3Intranet Administration The history of the Intranet starts right from the days when computer networks came in. The Webster's dictionary defines a network as –Network = “The sharing of resources between two or more people” - WebstersIntranet is more than a LAN but less than Internet
4It is well known that the Internet has been in existence since the mid 1970s, and was developed initially by the governments as a medium of communication channels at the time of war. It did not gain substantially in popularity until 1989, when for the first time Web Browser software was introduced and the use of the HTML. The Internet has grown to over 250 million users within 12 years.
7How does Intranet Work?An Intranet can be defined as a private network which uses Internet tools. The principal tool is the Web browser, but there are other Internet tools such as ftp and telnet that are useful. The resources defined as private may be protected physically (with a firewall or a separate physical network), geographically (by restricting access to computers with a network address on the local network), or personally (by username and password).
8Intranet is more than a LAN but less than Internet
9How big can an Intranet be? A workgroup with one web server, a company with several hundred web-servers, and a professional organisation with ten thousand web servers can each be considered an Intranet.
10How is it different from Internet? 1)Intranet is a network within the organisation whereas Internet is a worldwide network.2). Intranet has access to Internet but not vice- versa.
11Intranet vs Internet vs LAN An Intranet is a network within the organisation whereas LAN is a campus wide network; geography plays a vital role.
12The literal meaning of the term Intranet In' tra net - n.1) a network connecting an affiliated set of clients using standard Internetprotocols, especially TCP/IP and HTTP.2) an IP-based network of nodes behind a firewall, or behind several firewallsconnected by secure, possibly virtual networks.
13Intranet is a group of LANs interconnected (may be at different locations)
14ADVANTAGES OF THE INTRANET One major benefit of Intranets is that it could be used to enhance communication, which in turn could lead to improved linkages within the organisation.This communication could happen between various workgroups, departments, or even within entire organisation, simply by hosting the contents on the Intranet server.E.g. Indian Oil Corporation, Bharat Pertroleum Corporation, ICICI Bank .
15Cheaper: Use of client browsers which are connected to the number of applications. Versatile: An Intranet server eliminates the need to replicate database by providing users with easy access to source data.Flexible: provides users with access to centralised information resources on a single point-and-click basis through the browser, which is available on a variety of client platforms (Windows, Mac, Unix, etc.),Every information is available on the site.
16TYPES OF INTRANET Bulletin Board: Database Management: Information Access:The Communications Intranet:The Integrating Intranet:The Catalogue Intranet:The Single Sign-On Intranet:
17SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE REQUIREMENT FOR AN INTRANET
20Operating System for Server and Clients Since 1994, when the original pair of web servers – NCSA HTTPd and CERN HTTPd, were proposed, dozens of commercial and shareware programs have been developed.While the Netscape Enterprise Server defines the commercial high end, the other is Microsoft’s Internet Information Server (IIS), Netscape Enterprise Server and lightweight FastTrack Server.
21ClientsAll of the clients running popular operating systems such as Microsoft Windows, MacOS, Unix, etc., could be used to function as backbone software for the Intranets.
22APPLICATION AREAS Education Sector Industry Sector Service Sector Research & DevelopmentGovt. SectorCompany Documents
23INTRANET TERMSBookmark , Bits, Bitmap, Browser , Cyberspace , Firewall , FTP ,HTML , HTTP , ISDN , Network , Internet ,Search Engine, Surfing , Server , TCP/IP , Uniform Resource Locator , Web Server etc.
24Unit -2 INTRANET SECURITY An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet protocols and network connectivity to securely share part of an organization's information or operations with its employees
25Intranet DefinitionAn intranet is private network, similar to the Internet and using the same protocols and technology, contained within an enterprise or not-for-profit organization. Widely referred to as the home page of the internal website, the intranet also includes many inter-linked local area networks (LANs), desktop computers, websites and portals, and system(s).
26An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity, and possibly the public telecommunication system to securely share part of an organization's information or operations with its employees. Sometimes the term refers only to the most visible service, the internal website.
29Internal Threatsmost loyal employees or workers can change their tune and turn malicious, wreaking havoc on the computing environment
30External ThreatsTill date the greatest threat was the virus menace. Now, with the sophisticated technology, a number of new threats have developed. It becomes difficult to know when an outsider will attempt to hack the systems or who the intruder may be. As the recent news of hacking of the Indian government’s servers by certain terrorists and foreign nationals.
31SECURITY SOLUTIONS Security Models : The term security policy shall appear a number of times while dealing with different security measures since it forms the foundation for the measures. There is no need at all to keep documents such as Web site material, press releases, product information, etc. that can be found anywhere is public
32A classical case study : 1) The Open House Security Models continue-----A classical case study :1) The Open House2) The Owner: where the staff can only access resources3) The Garden Party: As in a bar any customer can’t go into to the personal staff rooms.4) The Paying Guest: he can enter in the home and only enter in his personal room.5) The Fort: unless the users have the proper credentials or certificates or entry passes, they will not be allowed to get in.
33Hardware:Theft of a computer, printer, or other resources , Destruction of resources in a way that can cause terrific problems like fire, flood, or electrical power surgesSoftware :Deletion of a program, either by accident or by malicious intent.Corruption of a program, caused either by a hardware failure or by a virus.
35FirewallsRestricting access of unauthorised users to the Web site has been the greatest challenge. In addition to preventing external users, a watchful eye on the users within the company may also have to be maintained.
36Types of Firewall Architectures 1) Packet filter firewalls
372. Proxy servers These types of firewalls have been further classified into two types:application level gateways andcircuit level gateways
383. Stateful Multi-Layer Inspection (SMLI) The Stateful multi-layer inspection (SMLI) firewall is similar to application level gateways in the sense that all levels of the OSI model are inspected carefully right from the network wire to the IP application layerThey are considered as the third generation of firewall technology and usually combine the facilities of the above two.
39Encryption/Decryption methods Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) solutions• Web server security through SSL (Secure Socket Layer)• Virtual Private Networks (VPN).
41Web server security through SSL (Secure Socket Layer) As it is well known that the Intranets and internet are purely based on use of powerful web servers to deliver information to the users, the username/ password authentication pair has been a highly popular method for preventing access to the web servers
42Virtual Private Networks (VPN) In order to encrypt/decrypt all the communication network traffic that passes through the Internet or Intranet, a VPN uses software or hardware. This kind of implementation is considered the best when limited access to an Intranet is needed.
43Security Policy Identification of • The content, and needs to be secured• User groups or categories• Procedures• Access authorisation procedure• Backup procedures• Disaster recovery procedures
44Action against misuse• Course of action in the event of misuse or attacks• Ensuring employees exercise proper etiquette so that they do not misrepresent the company• Handling sensitive or secured documents stored on the intranet site• Copyright policies for intellectual properties developed by the company
45PoliciesNetwork Service Access PolicyFirewall Design Policy
46ADVICE FROM SECURITY EXPERTS Intentional hacking helps in maintaining better security: Several companies employ professionals as security specialists whose basic job is to detect and cover loopholes in the security systems of the company. It would be highly astonishing to ask why would a company pay someone to hack its Intranet system. The answer would be obvious, that they intend to improve the security of its Intranet as well as to identify where from the possible risks can crop in. It should always be remembered that majority of the threats come from inside the company. Cont…
47Cont….. Good resources Qualifications of security professionals Firewall configuration makes all the differenceLot of care required while programmingRoutine security audits are essentialSecurity risks present on the networks
53Network installation . . Buying the components Cabling the network Installation of networking components such as hubs, switches, routers, gateways, etc.Expanding the network• Security• Other essential servicesInstallation of anti-virus measuresTesting connectivity to databasesTesting connectivity to Intranet and the InternetInstallation and testing of connectivity to other network peripheral devicesInstallation and testing of network-attached storage
55Address TranslationWhen a Web site address or URL is typed in the Web browser, as and not as a series of numbers, it is essential for the server to know where exactly the data has to be sent to or received from This address is mapped on to (or translated into) a series of numbers. The translation is called “domain name resolving”, “host name resolving” or “name server lookup”
56FirewallThe NAT router allows receiving of number of a data streams. If it receives a transmission in the form of acknowledgement or data streams or error responses from an external server due to a particular request from an internal user, then it will receive the data, translate the address to local IP address and forward it to the requesting user.By preventing all incoming requests or connections except those expected or permitted, the router acts as a “firewall ”.
57SOFTWARE Operating System – Server and Client A range of Microsoft products for Intranet operations available are as follows:BackOffice Server 4.5BackOffice Server 2000Site Server 3.0SNA Server 4.0SQL Server 2000SQL Workstation 7.0
58GroupwareGroupware are a collection of software tools that encompass a broad range of applications. Even though groupware broadly consists of applications like calendars, project planning, sharing documents, s, etc., it is many times costlier than the Intranet .
59Groupware cont. 1) Communication tools eg.Voice mail, ,Fax ,Video conferencing2) Project management .eg. Project planners,Project management,Project scheduling.3) News and general services4) General office management toolseg. MS Word, MS Excel, MS Powerpoint5) Web tools :--eg. Authoring ,Publishing ,Content management,Other graphical tools.,
70WEB SERVER SPECIFIC PROTOCOLS Common Gateway Interface (CGI)Internet Server Application Program Interface (ISAPI)Netscape Server Application Programming Interface (NSAPI)Distributed Mail System Protocol (DMSP)