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Be Prepared, Be Patient, Be Consistent… The Golden Rules of Behavior Management in Physical Education Deb Marcus, NBCT, CAPE Marley Glen School Glen Burnie,

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Presentation on theme: "Be Prepared, Be Patient, Be Consistent… The Golden Rules of Behavior Management in Physical Education Deb Marcus, NBCT, CAPE Marley Glen School Glen Burnie,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Be Prepared, Be Patient, Be Consistent… The Golden Rules of Behavior Management in Physical Education Deb Marcus, NBCT, CAPE Marley Glen School Glen Burnie, Maryland

2 Introductions  Deb Marcus  Marley Glen School  15 years!

3 Experiment…  Follow directions..

4

5 Discussion  What made the 3 rd set of directions so clear?  How does this transfer to our Physical Education classes?

6 Challenges faced by PE teachers  Large group of students with varying degrees of needs  Students with disabilities included in general PE classes  Large space  Unstructured environment  Down time before, during and after activities  Others?

7 Managing Behaviors  Which types of behaviors cause PE teachers the most difficulties?  Following directions  Staying with the group  Staying on task  Sharing equipment  Taking turns appropriately  Appropriate language  Sportsmanship  Accepting NO as an answer

8 BE PREPARED!  Think about the structure of your class, including routines and your teaching style  Assistants that come with students  Skills needed to participate independently (cues, vocabulary, time on tasks, handling down time)  Distractions – classroom /gym environment

9 How information is presented  Verbal instructions  Stop!  Walk and sit in front of me.  Get a ball and find personal space.  Stand next to a partner  Line up  Demonstrations  Skills (part/whole)  Teacher/student

10 Visual supports  Communication  Spots on floor to mark personal space (where to sit, stand, line up)  Schedules  Vocabulary  Graphic Organizers

11 Examples of Visual supports

12 Communication

13 “Circle Map” – Graphic Organizer

14 Social Stories  Stories are used to teach:  What to expect in new situations  Appropriate behaviors across settings  Examples

15 Distractions / Structure & Routines  Eliminate distractions  Equipment  Staff/students walking through  Reinforcement  Cues - music  Structure/Routines  Know what to expect  Know what comes next

16 Schedules

17 Starting and stopping signals  What cues do you use to start/stop your class?  How would they need to change for student with:  Hearing impairment?  Autism?  Visual impairment?

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19 Time / Duration  Time of class  Morning/afternoon  Before/after medication wears off??  Tired in afternoon?  Duration  PE classes per week  Amount of time participating  Amount of time on each activity

20 Visual Timers Examples

21 Whose Turn?

22 What to do with children with behavioral problems?  Identify behaviors that the teacher wants to correct or redirect.  Must be measurable, have clear beginning and end, and able to be defined in objective terms  What is the student doing? How is he acting? When does the behavior occur? Where does it occur? What is happening in the class when it occurs?

23 Motivation Assessment Scale  Scale used to determine the functions of the behavior – attention, escape /avoidance, tangible or sensory  Filled out by teachers, service providers, parents – anyone who sees the behavior being measured

24 Sensory  Behavior would occur over and over if person left alone for period of time  Person calm and unaware of what is going on around him  Person enjoys performing the behavior  Examples – rocking back and forth, running into padding on walls

25 Escape/Avoidance  Occurs following difficult task  When request is made of person  Occurs to upset teacher when you are trying to get him to do what you ask  Stops behavior when you stop working with or placing demands on him

26 Attention seeking  Occurs in response to teacher not paying attention to him  Occurs to get teacher to spend time with him  Occurs to upset teacher in order to get teacher to spend time with him

27 Tangible  Occurs to get a toy, piece of equipment or activity he was told he cannot have  Occurs when teacher takes away toy, piece of equipment or activity  Stops when toy, piece of equipment or activity is given back to student

28 Preference Assessment  Checklist of items that the student and/or family fills out  Lists items that are preferred  Could eventually be used as reinforcers  Helpful when student is non-verbal and not responding to current reinforcement

29 Preference Assessment  Food items (candy, ice cream, chips, fruit, beverages)  Toys/Sports equipment  Electronics (iPod, computer, iPad)  Certificates, awards, stickers  Recess, extra PE time  Time with teacher  Group leader

30 Positive Reinforcement  Intrinsic motivation  Social praise  Physical activity  Sensory stimuli  Tangibles  Group contingencies  Token economies  Contracts  Prompts  Shaping

31 Tangibles  Giving a student something to reinforce behavior  Use age appropriate items  Sticker  Stamp  Certificate  Ribbon  Edible

32 Sensory Stimuli  Providing auditory, visual, or kinesthetic stimuli for reinforcement  Music  Swinging  Jumping  Fidgets  Could be effective for students with autism

33 Shaping  Reinforcing successive approximations  Target behavior – go in the gym and sit on a shape  Student goes into gym and runs around all the shapes, then sits on shape – teacher rewards student for sitting independently on the shape  Reinforcing small increments of improvement will eventually lead to mastery of skill

34 Token boards

35 Behavior Contract  At the end of each class, teacher rates student on whether he met his behavioral goals  Circle smiley face or frowny face  Point system  Student returns contract to classroom teacher for reward, if earned.  Might work if computer time is very motivating – then he could earn 5 minutes when he returns to class

36 Premack Principle  Recommends making high – frequency behavior contingent on completing a low-frequency behavior  Example – Jake likes to run laps around the gym. Jake does not like to do stretching exercises. If Jake does his stretching exercises, he is allowed to run 5 laps around the gym.

37 First – Then Strip

38 BE PATIENT!!!!!  May not work on the first try  Pick one positive intervention, teach it to the student, use it consistently  Try another….  Try another…  Keep smiling!

39 Punishment  Use only when positive reinforcement is not working  Six types of punishment:  Silent look  Verbal reprimand  Extinction  Time – out  Overcorrection  Response cost

40 Verbal reprimand  Address the problem behavior not the student himself.  “Do not bounce the ball while I am talking”  NOT – “You can’t do anything right!”

41 Extinction  Ignoring inappropriate behaviors when seen as attention seeking behaviors  Most effective when combined with positive reinforcement  Very difficult because it takes lots of patience and self control

42 Time out  Removing the student from the activity for a pre-set amount of time  Disadvantage – some students enjoy it because they got out of an activity they did not want to do

43 Overcorrection  Restoring the environment  Vandalism – need to clean what you did plus all of the other areas that need it  Positive practice overcorrection  Running in hallway – need to walk 10 times for allotted distance

44 Response Cost  Penalty box!  Loss of minutes of time to perform activity  Loss of points of grade  Loss of equipment

45 Negative Reinforcement  CAUTION! Use only when necessary – negative reinforcement can increase resistance!  Taking away something to maintain or increase a behavior  Avoidance procedure  Escape procedure

46 BE CONSISTENT!!  First – give it time! Could get worse before it gets better. DO NOT GIVE UP! (or give in!)  Talk to other staff that are having difficulties with the student to brainstorm for more ideas  Look closely at your intervention and see if you are able to put it into play effectively  If not – what do you need to do to make it effective?  HANG IN THERE!

47 What to do with the rest of the class???  Ideally the student’s reinforcement system can be used with everyone…  Implementing a positive behavior reward system for all students – “Catch ‘em being good”  Class rewards  Individual rewards  Other ideas?

48 Group Contengencies  Class Behavior Chart - When whole class wears tennis shoes, the football moves up 10 yards. When we score a touchdown, whole class is rewarded with student picked favorite activity class.

49 Other examples of Group Contengencies  Class rewards chart for sportsmanship, following directions, etc  Points given based on criteria created by teacher or students (3 pts – great teamwork, 2 pts – average sportsmanship, 1 pt – poor sportsmanship)  Reward given after so many points have been obtained


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