests become a source?  Even if an undisturbed forest does not contribute to absorbing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere, it is better to conserve it thant to convert it to other uses. Carbon Years Topic 2, Section B, slide 17 of 26

18 Years Carbon A Years Carbon B For climate change mitigation, which is the best alternative? Conserving an undisturbed forest (A) Converting this forest to forest plantation (B)? Carbon emitted to the atmosphere under scenario B compared to A = Carbon that contributes to climate change Answer: A Years Carbon Topic 2, Section B, slide 18 of 26 Comparing scenarios

19 Forest Products Energy CO 2 Wood Energy CO 2  Forest products can substitute for: Materials, such as steel and aluminium whose production emits a lot of greenhouse gases Energy, such as oil, coal and gas  Fuelwood: There is a low CO2 balance if harvesting is sustainable and the yield is high Topic 2, Section B, slide 19 of 26

20 Forest activities that mitigate climate change Forest Energy Reducing deforestation  Producing biomaterials and bioenergy  Reducing emissions caused by forest activities Less energy, oil, fertilisers... Developing agroforestry Creating plantations  Increasing carbon stocks  Avoiding losses of carbon stocks Years Carbon Project Baseline Benefit Years Carbon With conservation Baseline (Deforestation) Benefit Topic 2, Section B, slide 20 of 26

21 4. Why and how to do carbon accounting? Why?  For demonstrating the impacts of a forestry programme on mitigation For example, USAID-funded programmes that contribute to the Global Climate Change Earmark  For national accounting - greenhouse gases emissions reporting and National Communications  For selling carbon credits for projects under the Clean Development Mechanism or voluntary markets  For helping forest managers to consider carbon in their activities  For improving stakeholders’ understanding of the role forests play in mitigation Topic 2, Section B, slide 21 of 26

22 Why and how to do carbon accounting? How?  On-site measurement of existing forests by direct measurement: Dry matter weight and carbon content litter, dead wood, etc.  Tree destructive sampling  Indirect measurement:  Tree diameters and heights are converted by using allometric  Equations  Modeling existing or projected forests  Remote sensing combined with “ground truthing”  Default factors Topic 2, Section B, slide 22 of 26

23  A simple way to quickly estimate CO2 benefits of projects that: Combines global datasets on carbon biomass, deforestation, tree growth rates, and impacts of forest management  Is used in USAID projects for forest protection, reforestation/afforestation, forest management, and agroforestry.  Is available on-line at: USAID’s Winrock Forest Carbon Calculator Topic 2, Section B, slide 23 of 26

24 (Vallejo A., SSAFR and SIAGEF joint meeting. September 2005, Sao Paulo, Brazil) See / Examples of tools for carbon accounting Topic 2, Section B, slide 24 of 26

25 References  Brown, S Estimating biomass and biomass change of tropical forests. A primer. FAO Forestry Paper no Rome, IT. 55p.  Brown, S Guidelines for Inventorying and Monitoring Carbon Offsets in Forest-Based Projects. Winrock International. 14p.  Brown, S. 2002a Measuring carbon in forests: current status and future challenges. Environmental Pollution 116:  Brown, S. 2002b Measuring, monitoring, and verification of carbon benefits for forest-based projects. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society London A 360:  Brown, S. and Gaston, G Use of Forest Inventories and Geographic Information Systems to Estimate Biomass Density of Tropical Forests: Application to Tropical Africa.Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 38:  CO2FIX V3.1 Manual.  IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (GPG LULUCF).  MacDicken A Guide to Monitoring Carbon Storage in Forestry and Agroforestry Projects. Winrock.  Masera et al Modelling carbon sequestration in afforestation, agroforestry and forest management projects: the CO2FIX V.2 approach. Ecological modelling 164: Topic 2, Section B, slide 25 of 26

26 Thank you for your attention


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