# 1 Viet Vu Consultant UN STATISTICS DIVISION.  Introduction to production approach to GDP  A trategy for data collection for benchmark year  Data extrapolation.

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1 Viet Vu Consultant UN STATISTICS DIVISION

 Introduction to production approach to GDP  A trategy for data collection for benchmark year  Data extrapolation by use of surveys on production and labour force

 GDP is the sum of value added.  Value added is the difference between gross output and intermediate consumption  Gross output is the value of goods and services receivable by producers. It is called gross output at basic prices. In this case, gross output:  does not including cost of delivery unless it is part of the sale price of products.  does not include taxes paid by customers but transferable to the government.  is the same as revenues or sales reported in business accounting.  Intermediate consumption is the cost of all goods and services used in producing the output. It excludes all non- deductible value added taxes.

 Output is a concept used in national accounting, not a concept used in business accounting.  To get information for compiling output, one needs to collect information business understand.  The common terms in business accounting are:  Revenues/Sales: include sales of major products and other incidental revenues.  Cost of Sales/Cost of goods sold  Cost of goods bought for resale (in the same conditions as received)  Cost of sales  Cost of materials  Cost of services  Cost of labor  Other costs like depreciation

 Sales: must be converted to output as sales can come from inventories, and as output can entered inventories instead of being sold.  Cost of Sales: must be converted to cost of production as materials used in production can be obtained from inventories. This means that:  Purchases of materials: must be converted to use of materials.  Output of manufactured output = Sales + Change in inventory of finished and semi finished goods.  Intermediate consumption of materials = Purchases of materials – Change in inventory of materials.

 Services may be produced and delivered directly to purchasers for immediate use and therefore there is no delivery costs such as trade and transport margins.  In most cases, output of services is revenues/sales and normally called fees.  Exceptions:  Output for distributive trade or trade margins= Sales - Cost of goods bought for resale.  Output of banking: Estimated fees on deposits + Estimated fees on loans/investment assets + other direct fees.  Output of insurance: Premiums + Adjusted Premium supplements – Adjusted claims.

Sphere where basic and producer prices apply Producers of goods basic values = value receivable Wholesalers and retailers Sphere where purchasers’ prices apply Consumers : other producers and final users. Transport and trade margins added Government Plus taxes on products Less subsidies on products Equal: Producer prices

Value at basic prices+++ = value at purchaser prices paid by users Output (Goods) at basic prices Trade margins Transport margins Taxes less subsidies on products Output at purchaser prices Output of services at basic prices 0 0 Taxes less subsidies on products Output at purchaser prices Total output of goods and services + Output at purchaser prices For total economy: 1.Output at purchasers prices = output at basic prices + taxes less subsidies on products. 2.GDP = Output at purchasers prices – Intermediate at purchasers prices. 3.GDP = Value added at basic prices + Taxes less subsidies on products

GDP = Gross value added at basic prices + Taxes on products – Subsidies on products Gross outputTotal value of output of goods and services at basic prices Less Total intermediate consumption at purchasers’ prices (not including deductible VAT) = Gross Value AddedGross value added at basic prices LessOther taxes less subsidies on production Less Compensation of employees Wages and salaries Bonuses & allowances Social insurance payable by employers Less Consumption of fixed capital (imputed on fixed assets EqualNet operating surplus For non-market activity Net operating surplus is zero VA can be calculated directly

 Value added for non-market producers are calculated directly, unlike that of market producers which is calculated as a residual. Operating surplus is assumed to be zero.  Value added at basic prices= Compensation of employees + other taxes (less subsidies) on production + consumption of fixed capital.  Gross output at basic prices = Intermediate consumption + value added at basic prices.  Data: Administrative sources

 ISIC is an international system of classification of economic activity on which national economic activity classification (NSIC) should be based. This basically means that NSIC can be reclassified into ISIC for international comparison purposes.  Fact: It has been confirmed by many studies that value added and even intermediate consumption at the detailed levels as ratios of gross outputs are very stable in the short-run and quite stable in the long-run as technology reflected by those ratios take time to change.  Consequence: Value added ratios are used to estimate value added given gross outputs.  Procedure: surveys are carried out monthly, quarterly or annually to obtain gross outputs. Value added ratios are applied gross outputs to estimate value added.

VvvvvvggVaVVvvV VVAVVVV VA ratios of Benchmark year Monthly, quarterly surveys on output by ISIC Estimated quarterly value added =VA ratios x outputs of the quarter Annual surveys on output and also by value added by ISIC Estimated annual value added =VA ratios x outputs of the year Quarterly Value added must be reconciled to annual value added

 Estimates will be more reliable if value added ratios are available at detailed level because:  Production technology is different for different activity: Using only agricultural value added ratios are less reliable than using detailed valued ratios for specific crops, animal production, vegetation, etc. to estimate the components and sum them up.  The structure of a more aggregate grouping changes more quickly due to demand than due to production technology.  Estimates will be more reliable if value added ratios are frequently updated, either every year or at least every five years.

 Employment, preferably working hours collected through labor force survey: useful for household activities.  Other physical indicators such as crop production, kwh of electricity, tons of petroleum produced, etc.

 Though value added can be calculated more reliably by economic activity but data can only be collected from production units which have identifiable addresses and can respond to questionnaires.  This will be the subject of the next part.

 Statistical units are the entities for which information is sought and for which statistics are ultimately compiled. These units can, in turn, be divided into observation units and analytical units. The statistical units in the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) Rev. 4 comprise:  enterprise;  enterprise group;  establishment;  local unit;  kind-of-activity unit (KAU);  homogeneous unit of production. Observation units Analytical units

 Establishments are statistical units that are observable, with addresses and therefore able subject to surveys.  They can be:  an enterprise -cum -establishment: a legal unit located in one geographical area, engages in one type of economic activity and produces one type of product.  full-fledged establishment as a part of an enterprise :with identifiable activity and location and with full cost accounting  Local unit: a part of an enterprise but located in a separate geographical location from the main location with identifiable activity and with full cost accounting (a local unit identified as establishment).  a government unit : with accounts of costs, fixed assets.  a non-profit institution  a household: engages in production, like farming, manufacturing, operating shops from home or outside home.

One establishment corporation (=enterprise = legal unit) Production establishment, ISIC x Headquarter establishment (ISIC x3) Multi-establishment corporation Production establishment, ISIC x1 Production establishment, ISIC x2 May or may not locate in the same geographical areas

Universe of Establishment/enterprises Non-list frame segment (households) List-frame segment (corporations) Large unitsSmall units Public sector Private sector With fixed premises Without fixed premises In business registerNot in business register Census and sample surveys Household-based area sampling surveys

 A listing of all large and probably medium corporations (legally incorporated enterprises) is needed. Only information on employment, and probably sales on local units identified by ISIC are requested. Large: 250 employees and over, Medium:50-250 employees.  Large corporations:  Census should cover all large corporations. Large is defined by UN International Recommendations for industrial Statistics as having at least 250 employees.  Annual and monthly surveys: All large corporations or a large sample should be covered.  Medium, small and micro corporations:  Census or annual and monthly surveys: only samples are needed. Sample size varies inversely by type of corporation size.  Small and micro corporations if not in the list frame may be treated as part of non-listed frames  Household unincorporated units (non-listed frame):  Identify household-based enterprises by area sampling  Sample surveying household-based enterprises

 Farm census:  A census is a complete count of farms and ranches. A very few country, where farms (organized as corporations) are less numerous, censuses on farm revenues and costs are carried out every 5 years.  For example, the US has had recent censuses on 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007. In 2007 it has 2.2 millions farms.  Surveys:  Sample surveys of farms can be carried out annually/seasonally from prospective plantings to production incomes and output.

 Census: For most countries with huge number of farms which are not incorporated, agriculture census focuses mainly on land use.  Crops:  Census of land use  Surveys on yield rates  Plantations (fruit trees, coconut trees, coffees, orchards, etc.) Similar to above and/or Survey/reports of Corporations  Animal stocks  Survey: yield rates by crop cutting are carried out for estimating output.  Rural Household surveys on supplementary agricultural products in backyards.

 Statistical units for non-market activities are normally identical with administrative units for which administrative data are regularly required.  Output may be estimated by using data provided in budget plans, corrected for historical and normal deviations between planned budgets and realized budgets.   Data will be revised when realized budget data is available.

ISIC Rev. 4 Corporations (state & nonstate) HouseholdsNPISH General government Agriculture, forestry and fishing Major products XX Supplementary products X Mining and quarrying XX Manufacturing XX Utility XX Construction XX Market services XX Non-market services XX

19992007 GDP100% General Government9%8.52% Financial corporations2%1.81% Households41%30% Nonprofit institutions0% Nonfinancial corporations49%59.7%

19992007 Total households41%30% Agriculture20%13% Forestry1% Fishery3% Mining & Quarrying-- Manufacturing3%5% Utility-- Construction2% Trade & auto repair5%1% Hotels, restaurants1%2% Transport, communication1% Finance, insurance-- Business services (mainly real estate)3%2% Education-- Health-- Culture, sports-- Personal services1%2%

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