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European Environment Agency Ahmet ULUDAG Project Manager on Invasive Alien Species European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark Ilhan UREMIS Associate.

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Presentation on theme: "European Environment Agency Ahmet ULUDAG Project Manager on Invasive Alien Species European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark Ilhan UREMIS Associate."— Presentation transcript:

1 European Environment Agency Ahmet ULUDAG Project Manager on Invasive Alien Species European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark Ilhan UREMIS Associate Professor of Weed Science Faculty of Agriculture, MKU University, Hatay, Turkey Huseyin ZENGIN Professor of Weed Science Faculty of Agriculture, Igdir University, Igdir, Turkey WEED INVASIONS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN WITH SELECTED EXAMPLES

2 European Environment Agency Aliens (anthropophyta) Permanently Established (metaphyta) Older immigrants, before 1500 A.D. (archaeophyta) - introduced (archaeophyta adventiva) - man-made (archaeophyta anthropogena) - survived in man-made habitats only (anthropophyta resistentia) Newcomers, after 1500 A.D. (kenophyta=neophyta) - established only in ruderal and/or segetal communities (epoecophyta) - established in semi-natural communities (hemiagriophyta) -established in natural communities (holoagriophyta=neophyta) Not Permanently established (diaphyta) -introduced temporarily (ephemerophyta) -escaping from cultivation (ergasiophygophyta) Di Castri et al. 1990

3 European Environment Agency INVASIVE ARCHAOEPHYTES IN FLORA OF ITALY Abutilon theophrasti Medik. (Malvaceae Europe, Asia-Temp) Arundo donax L. (Poaceae Europe, Asia-Temp) Cyperus serotinus Rottb. (Cyperaceae Europe, Asia-Temp, Asia-Trop) Isatis tinctoria L. subsp. tinctoria (Brassicaceae wide distribution) Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. (Amaranthaceae Asia-Temp, Indian Subcontinent) Oryza sativa L. (Poaceae Asia-Temp, Asia-Trop) Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae Trop Africa) Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. (Poaceae Tropics (Africa, Asia)) Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. (Poaceae Tropics (Africa, Asia)) Celesti-Grapov et al. 2009

4 European Environment Agency CataloniaCzech Republic Great Britain Native Species c. 295022561455 Archaeophytes -258151 Neophytes 264229259 Chytry et al. 2008

5 European Environment Agency; Solanum elaeagnifolium

6 European Environment Agency Solanum elaeagnifolium is native to north-east Mexico and south-west USA where it is a weed It is also considered native to Argentina, the nature of the insect herbivorous fauna suggesting that this distribution is secondary EPPO, 2007

7 European Environment Agency DISTRIBUTION OF SOLANUM ELAEAGNIFOLIUM EPPO region: Algeria, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Republic of Macedonia, Morocco, Serbia, Montenegro, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey Asia: India (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu), Israel, Taiwan Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Lesotho, Morocco, South Africa, Tunisia, Zimbabwe North America: Mexico, USA (Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Washington) Central America and Caribbean: Guatemala, Honduras, Puerto Rico South America: Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay Oceania: Australia (all states). EPPO, 2007

8 European Environment Agency Introduction to Morocco is believed to have resulted from the import of contaminated crop seeds in 1958, and it now infests 50 000 ha in the Tadla region and it is spreading to other regions such as El-Kelâa des Sraghna and Marrakech. In South Africa, it is thought to have been imported as a contaminant of pig fodder around 1905, and/or hay during the 1940s or 1950s, being recorded as a problem in 1952 and declared a weed in 1966. Similarly, infestations in South Australia are linked to imports of contaminated hay from North America during the 1914 drought, although the weed was first recorded in New South Wales in 1901 and then in Victoria in 1909. Later infestations in Western Australia appeared from contaminated Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense) introduced from eastern Australia. In the USA, where the plant is native to some south-western States, contaminated ballast and bedding used in railway cattle wagons led to the introduction of the weed into California in 1890 EPPO, 2007

9 European Environment Agency EPPO, 2007

10 European Environment Agency Since the Mediterranean climate favours S. elaeagnifolium, which is highly resistant to drought, it easily spread in semiarid areas. S. elaeagnifolium could become more problematic in the Mediterranean because the climate change projections predict a reduction in rainfall and increasing the frequency of drought years in the region. Furthermore, its northern potential limit would be extended depending on elevation in winter temperatures. In addition, the reasons for spread could be lack of timely detection and rapid response in the regions where the plant was introduced and distribution pathways were not well controlled.

11 European Environment Agency effects of climate change on parasitic plants direct effects on parasite growth and survival changes in host defense or resistance changes in the abundance of the parasite's natural enemies changes in host nutritional quality changes in the abundance of the hosts’ natural enemies changes at farming practices Based on Phoenix & Press, 2005

12 European Environment Agency Populations of the root parasite only exist in regions with mediterranean climate, although individuals are able to reach maturity under conditions of temperate climate, too, and although O. crenata seeds can survive temperatures of -20 °C. The dormancy behaviour of its seeds is likely to impede the northward spread of this species, since in a continuously moist environment, hardly any dormancy release takes place. Results of sensitivity analyses using simulation models suggest that a change to warmer and/or drier climate would substantially increase the risk of O. crenata establishment at higher latitudes. Grenz and Sauerborn, 2006

13 European Environment Agency Grenz and Sauerborn, 2006

14 European Environment Agency The European environment – state and outlook 2010 The European environment – state and outlook 2010

15 European Environment Agency Grenz and Sauerborn, 2006

16 European Environment Agency Species distribution may be altered in the future as a result of global change. Recent climatic records indicate trends toward an expansion of tropical and dry climates, and a decrease of boreal and cold climates, driven mainly by global warming (IPCC, 2001; Beck et al., 2005). Where increasing dryness is mitigated by irrigation, patterns of alternating wet and dry periods conducive to O. crenata establishment may emerge. Effects of global change on the distribution of species driven by altered climate will be further modified by biotic interactions and species dispersal (Davis et al., 1998). Lastly, host crop production is subject to developments in the socioeconomic sphere that are hard to foresee. Changed rotations as a response of farmers to global warming, increased prices of imported soybean or decreased fertiliser use due to environmental legislation may, for example, induce increased legume production in western Europe, which in combination with a warmer climate would result in increased risk of O. Crenata establishment.

17 European Environment Agency S. Gesnerioides occurs throughout Africa, and attacks broad leave plants. It develops host-specific strains, each with a narrow host range. The most economically important being those attacking cowpea and tobacco S. hermonthica is a serious pest to cereal production (sorghum, maize, millet, rice), especially in the Sahel region (Senegal to Ethiopia), where it has developed two host-specific strains: one specific to millet, occurring in the drier and more northerly region of the Sahel; and another that attacks sorghum and is found farther south, in wetter regions Mohamed et al. 2006

18 European Environment Agency Broad climatic tolerances make S. hermonthica a dangerous parasite throughout its range. S. hermonthica can attain 50 percent germination in 3 d at1.2 MPa and 30C, and was successfully conditioned and germinated at1.5 MPa, which is described as the permanent wilting point for most plants, and that it tolerates wide ranges of day/night temperatures between 40/30 and 25/15C.

19 European Environment Agency Problems with witchweeds could be compounded by climate change, which may result in new invasions in areas anticipated to have higher temperatures and moisture within the ranges tolerated by witchweeds. Although Striga species need wet conditions and drier climatic conditions are expected in Mediterranean, they might create problem in suitable areas because of their greater ability to adapt to different habitats and agroecosystems by developing host-specific strains, each capable of attacking a narrow host range.

20 European Environment Agency Bradley et al., 2010 Likely impacts of global change on the prevalence of a typical invasive plant species Element of global change Prevalence of plant invaders Increased atmospheric CO2 + Rising temperature +- Changing precipitation regime +- Changing land use or land cover + Increased N deposition + Increased global commerce +

21 European Environment Agency THE MAIN COMPONENTS OF GLOBAL CHANGE (1) Population change Human population movement/migrations Demographic growth Changes in population pattern Changes in land use and disturbance regimes Deforestation Degradation, simplification or loss of habitats Loss of biodiversity Heywood, 2010

22 European Environment Agency THE MAIN COMPONENTS OF GLOBAL CHANGE (2) Climate change (IPPC definition) Temperature change Precipitation change Atmospheric change (greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, and nitrous oxide) Other climate-related factors Distribution of Nitrogen deposition Global dust deposition (including brown dust and yellow dust) Ocean acidification Air pollution in mega-cities

23 European Environment Agency Hellmann et al., 2008

24 European Environment Agency The European environment – state and outlook 2010 The European environment – state and outlook 2010

25 European Environment Agency The European environment – state and outlook 2010 The European environment – state and outlook 2010 Climate change is projected to play a substantial role in biodiversity loss and puts ecosystem functions at risk. northward and uphill distribution shifts of many European plant species A combination of the rate of climate change and habitat fragmentation may lead to species composition changes and a continuing decline in European biodiversity

26 European Environment Agency The European environment – state and outlook 2010 The European environment – state and outlook 2010 Changes in seasonal events, flowering dates and agricultural growing seasons are observed and projected. Phenology shifts have also increased the length of the growing season of several agricultural crops in northern latitudes over recent decades, favoring the introduction of new species that were not previously suitable There has been a shortening of the growing season at southern latitudes Such changes in the cycles of agricultural crops are projected to continue — potentially severely impacting agricultural practices

27 European Environment Agency The distribution and intensity of existing pest, diseases, and weeds are likely to be more abundant. Currently exotic species may appear under a warmer climate, which would lead to changed effects on yield and on control measures. The need for plant protection will grow and the use of pesticides and fungicides may increase. EEA, 2005

28 European Environment Agency Intensive farming systems in western Europe generally have a low sensitivity to climate change, and farmers are well resourced and equipped to cope with changes. However, the agriculture sector in southern European countries may be among the most vulnerable to the direct and indirect impacts of projected climate change. EEA, 2005

29 European Environment Agency Copenhagen 14 August 2010 Borrowed from Georgi

30 European Environment Agency Borrowed from Georgi

31 European Environment Agency Experimental studies and models suggest that invasive plants often respond unpredictably to multiple components of global change acting in concert. Such variability adds uncertainty to existing risk assessments and other predictive tools.

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