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Simplified VO M&V Protocols Approved May 4 th, 2010 1.Simplified VO M&V Protocol can be applied to distribution systems with Residential and Small Commercial Loads to verify energy savings from reduced voltage operation. 2.Protocol makes use of historical data, system modeling, 7- day M&V ‘on’ and 7-day ‘off’ hourly measurements, and “Deemed” end-use VO Factors determined from NEEA DEI Study 2007 results. 3.Protocol can be used with three Voltage Regulation Techniques, VFR, LDC, and AVFC. 1

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126 Volts 120 114 Feeder Length Three Voltage Regulation Techniques 1.Voltage Fixed Reduction (VFR) Fixes the voltage level at the substation source and the voltage level at the end of the feeder varies with load 2 Old voltage setting Vset = 125V, R and X settings = 0 New voltage setting Vset = 122V, R and X settings = 0 Existing Vset = 125V New Vset = 122V

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126 Volts 120 114 Feeder Length Three Voltage Regulation Techniques 2.Line Drop Compensation (LDC) –Fixes the voltage level at the end of the feeder and the voltage level varies at the substation source with load 3 Old voltage setting Vset = 125V, R and X settings = 0 New voltage setting Vset = 120V, R and X settings = 3 to 5 Existing Vset = 125V New Vset = 120V, R and X setting = 3 to 5

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Three Voltage Regulation Techniques 3.Automatic Voltage Feedback Control (AVFC) –Fixes the voltage level at the substation source based on real-time voltage feedback sign from the end of the feeder 4 (s)

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126 Volts 120 114 Feeder Length Three Voltage Regulation Techniques 3.Automatic Voltage Feedback Control (AVFC) –Fixes the voltage level at the substation source based on real-time voltage feedback sign from the end of the feeder 5 Old voltage setting Vset = 125V, R and X settings = 0 New voltage setting Vset = 119V, R and X settings = 0 Existing Vset = 125V Vset = Adjusts for load conditions based on end of line feedback

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6 Voltage Control Zones Load Tap Changer (LTC) Transformer Feeder Breaker Feeder VCZ for LTC Secondary Voltage Zone Primary Voltage Zone

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7 Voltage Control Zones Load Tap Changer (LTC) Transformer Feeder Breaker Feeder VCZ for V-RegVCZ for LTC V-Reg

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8 Four Stages to Simplified VO M&V Protocol Existing Performance Assessment and VO Implementation Plan System Improvements Baseline Pre-VO measurements VO Implementation Post-VO Measurements and Verification Persistence Measurements Historical Load Data: kWh-annual, Volt_Drop-max, kWpeak-demand Distr _Line Modeling Load_Flow Analysis Threshold Analysis Determine end-use VO Factor Estimate Potential Savings Install VO and SI Improvements 1. 2. 3. 4. 7-day measurements ‘OFF’ Veol, Vset, Esub Calculate Vpre-annual average 7-day measurements ‘ON’ Veol, Vset, Esub Calculate Vpost-annual average Determine Verified Savings

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Performance Thresholds Power Factor Power Factor on average > 98% (period) Power Factor minimum > 96% (period) 9 Phase Unbalance Must be < 0.15pu, or < 40 amps Voltage Drop (V d ) for each voltage control zone Must be < 3.3% on primary at feeder peak loads

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Performance Thresholds (continued) Maximum Voltage Drop (V d ) for secondary –Must be < 4.0%, based on design standards and criteria Voltage level must be > (114V+1/2 Bandwidth) and less than (126V-1/2 Bandwidth) 10 Maximum Voltage Drop Variance (V dv ) between feeders within the same voltage control zone (during period) Must be < 0.25 p.u. or < 2.0V

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Why Performance Threshold are Critical Establishing thresholds helps to resolve key issue found in the pilot NEEA projects that did not perform well. Reduces voltage fluctuation due to changing loads/conditions Reduces losses in the distribution system Allows recording periods to be minimized (1 week to establish daily load shapes and weekend/weekday load shapes) 11

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VO Factor Determination Uses Results from the NEEA DEI study to determine –Heating and cooling zones –Residential and commercial load –End-use load characteristics Electric heating Air conditioning 12 395

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13 NEEA DEI Study VO f Sensitivity Minor impacts due to AC End-Use Load 16% Variation

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Voltage Reduction Calculation Calculate ΔV for each voltage control zone Dependant on which voltage control method –VFR Adjusted Average Voltage for VFR = [Regulator_Set_Point_Voltage_Setting – ½ * A * Annual_Load_Factor] –LDC/AVFC Adjusted Average Voltage for LDC = [Regulator_Set_Point_Voltage_Setting + Annual_Load_Factor *[B - 1/2 *A]] Where: A is the maximum voltage drop at peak load, and B is the Calculated Regulator Maximum Annual Volt-Rise 14

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15 Energy Saved = Change in voltage x Voltage Optimization Factor x Annual Energy + Energy Saved from System Improvements E Saved = ΔV x VO f x E Annual + ΔE SI ΔV - determined from this program VO f - derived from NEEA load research study and confirmed by EPRI studies, and other industry pilots and research E Annual – Metered Data from Utility ΔE - Energy Saved from System Improvements From NEEA’s DEI research and pilot VO calculation method already “approved” by RTF Method of Calculating Energy Savings (Delta V) From proposed protocols

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