Presentation on theme: "Be Prepared, Be Patient, Be Consistent… The Golden Rules of Behavior Management in Physical Education Deb Marcus, NBCT, CAPE Marley Glen School Glen Burnie,"— Presentation transcript:
Be Prepared, Be Patient, Be Consistent… The Golden Rules of Behavior Management in Physical Education Deb Marcus, NBCT, CAPE Marley Glen School Glen Burnie, Maryland
Introductions Deb Marcus Marley Glen School 15 years!
Experiment… Follow directions..
Discussion What made the 3 rd set of directions so clear? How does this transfer to our Physical Education classes?
Challenges faced by PE teachers Large group of students with varying degrees of needs Students with disabilities included in general PE classes Large space Unstructured environment Down time before, during and after activities Others?
Managing Behaviors Which types of behaviors cause PE teachers the most difficulties? Following directions Staying with the group Staying on task Sharing equipment Taking turns appropriately Appropriate language Sportsmanship Accepting NO as an answer
BE PREPARED! Think about the structure of your class, including routines and your teaching style Assistants that come with students Skills needed to participate independently (cues, vocabulary, time on tasks, handling down time) Distractions – classroom /gym environment
How information is presented Verbal instructions Stop! Walk and sit in front of me. Get a ball and find personal space. Stand next to a partner Line up Demonstrations Skills (part/whole) Teacher/student
Visual supports Communication Spots on floor to mark personal space (where to sit, stand, line up) Schedules Vocabulary Graphic Organizers
Examples of Visual supports
“Circle Map” – Graphic Organizer
Social Stories Stories are used to teach: What to expect in new situations Appropriate behaviors across settings Examples
Distractions / Structure & Routines Eliminate distractions Equipment Staff/students walking through Reinforcement Cues - music Structure/Routines Know what to expect Know what comes next
Starting and stopping signals What cues do you use to start/stop your class? How would they need to change for student with: Hearing impairment? Autism? Visual impairment?
Time / Duration Time of class Morning/afternoon Before/after medication wears off?? Tired in afternoon? Duration PE classes per week Amount of time participating Amount of time on each activity
Visual Timers Examples
What to do with children with behavioral problems? Identify behaviors that the teacher wants to correct or redirect. Must be measurable, have clear beginning and end, and able to be defined in objective terms What is the student doing? How is he acting? When does the behavior occur? Where does it occur? What is happening in the class when it occurs?
Motivation Assessment Scale Scale used to determine the functions of the behavior – attention, escape /avoidance, tangible or sensory Filled out by teachers, service providers, parents – anyone who sees the behavior being measured
Sensory Behavior would occur over and over if person left alone for period of time Person calm and unaware of what is going on around him Person enjoys performing the behavior Examples – rocking back and forth, running into padding on walls
Escape/Avoidance Occurs following difficult task When request is made of person Occurs to upset teacher when you are trying to get him to do what you ask Stops behavior when you stop working with or placing demands on him
Attention seeking Occurs in response to teacher not paying attention to him Occurs to get teacher to spend time with him Occurs to upset teacher in order to get teacher to spend time with him
Tangible Occurs to get a toy, piece of equipment or activity he was told he cannot have Occurs when teacher takes away toy, piece of equipment or activity Stops when toy, piece of equipment or activity is given back to student
Preference Assessment Checklist of items that the student and/or family fills out Lists items that are preferred Could eventually be used as reinforcers Helpful when student is non-verbal and not responding to current reinforcement
Preference Assessment Food items (candy, ice cream, chips, fruit, beverages) Toys/Sports equipment Electronics (iPod, computer, iPad) Certificates, awards, stickers Recess, extra PE time Time with teacher Group leader
Tangibles Giving a student something to reinforce behavior Use age appropriate items Sticker Stamp Certificate Ribbon Edible
Sensory Stimuli Providing auditory, visual, or kinesthetic stimuli for reinforcement Music Swinging Jumping Fidgets Could be effective for students with autism
Shaping Reinforcing successive approximations Target behavior – go in the gym and sit on a shape Student goes into gym and runs around all the shapes, then sits on shape – teacher rewards student for sitting independently on the shape Reinforcing small increments of improvement will eventually lead to mastery of skill
Behavior Contract At the end of each class, teacher rates student on whether he met his behavioral goals Circle smiley face or frowny face Point system Student returns contract to classroom teacher for reward, if earned. Might work if computer time is very motivating – then he could earn 5 minutes when he returns to class
Premack Principle Recommends making high – frequency behavior contingent on completing a low-frequency behavior Example – Jake likes to run laps around the gym. Jake does not like to do stretching exercises. If Jake does his stretching exercises, he is allowed to run 5 laps around the gym.
First – Then Strip
BE PATIENT!!!!! May not work on the first try Pick one positive intervention, teach it to the student, use it consistently Try another…. Try another… Keep smiling!
Punishment Use only when positive reinforcement is not working Six types of punishment: Silent look Verbal reprimand Extinction Time – out Overcorrection Response cost
Verbal reprimand Address the problem behavior not the student himself. “Do not bounce the ball while I am talking” NOT – “You can’t do anything right!”
Extinction Ignoring inappropriate behaviors when seen as attention seeking behaviors Most effective when combined with positive reinforcement Very difficult because it takes lots of patience and self control
Time out Removing the student from the activity for a pre-set amount of time Disadvantage – some students enjoy it because they got out of an activity they did not want to do
Overcorrection Restoring the environment Vandalism – need to clean what you did plus all of the other areas that need it Positive practice overcorrection Running in hallway – need to walk 10 times for allotted distance
Response Cost Penalty box! Loss of minutes of time to perform activity Loss of points of grade Loss of equipment
Negative Reinforcement CAUTION! Use only when necessary – negative reinforcement can increase resistance! Taking away something to maintain or increase a behavior Avoidance procedure Escape procedure
BE CONSISTENT!! First – give it time! Could get worse before it gets better. DO NOT GIVE UP! (or give in!) Talk to other staff that are having difficulties with the student to brainstorm for more ideas Look closely at your intervention and see if you are able to put it into play effectively If not – what do you need to do to make it effective? HANG IN THERE!
What to do with the rest of the class??? Ideally the student’s reinforcement system can be used with everyone… Implementing a positive behavior reward system for all students – “Catch ‘em being good” Class rewards Individual rewards Other ideas?
Group Contengencies Class Behavior Chart - When whole class wears tennis shoes, the football moves up 10 yards. When we score a touchdown, whole class is rewarded with student picked favorite activity class.
Other examples of Group Contengencies Class rewards chart for sportsmanship, following directions, etc Points given based on criteria created by teacher or students (3 pts – great teamwork, 2 pts – average sportsmanship, 1 pt – poor sportsmanship) Reward given after so many points have been obtained