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In Value Links Modules Gender Instruments

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1 In Value Links Modules Gender Instruments
Patricia Lindo, Gender consultant GTZ, November 2008 Translated and updated by Dr. Eberhard Krain, January, 2010 After incorporating suggestions of the GTZ Gender Sector Project and the Working Group Agribusiness for Pro-Poor Growth of the GTZ Sector Network Rural Development in Africa (SNRD)

2 ValueLinks Modules 2 5 11 6 1 3 7 4 8 9 Obligatory 10
Setting project boundaries Chain analysis and strategy Implementation Monitoring 2 5 11 Deciding whe-ther to engage in chain pro-motion Analysing a value chain Strengthening business linkages Monitoring and managing impact 6 Engaging in public- private partnership 1 3 Selecting a value chain for promotion Determining a chain upgrading strategy 7 Strengthening services in VC 4 Facilitating the chain develop-ment process 8 Financing value chains 9 Introducing social, & quality standards Obligatory according to priorities 10 Improving the biz environment of VC

3 Gender instruments in Modules 1 to 11 (except 7)
Content Gender instruments in Modules 1 to 11 (except 7)

4 Module 1: Selecting a Value Chain for Promotion
Determining the scope of value chains to be promoted Who are the economic stakeholders towards whom a project for value chain promotion is directed ValueLinks proposes the response that is derived from the commodity that is selected From an analysis of the stakeholders the following is deducted: A commodity is the result of relationships and interdependencies between different types of actors and operators who are responsible for the different processes within a value chain. Taking into account the selection of a commodity affects positively or negatively the mentioned actors and operators. In the analysis of the structure of markets, it is investigated who are the subjects – the persons who are acting within those markets as operators or as service providers –.

5 Module 1: Selecting a value chain for promotion
Establishing priorities across alternative value chains Evaluate the potential of a value chain to reduce poverty Generate a hypothesis in relation to the impact the selection of a commodity would have towards existing operators or entrepreneurs along the whole chain. The promotion of commodities which favour the functions of particular operators can affect negatively vulnerable operators who are linked to those chains, especially businesses of poor women.

6 Instrument Gender Analysis Matrix
Work /Employment Income Environ-ment Social/cultural relationships Joint HHs Women headed HHs Single women Single men Young people Old people Community

7 Instrument Main questions to evaluate the potential for poverty reduction Where are opportunities for engagement or threats of replacement of women in the chain What are the barriers for market entry of poor producers? What are the barriers for market entry of women in the analyzed chain? What would be the additional employment generated? Does the value chain offer the possibility to improve (or at least to maintain) the current distribution of beneficiaries along the value chain and across income groups Is market orientation compatible with food security objectives? How will value chain operators be affected in alternative chains with respect to employment creation or loss? Is there a risk of replacing workers with low qualitfications? Are there opportunities to build capacity for low qualified workers? Is there a risk of replacing women in their traditioinal functions?

8 Instrument Gender criteria in the instrument: Main criteria for chain selection Potential for Poverty Reduction Number of women entrepreneurs in the value chain in ratio to men Few barriers of entering businesses managed by women considering that favouring their competitiveness is strategically the key to poverty reduction Offering the possibility of entrepreneurships for youth Possibilities of employment for women Chains with little risks and negative impacts with regards to loss of employment of vulnerable actors: small producers and entrepreneurs, especially women Pragmatic aspects in the description of criteria A significant number of people employed (no of employed men and women) and new employment opportunities for women and men Equity and level of salaries

9 Gender in decision making
Organizing the process of decision making. Two ways: Formally: decision matrices or other tools evaluating each alternative in accordance with the whole set of established criteria Undertaking an approach based on suggestions made by potential partners, private companies, NGOs (specialized in gender), or government institutions (proposals for private investments, value chain sponsors, public institutions and donors) Right from the beginning, identify and develop contacts, networks and structures that will enable the linking of the investigation into decision-making Include an analysis of men’s and women’s perspectives concerning the impact that can be expected from value chain promotion in terms of employment, income, environment, local development and other variables, which stakeholders consider relevant A value chain should be selected on the base of opinions differentiated by women and men concerning the potential positive and negative impact which its promotion will bear; it is a decision with more prospects of success for evident facts based on a major social and gender consensus

10 Module 2: Analysis of a value chain
Practical advice: calling for a workshop to intiate value chain promotion with equal gender participation It is necessary to talk about the perspectives of women organizations in the area If one only makes contacts with producer organizations, one runs into the risk of creating directions in the workshop, given that the major participation comes from men in these organizations The focus of the chain should be directed towards the analysis of the key aspect of cooperation among participating actors in distinct processes. No actor should be excluded in the deliberations right from the beginning. Difficulties in time requirements are to be foreseen looking for a compromise for the different rythms of life and work among the distinct actors, men and women; this may present an obstacle for facilitating the meeting, necessitating recognition and dialogue

11 Module 2: Value Chain Analysis
Outlining a general value chain map − functions and operators, making men and women visible Displaying categories of chain operators, visualizing functions and activities of women and men at each level For this it is recommended to use symbols ♀ ♂, the rectangular shapes in yellow (operators) in order to give a preliminary picture or primary differentiation of gender: where men and women are located or concentrated as economic actors, and especially which type of function is fulfilled by women: as wage earner, enterprise owner, or where there are gaps

12 Local, regional and global markets
Module 2: Value chain analysis Collection Acces to land & credit Producing - Harvesting - Drying, etc. Transformation - Grading - Processing - Packing Commerce - Transport - Distribuition - Sale Consumption - Preparation - Consumption Input & Production - Collecting - Transport Owners of enterprises / packing / exporters ♀♂♂♂♂♂ ♀ ♀ ♀ ♂ Collectors from: communities. Mountain areas, contractors or entrepreneurs ♀♂ Owners of fields ♀ Those without land ownership Local, regional and global markets Workers for packing Workers for loading ♀♀♀♀♀♂♂♂♂ Hint: it is important to get a rough idea, exact figures may come later

13 Module 2: Value chain analysis
Questions to visualize the presence of women and men in the chain and their contribution to add value and employment Which chains are relevant in the area? Towards which markets are these chains directed? In which chains and levels do we find women? Which factors positively or negatively influence the participation of women? What are women doing in each function and in each enterprise? What are men doing? What kind of technologies (ways to do things) are managed? What kind of employments are generated for men and women in each function and enterprise? Which value addition is realized at each level of the chain? Which by men or women? Which services receive/are needed by men and women to improve quality? How can the cooperation between all actors be strengthened to improve quality?

14 Instrument Harvard Frame
Matrix of roles Activities Time Men Women Boys Girls

15 Instrument Harvard Frame
Matrix of accessing and controlling resources Resource Who owns the resource How is it used Who decides over its use How is the income utilized Who decides on the use of income Remark: It could be worthwhile to further differentiate this matrix with respect to married and unmarried women and widows.

16 Instrument Harvard Frame
Matrix of involvement & decision making Activity How men participate How women participate

17 Instrument Harvard Frame
Key Questions Which daily activities are undertaken by women and men at each level or function of the chain? How much time do they invest? What kind of products and services are produced/processed/traded by men and women? How much employment is generated at each level and segment? Do women possess land, houses or other resources (e.g. merchandis)? Are these legalized in their names/can they sell them? Can they decide which crops they grow? Do they own livestock? Do they have the technical capacities / access to technologies? Do they have working tools (in case of handicraft, do they have adequate inputs and tools)? Do they have access to credit? To which high value resources have women access? How is the income utilized that is generated in production or commercial activities? How is it invested? What kind of control do women have over income and resources they generate? How do women undertake business and participate in decision making in the family?

18 Instrument Typology of actors with a gender focus
In-depth analysis of poor and weak actors with regards to poverty reduction Identifying the number of women as “micro”, “small” and “medium” operators. Identifying non-agricultural incomes, number of household members, food security situation, competencies with regards to market oriented cultivation and commercial resources, etc. Typology of actors including a further differentiation into single women (unmarried, widows) and female headed households) Visualizing the differences and rationalities that exist in the rural set-up through different criteria: resource ownership, technology, family life cycle, and the different participation of women in the productive systems In families with less productive resources the participation of women in productive work will depend on the size of the family labour force and therefore on the phase of the life cycle in which the family is A typology allows to differentiate families in which women participate in cultivation and in those where women are crop owners

19 Module 3: Defining a value chain upgrading strategy
Agreeing on a vision and strategy for value chain upgrading Lessons-learned about the methodology to achieve consensus among actors Using a methodology which prioritizes a joint reflection giving a voice to stakeholders and favouring the dialogue Jointly generating questions contributing to data concerning the chain impact on employment, income, and gender Analysing gender matters from opinion and real life of stakeholders in a practical way and which contribute to demonstrate findings: real data on the participation of men and women Key tools are focus group discussions and illustrations about relationships between stakeholders, with participation from women at different stages of the chain or mixed groups (men and women) in order to broaden perspectives about the strengths and limitations of the chain

20 Categorization of chain actors in dairy production
Inactive Strong Dominant Influential Marginal Vulnerable Respected Operators Milk producers Curd sellers Milk processors 1 3 2 4 5 6 7 Power Interests Indirect House of Mothers Foundation Pro-Women State Ministry of Health District Legitimity

21 Relationship Diagramme of Women Processors of Curd and Cheese
Ministry of Health House of Woman Foundation Pro-Woman Cottage Cheese Sellers Milk Producers District

22 Module 3: Defining the chain upgrading strategy
Questions geared towards identifying limitations impeding the chain development Questions towards gender analysis in SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats): Which obstacles restrict the inclusion of women managed businesses in the chain? With which limitations are such business confronted in order to achieve competitiveness in the area of value chains? Which potentials do women managed businesses have to reduce the mentioned limitations?

23 Case: Example of a SWOT Analysis with gender focus
Women add value to milk with three products: more than 85 % of the business of collection & processing is in their hands. Their businesses contribute to about 3 employ- ments per family, totalling 300 direct employments from production to transformation to delivery. Milk is the prime area of income in the district. Some service providers are present. There is processors’ awareness to improve practices to improve quality and access of markets. The milk cold chain is sold to an industrial enterprise. The processing business chain is in the hands of women and generates employment as follows: two employees in each enterprise employing 80 people in total. There are sales points in three nearby districts and two more distant districts. Strengths 32 families are associated with the project. Best production practices - Livestock management & processes of milking - as an effect of assistance by the project. Acopio Comercio Consumo Inputs Production Transformation Trade Consumption Weaknesses Business partners are in principle men in the district, only 6% are women. There is a lack of secure markets to sell fresh milk. There is some mistrust in the relations between producers and traditional local markets/small-scale plants in the hands of women. Collection and production of milk with less reliable cooling facilities. Absence of health authorities in the supervision of processing plants. Absence of service providers for technical advice. The perception of producers – processors about the risk of accessing enough primary material. Commercialization of milk and milk products without adequate adjustment, without adaquate packaging, without sanitary registration and without weight specification.

24 Module 4: Facilitating the value chain promotion process
Start conditions to facilitate the upgrading of a VC Invitations to events of value chain promotion require equitable criteria A prior mapping of women businesses Being careful in all details and processes of invitation; deliberately inviting women as owners of enterprises within the subsector of the promoted value chain. Clear roles of participants in the process Leadership with participation of women Appropriateness of the process Win-win situtation A will to move forward

25 Module 4: Facilitating the process of chain promotion/ Practical advice
External facilitators should be gender sensitive and involve women in the preparation stage Searching, identifying and inviting women of the subsector of areas where they are involved in chain promotion Facilitating the capacity of women so that they voice their needs and expectations in designing the workshop for value chain mapping and designing the upgrading strategy Visualizing in the value chain map the functions of men and women as business owners at the different VC stages. Visualizing the number of employed men and women at the different VC stages. Facilitating a final reflection through a SWOT analysis concerning limitations and opportunities for women businesses (using guided questions). Facilitating a reflection of the up-grading strategy that takes into account the perspectives of women in the value chain and design of gender indicators in the areas of intervention. Guaranteeing the determination of activities specifically for the strengthening of women and equity in the access to support services, etc., utilizing tools to analize in-depth the situation of women in terms of access and control of resources (Harvard frame, gender analysis matrix, etc.)

26 Module 5. Strengthening commercial and associationary linkages
Promotion of commercial groups and associations at micro level from a gender perspective. Promoting business women in associations and value chain linkages has the following advantages: Providing a greater equity of gender participation and decision making. Accessing and having (together with men) joint control over capacity building and information in general and improving negotiation skills in particular. Accessing forums for decision and policy making of the sector. Improving the quality of products and accessing better markets.

27 Module 5. Strengthening commercial and associationary linkages
Model of association formation with the following critera: Criteria of gender equity in the composition of business groups and associations. Criteria of gender equity in the functioning of groups, considering in the design of meetings the limited time of women because of their dual workload in production and household. Use of methodologies of association formation which promote that people get to know each other and recognize their potentials, experiences and knowledge.

28 Module 5. Strengthening commercial and associationary linkages
Strategies to improve the participation and decision making of women in commercial linkages Activities to improve the participation and decision making of women in commercial linkages. Processes of sensitization for facilitating a greater mobility of women in households, improving the communication, the taking of decisions and a more balanced control of incomes which women generate. Redesigning support services concerning the formation of associations from the expectations which business women have concerning the association building (areas of work or interests to form groups). Backing the decision making concerning various organizational and legal forms convenient to commercial producers offering information and legal capacitation. Impacting on policies which help or restrict participation: assistance centres to take care of children; credit policies for the access of women, access to information, and technological innovations.

29 Module 7: Strengthening services in value chains
Analyzing offers of operational services Analyzing the stages of the value chain and especially the required services. Analyzing access to service providers. Problems for gender equity: lack of data and analyses about the valuation differentiated in men and women about service operations, and possible gender gaps in accessing them. The point of departure is to stimulate a reflection with public as well as private service providers to evaluate the quality of services directed towards gender and the level of gender equity. Designing services taking into account the demands and necessities of operators of both sexes.

30 Module 8: Value chain financing and public finance for chain development
Identifying the financial requirements of a VC from a point of view of gender equity Identifying in each stage which type of financial products are required by women and female headed households in accordance with the functions they play in the chain: production, processing, commercialization. Identifying financial products required by men and promoting a dialogue in order to map out the necessities differentiated along the chain. Identifying micro-finance institutions to negotiate the design of financial products adjusted to: The general objectives of the chain Products that respond to each function Products adjusted towards the different gender demands Identifying financial resources beyond micro-finance

31 Module 8: Value chain financing and public finance for chain development
Identifying gender factors in financial gaps and proposals for solution Using a methodology of searching for credit clients with a vision of equity: a criteria in which the potential client is the one who takes the decision in the family and involves women as key partners in family decisions. Setting conditions for entry of clients in development projects adequate to women’s conditions without limiting them by criteria such as working capital or wealth (size of capital or securities which are generally lacked by women). For example: 20 cows, or 200 apple trees. This does not favour neither poor people nor women and it prevents them from becoming beneficiaries in livestock/dairy or credit development programs. Designing conditions for women apart from other criteria which allow the access of women. An example is to valuate the number of employments that are generated through the businesses that are in the hands of women, the aggregated value in the chain, etc. Leasing can be a good financing alternative for women who more often than men do not have access to colaterals to obtain loans from formal institutions.

32 Module 9: Introducing social, ecological and product quality standards
Basic considerations: The universe of standards Considerations concerning the management of human resources and gender equity There are many different standards, some do not explicitely include social aspects and an equal treatment of men and women Standards should incorporate stipulations for equitable conditions for women and the exclusion of child labor They should target an initial assessment of human resources and build capacity having in mind to achieve a more equal gender treatment: equal access to information, knowledge acquisition, and training in order to become more competitive in the chain.

33 Module 9: Introducing social, ecological and product quality standards
Gender standards allow us to include additional values which women and men generate for enterprises according to their roles which each of them assumes (as women or men entrepreneurs or labourers, etc.). Some of the questions during the analysis are Which skills by men and women are useful for the enterprise? Which advantages accrue to enterprises when they utilize women competence? Which advantages accrue to economic activities of the chain when companies invest in human resources and particularly in women? What remuneration do women recieve in exchange for the advantages they generate for the enterprise?

34 Module 10: Improving the business environment of value chains
General considerations and concept of business environment Policies and macro-economic conditions (monetary policy, interest rates, customs duties for the importation of intermediate goods, taxes, etc). Laws and regulations for registries, commercial licences, employment, associations and cooperatives. Security and execution of contracts. Road infrastructure. Public services (electricity and water). Existence (or absence) of grades and standards which regulate product markets. Legal and administrative regulations: land and water laws for agriculture; labour laws; sector-specific business policies; taxes and charges for sepecific products. Existence (or absence) of specific support services. Problems of market deficencies in the value chain; such as lack of coordination, information assymetry, opportunistic behaviour and mistrust, others.

35 Module 10: Improving the business environment of value chains
Gender factors Restrictive culture for women and their economic and social roles. Public policies in general not embracing a gender equity in the vision and strategies. Service design and delivery which do not consider perspectives and necessities differentiated for men and women. Lack of access for women businesses towards information, capacity building, technologies, financial services, land and property. Lack of services for child care support.

36 Module 11: Impact monitoring
Formulating an impact hypothesis for the promotion of a value chain Hypothesis to contain gender equity elements. Which allow to anticipate a positive or negative impact with regard to employment or income differentiated for men and women.

37 Module 11: Impact monitoring
Hypothetical case of an impact towards women and their businesses in the dairy value chain Women participate in the zone in an important manner in on-farm production as owners of livestock and as integral parts of the family economic system. Overall they play a leading role as operators in artesanal dairy processing and trade functions. Chains where women businesses are mostly concentrated, are more artisanal and generate more employment and income for poor families. The promotion of linking producers for production and commercialization of milk is fluid up to industries. The exclusion of women from support services would affect negatively women processing businesses and marketing generating a negative final impact in terms of employment and income for poor people. Industrial cheese e.g. may replace artisanal cheese of women businesses and create difficulties in milk provision for artisanal processing chains.

38 Module 11: Impact monitoring
Proposal of process and impact indicators for the assessment of achieving gender equity in chain development Process indicators Increase of number of women producers participating in associations No of women in production receiving technical assistance No of women in processing and marketing who receive technical assistance Impact indicators Women producers increase their role in decision making Wives of (male) producers have become stronger in their say over family income. Improved redistribution of income within families.

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