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Part Vb: The Mass of the Basilicas THE MASS: Space for a King 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000.

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Presentation on theme: "Part Vb: The Mass of the Basilicas THE MASS: Space for a King 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part Vb: The Mass of the Basilicas THE MASS: Space for a King Emperor Constantine Function Following Form

2 Pope comes mounted from the Lateran to the appointed church; A stately procession: entire papal court, acolytes on foot, defensores on horse back, seven deacons, w/ regional sub- deacons; Behind the Pope on horseback chief dignitaries of Apostolic Palace. At the church, the Pope is met by those in charge of church; Clergy have taken their place on benches, semicircle sanctuary; in the middle, cathedra for the Pope (vertex of apse); to right, six suburbicarian bishops; left, presbyters Table altar, center of semicircle. Nave, filled with large crowd-seven processions from seven regions of Rome Popes goes to secretarium near the entrance; he is vested. When all is ready, Pope signals with his maniple; clerics with tapers and incense, singers lined in double rows; The Station Mass

3 Beginning The introit is intoned, the procession in on its way. Signs of reverence for Pope: incense and seven torches of acolytes; Two deacons assist him in walking; Two acolytes approach Pope and show an open casket with a reserved particle of the Holy Eucharist; Pope adores. Pope goes up before the altar, bows, signs himself on the forehead, exchanges the kiss of peace. Pope signals the end of the introit, prostrates himself in prayer, rises, kisses the Gospel book and the altar. An interval of silent prayer; choir sings the Kyrie eleison; Pope goes to his throne; stands; and signals the end of the Kyrie, intones the Gloria; greets the people with Pax vobis; sings the prayer, all answer Amen. Those in the sanctuary sit down; Subdeacon goes to the ambo; reads the epistle; singer sings the gradual with the choir and the alleluia; The deacon goes to the Pope; kisses his foot; Pope blesses him; he takes the Gospel book from the altar, kisses it; two subdeacons with a censer, two acolytes with torches, process to the ambo and reads the Gospel. A papal subdeacon takes the book, allows everyone in the sanctuary to kiss it, gives it to an acolyte to carry back to the Lateran. No sermon is considered. Pope greets the people with Dominus vobiscum and intones Oremus (no prayer follows). End of the beginning of the Mass. Grand Roman Stational Worship Seventh Century (600s)

4 The Mass Proper The table-altar is covered; an acolyte brings a chalice with a folded corporal; two deacons open the corporal and spread it over the entire top of the table-altar. The offertory begins: the gifts of the people are offered. The Pope receives the bread- offerings from the nobility; an archdeacon accepts the wine offering; the clergy accept the offerings. Pope returns to his throne. An archdeacon goes to the altar and arranges the breads to be consecrated; the chalice is placed on the altar and water added to the wine. The Pope goes to the altar, kisses it, receives the gifts of assisting cleric; he lays his own offering (two small loaves from the Lateran) on the altar The canon begins. The Pope, coming from his throne, stands behind the altar facing the people. Behind him stand the bishops and perhaps the priests. To the right and left of the Pope stand the deacons and behind them the acolytes. The subdeacons are on the opposite side of the altar facing the Pope. In a loud voice the Pope begins the prayer; the subdeacons respond taking up the singing of the Sanctus. The Pope alone continues the prayer. The words of consecration are said audibly. At the Nobis quoque, the subdeacons make ready for the ceremony for the breaking of the bread; the paten is readied. The Pope elevates the Host. The Pope recites the final doxology; the archdeacon lifts the chalice. The Pater Noster is prayed. The Pax Domini signals the mutual greeting with the kiss of peace. The Pope initiates the breaking of the bread. He returns to his throne. The archdeacon approaches the altar and hands the chalice to a subdeacon. Consecrated breads in small linen bags, held by the acolytes are taken to the bishops and presbyters; the paten is carried to the throne; the Pope communicates-a small particle is placed in the chalice. Grand Roman Stational Worship Seventh Century (600s)

5 Grand Roman Stational Worship Seventh Century (600s) Culmination and Climax The Pope receives the Precious Blood. Then follows the Communion of the clergy and people. The Pope and the archdeacon begin the distribution; others carry on. The Communion of the chalice begins with a number of large vessels used, filled with wine with a few drops of the consecrated Blood from the Pope’s chalice have been poured. The schola sings a Communion psalm. The Communion is over; the Pope goes to the altar and recites the post communion prayer. Then a deacon sings the Ite missa est; all respond, Deo gratias. The procession form for the return to the secretarium.

6 New practices include the commingling of the bread and wine before Communion; the introduction of the Agnus Dei; the build-up of the fractio rite. Developments during this Era: 7 th Century (600s) to 9 th Century (800s)

7 7 th Century (600s) to 9 th Century (800s) First appearance of a Latin Christianity was in North Africa; in Rome, Greek was still the standard. Eighth century Rome, churches had only one presbyter and one or other extra cleric; the Mass was the Mass of a simple priest, not that of a bishop; it was neither necessary nor possible to have a trained choir. At the turn of the seventh century (600s) that there was a obligation to begin every Mass, Sundays and weekdays, with an introit and to join to every Communion a psalm with Gloria Patri and an antiphon. The Roman Mass had a carrying of the censer--for the entrance of the Pope, the procession before the reading of the Gospel; the high Mass had a number of incensations

8 The reading of the Gospel was an important moment in the Mass: the incense (and the multiplication of incensations), the procession, and the place for reading it. The top step of the ambo was reserved for reading the Gospel alone; the reading of the Epistle was dome on a lower step of the ambo (hence the term a “gradual” from gradus, a step). The multiplication of prayers in the Mass was noticeable in this period: a long series were prayed even before the Mass began, several at the Offertory, five beginning with the Suscipe sancta Trinitas, and the last Orate fratres. The prayers for Communion, Domine Jesu Christe, Fili Dei vivi; finally, the Placeat and a prayer while divesting. 7 th Century (600s) to 9 th Century (800s)

9 Silent prayers led to an element of apologiae, a personal avowal of guilt and unworthiness on the part of the celebrant. Found as early as the ninth century (800s) and they disappear by the eleventh century (1000s). The remnant today is the Confiteor. In the eighth century (700s), Latin was the universal literary language and consequently the only language for divine service. The Gallican liturgy was a Latin one. Much of these prayers were silent praying; hence the orans posture of earlier worship, hands folded became the custom--a posture matching the usage of the northern countries. This usage, a symbol of submissiveness, the resignation of one’s own power to a higher one, follows Teutonic culture, not religious culture. It reflected the custom by which a vassal or liegeman vowed homage and fealty by placing his hands in those of his lord. [Jungman, S.S., p. 59] 7 th Century (600s) to 9 th Century (800s)

10 Gallican Liturgy Fourth – Eighth Centuries Beginning The Mass Proper A psalmody accompanies the entrance of the clergy; Bishop greets the congregation; Sing the Holy, Holy, Holy in Greek and Latin; Kyrie eleison is sung and canticle Benedictus; A prayer concludes this section. Service of Reading three lessons; Old Testament then Canticle of the Three Young Men; followed by a responsorial chant; The Holy, Holy, Holy before and after the Gospel; Solemn procession, seven torchbearers; Gospel is read; then a homily; Concludes with prayers for the Faithful and prayers for Catechumens. Solemn procession; clergy carry Offertory gifts with chanting; A kind of opening address (praefacio); on feast, etc. A prayer follows; names of those offering and to whom; Closes with a prayer; Kiss of peace; another prayer; The Eucharistic prayer begins; Thanksgiving dialog with people; Petitions offered; Sanctus then Pater Noster; Post Sanctus transitions to the words of consecration; Prayers of Anamnesis and Epiclesis; The Breaking of the Bread to an antiphonal chant; Special prayer leads to Pater Noster; Culmination and Climax Deacon invites people to receive a blessing; the blessing is given; Communion follows with chanting of Psalm 33

11 Beginning in the Carolingian empire ( 800–888), the Mass-liturgy, so far as understanding its language was concerned, the discipline of the “secret” developed—the concealment of things holy from the Christian people (as well as from heathens). There were vernacular languages used in Mass: Sts. Cyril and Methodius prayed Mass in the Slavic language. German clerics called it “barbaric.” The thought was that in accordance with the inscription on the cross, Mass should only be prayed in Latin, Greek or Hebrew

12 From the secret of the holy, the concept of the Eucharist was changing: during the eighth century (700s) the separation between clergy and laity, between altar and people became more pronounced; the altar was moved back to the rear wall of the apse, transferring the bishop’s throne to the side of the altar; choir stalls were now set in two rows facing each other creating a real wall separating the sanctuary from the nave. 7 th Century (600s) to 9 th Century (800s)


14 In the middle of the ninth century (c. 850) the function of the priest was more sharply brought into focus. It was the priests and their action that effected the Eucharistic Presence. The Mass becomes all the more the mystery of God’s coming to man. This mystery is to be contemplated from afar. Receiving Communion is no longer the rule; the Eucharist had not been our daily bread for a long time. Connected close with such extinguishing of the Sacrament, a change took place about this time in the type of bread used--the change to unleavened bread. Increased reverence helped to introduce the pure white wafers--no more crumbs. 7 th Century (600s) to 9 th Century (800s)

15 The offertory procession by slow degrees becomes an offering of money; there is also a diminishing of the importance of the breaking of the bread-- is taken care of beforehand--unleavened bread meant not drying too-quickly, and the particles intended for Communion were already the desired shape and size-not the rule until the eleventh century (1000s). The paten was transformed to a tiny plate fitting over the chalice and used for the priest’s host alone. Particles of the Precious Body are no longer handed to the faithful but laid at once on the tongue. 7 th Century (600s) to 9 th Century (800s)

16 The next step--took a long time--but followed from what has gone before, the faithful receive kneeling. That forced the introduction of the low communion rail. 7 th Century (600s) to 9 th Century (800s)

17 From the years there was an endeavor to bring about an religious renewal in the whole population. Organized participation of the faithful began: join in singing the Kyrie and the Sanctus, and Gloria Patri; respond to the greeting and he prayers of the priest; take part in the offertory procession, and in the kiss of peace. Sometime before the year 1000, psalm prayers began appearing in the Mass; Psalm 50 before vesting; independent group of prayers composed of Psalms 83, 84, 85; Psalm 42 appears for the first time (Introibo ad altare Dei); a psalm for mixing water with the wine; incensing, etc. 7 th Century (600s) to 9 th Century (800s)

18 Developments during this Era: 11 th Century (1000s) to 12 th Century (1100s) The Roman liturgy began to return to Italy and to Rome in the middle of the 10 th century (c. 950). The basic model for the Pontificale Romanum was completed as a movement toward standardizing the Mass. The priest alone is active; the faithful, viewing what he is performing are like spectators looking at a mystery-filled drama of Our Lord’s Way of the Cross. The allegorical method applied to the Mass reigned supreme through so many centuries has left its traces on the Mass-liturgy which has come down to us

19 At the turn of the 1100s, the practice of elevating the Host and chalice together after the consecration came into being. At this time the chalice did not have a separate elevation. 11 th Century (1000s) to 12 th Century (1100s)

20 From unstandardized ritual, to abuses, to standardization: The Reformation, the Council of Trent, and the Mass of St. Pius V The Tridentine Mass

21 End of The Mass of the Basilicas, Part Vb Go to The Mass of the Council of Trent, Part VIa

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