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Title VI “No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits.

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Presentation on theme: "Title VI “No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits."— Presentation transcript:


2 Title VI “No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal Financial assistance.” 42 U.S.C § 2000d, et seq 1 2 3 4 2

3 Race, Color, & National Origin are three ‘protected classes’ Race –U.S. Census categories define race –Persons of any race are protected classes Color – Discrimination based on skin color or complexion is prohibited National Origin –Foreign born ancestry 2 3

4 Program or Activity Applies institution-wide Title VI applies institution-wide, not solely limited to primary recipients operations Examples? 3 4

5 Title VI applies to both Recipeints & Sub-recipeints Recipient: State DOT Transit Agency Or any public or private agency, institution, department or other organizational unit receiving funding from FTA Sub-recipient: any entity that receives FTA financial assistance as a pass-through from another entity 4 5

6 FTA Direct Grant Recipients meet their Title VI obligations through the Circular Addresses requirements of FTA Title VI Circular 4702.1A, –AKA “The Circular” Submission Recurrence –Recipients every 3 years –MPOs every 4 yrs 6


8 Guidelines for All Recipients and Subrecipients Title VI guidelines cover: –Procedures for investigating complaints –How to record complaints, investigations, and lawsuits –Notifying the public of Title VI rights –EJ analysis in NEPA – Minority, low-income and LEP’s are included in decision making processes –Steps to ensure meaningful access for LEP persons

9 Complaint Procedures What constitutes a complaint? –Legal Bases Must Haves –Timeline for accepting complaint –Investigation and resolution timeline –Who investigates the complaint –Who resolves the complaint

10 Complaint Procedures Reasons for dismissal Report or letter of finding Tracking complaint Accessibility of complaints (written) Language assistance measures When to send to FTA

11 Notifying the Public of Rights The City of USA operates its programs without regard to race, color, and national origin in accordance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act. Any person who believes they have been aggrieved by any unlawful discriminatory practice under Title VI may file a complaint with the City of USA. For more information on the City of USA’s civil rights program, the obligations, and procedures to file a complaint, contact 800-656-1234, (TTY 800-656-4567), email; visit our administrative office at 1234 Center Street, Anywhere, CA, 17970 If information is needed in another language contact, 800-656-1234 (MAKE SURE THIS IS IN THE OTHER LANGUAGE)

12 Public Involvement Early and continuous opportunities to be involved in proposed transportation decisions Meeting times, locations Childcare Use of social media Citizens advisory Non-traditional methods


14 Lau v Nichols, 1974 Non-English-speaking students of Chinese origin sued San Francisco School District. The Supreme Court ruled that a recipient’s failure to ensure meaningful opportunity to national origin minority, LEPs to participate in federally funded programs violates Title VI and Title VI regulations. The school was to take reasonable affirmative steps to provide meaningful opportunity to participate in the federaly funded education program. Applies beyond education to include all programs and activities of all recipients of federal financial assistance

15 LEP Executive Order 13166 Signed by Clinton August, 2000 Assess language needs Determine steps to ensure meaningful access for LEPs Develop a language access plan or alternative framework Failing to ensure LEPs effectively participate in or benefit from federally assisted programs may constitute national origin discrimination

16 Four Factor Analysis for LEP 1)Number of LEPs eligible or likely to be encountered by program 2)Frequency that LEPs come into contact with program 3)Nature & importance of program to LEPs 4)Resources available and costs to program


18 Factor 1: Number or Proportion of LEPs From a particular language group; Eligible to be served or encountered; The greater the number or proportion, the more services needed.

19 Factor 2: Frequency of Contact Rule of thumb: –More contact= More enhanced services –What data would you analyze?

20 Factor 3: Nature & Importance of Program Rule of thumb –More important=more contact –More contact=more likely to need langue services –What are the most important services?

21 Community Focus Groups

22 Factor 4: Cost How much will it cost to deliver services?

23 Safe Harbor & LEP Thresholds Safe Harbor- –Requires written translations of vital documents for each LEP group meeting threshold LEP threshold- –5% or 1,000 individuals, whichever is less. Vital documents –Documents critical for accessing recipients services or benefits –Letters requiring response from customer –Informing customers of free language assistance –Complaint forms –Notification of rights

24 How are LEP plans typically implemented? Popular Strategies –Publishing timetables and route maps in languages other than English –Multilingual phone lines and use of multilingual staff in information booths –Pictograms and multi-language announcements –Language Identification with “I Speak” cards –Advertising in ethnic media

25 I Speak Cards




29 A Model Plan A Model Plan guides you in determining the level of language access services you should provide Includes comprehensive four factor analysis 1)Proportion of eligible LEPs 2)Frequency of Contact 3)Nature and Importance 4)Cost Provides policies for evaluating language assistance providers

30 Sample Elements Model Plan Provide notice of right to language assistance Identified vital documents for translation –i.e. any document that could deny an LEP access to a service Important public notifications –Special meeting requests –Acquisition of property letters Behavior signage

31 Training Staff on the Model Plan Staff members should understand LEP policies, procedures, and how to carry them out Train staff on: –Documenting LEP needs –Responding to LEP correspondence Both callers and in-person contact –Responding to LEP civil rights complaints

32 Model Plan Monitoring Areas to Continuously Monitor Current language needs of customers –Assess whether existing language assistance services are meeting the needs of LEP customers –Number of LEP persons in service area Need for language assistance resources and arrangements Feedback from LEP communities, including customers, and community organizations about the effectiveness language access plan.

33 Guidelines for Transit Agencies Serving Large Urban Areas Collect demographic information on beneficiaries –Maps and overlays –Customer surveys –Local options Service standards and policies –Set policies –Service and fare change analysis –Monitor –Report every three years to FTA


35 35

36 Guidelines for State DOTs and Administering Agencies Conduct statewide transportation planning in a non-discriminatory manner. Subrecipients –Pass through FTA funds to subrecipients in a non- discriminatory manner. –Monitor subrecipients for compliance with Title VI. Report every three years to FTA

37 Guidelines for Metropolitan Planning Organizations Demographic profile of metropolitan area; ID locations (Minority, low-income) Planning process ID’s needs of low-income and minority populations Analytical process ID’s benefits & burdens of investments for different groups, ID imbalances and responding to the analysis Subrecipients –Pass through FTA funds to subrecipients in a non- discriminatory manner. –Monitor subrecipients for compliance with Title VI. Report every 4 years

38 Discrimination Prohibitions Disparate Treatment ( Intentional Discrimination): Actions that result in circumstances where similarly situated persons are treated different because of their race, color, or national origin. Disparate Impact ( Unintentional Discrimination ): The recipient’s procedure or practice while neutral on its face has the effect of disproportionately excluding or adversely affecting members of the projected class without substantial legitimate justification.

39 Service & Fare Equity Analysis Summary Points  Evaluate changes during planning  Determine if discriminatory impact  Compare “apples-to-apples”  Explain methodology  Use graphics  Describe actions to mitigate 39

40 Distribution of the African American Population in Missouri 11.2% of Missouri’s population is African American. Yellow = 0 to 6% of population is African American. Dark Green = 15 to 51% of population is African American

41 Distribution of the African American Population in Texas 11% of state’s population is African American. Yellow = population 0 to 6%, dark green = population above 12 to 33%

42 Distribution of the Latino Population in Texas 32% of the State’s population is Latino Yellow = 0 to 22%, Dark Green = 40-97%

43 Distribution of the Native American Population in Arizona Statewide Native American population = 5%. Dark Green = 47—76% Native American Population

44 Distribution of the Median Household Income in Ohio Ohio Median Household Income = $40,956 Dark Green = $55,000--$67,000. Light Yellow = $27,000--$31,000

45 Distribution of the Median Household Income in New York New York Median Household Income = $43,393. Light yellow = $27,000--$34,000. Dark Green = $63,000--$72,000

46 Transit Can Help Promote Integrated Communities Transit-Oriented Development in cities and suburbs that includes affordable, accessible housing Goal should be stable integration Rural transportation provides vital access to jobs and services

47 But in the meantime… States can remain divided by race and income. Roads and transit often serve or impact predominantly minority and predominantly non- minority communities, as well as low-income and more affluent communities. This divide means the potential for disparate impact continues to exist.

48 Second Underlying Issue: A Growing Multicultural Society Immigration Trends and immigration in rural areas. Transportation planning and operations are occurring in a wider variety of cultural contexts. Government needs to guard against national origin discrimination and serve people with limited English proficiency.

49 Limited English Proficient Population of Nebraska 7% of Nebraska’s population speaks English less than “very well” Yellow = 0—2.1%. Dark Green = 14.5—19.5%

50 State DOT Title VI Requirements Submit procedures/analysis used to determine that the effect of statewide planning processes is not discriminatory. Describe procedures agency uses to pass financial assistance through to recipients. Describe procedures agency uses to provide assistance to sub-recipients. Describe how agency monitors sub- recipients’ compliance with Title VI and summary of results of monitoring..

51 State DOT Title VI Requirements (included in Title VI Circular 4702.1) Ensure that Section 5310 and 5311 funds are provided on an equitable basis. Monitor Section 5310 and 5311 funding recipients to ensure that they are complying with Title VI.

52 Ensuring Equity in Funding Section 5310 and 5311 Applicants Maintain a record of funding requests. Describe how the State DOT selects applicants for funding --Describe the selection criteria --Maintain a list of applicants seeking funds. --Determine whether an applicant provides assistance to minority communities. --Indicate whether the application was approved. Equity problems may exist if significantly more applicants serving minority communities are rejected and there is no substantial justification for rejecting these applicants.

53 Use Thresholds to Determine Whether an Applicant Serves Protected Populations 1. Define the service area of the applicant for Section 5310 or Section 5311 funding. 2. Collect demographic data on the service area of the applicants. 3. Determine the statewide percentage of protected groups. 4. Compare the percentage of protected groups served by the applicants to the statewide average.

54 Monitoring Section 5310 and 5311 Subrecipients State DOT needs to include Title VI in its monitoring activities. All subrecipients need to have Title VI complaint procedures in place and notify the public of their right to file a Title VI complaint. Complaint form Notice to the public LEP All subrecipients need to provide a level and quality of service that is equitable All subrecipients need to have an inclusive public involvement process.

55 State DOT Title VI Complaint Procedures State DOTs need to have a Title VI Complaint procedure in place and notify the public of their right to file a Title VI complaint.

56 Benefits and Burdens Analysis 1.Overlay projects proposed in the State Transportation Improvement Plan over demographic maps of the state. 2.Develop analytical methods for identifying the benefits and burdens of transportation projects to minority and low-income populations. 3. Develop a process to respond when analysis identifies an imbalance between the benefits and burdens on minority and low- income populations of projects in the STIP. 4. Implement a strategy for engaging minority, low-income, and limited English proficient populations in the state transportation planning process.

57 Examples of Benefits and Burdens of Transportation Projects Benefits Travel time savings Improved safety Improved access to transportation network Economic development Burdens Air pollution Noise and vibration Disruptions in community cohesion Traffic congestion Relocation

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