2Objective: To examine the causes of the Spanish – American War. The Battleship Maine
3Our relationship with Cuba had strengthened through Pan Americanism.
4Cuba and Puerto Rico where commonwealth states of Spain.
5Commonwealth is:a group of sovereign states and their dependencies associated by their own choice and linked with common objectives and interests of another country (like the US, Britain or Spain).
6War With SpainPan-American Union – a group of nations organized to solve the problems of the Western Hemisphere
7Lola Rodríguez de Tió – Puerto Rican poet that wrote patriotic poems in favor of Puerto Rican and Cuban independence from Spain
8La Borinqueña Lyrics: Lola Rodríguez de Tió Despierta, borinqueño que han dado la señal! Despierta de ese sueño que es hora de luchar! A ese llamar patriótico no arde tu corazón? Ven! Nos será simpático el ruido del cañon.Arise, Puerto Rican! the call to arms has sounded! Awake from this dream, it is time to fight! Doesn't this patriotic call set your heart alight? Come! We are in tune with the roar of the cannon.
9Mira, ya el cubano libre será; le dará el machete su libertad Mira, ya el cubano libre será; le dará el machete su libertad... le dará el machete su libertad. Ya el tambor guerrero dice en su son, que es la manigua el sitio, el sitio de la reunión, de la reunión, de la reunión. El Grito de LaresCome, the Cuban will soon be free; the machete will give him his liberty... the machete will give him his liberty. Now the war drum says with its sound, that the jungle is the place of the meeting, of the meeting... of the meeting.
10se ha de repetir, y entonces sabremos vencer o morir se ha de repetir, y entonces sabremos vencer o morir. Bellísima Borinquen, a Cuba hay que seguir; tu tienes bravos hijos que quieren combatir. ya por mas tiempo impávido no podemos estar, ya no queremos, tímidos dejarnos subyugar.The Cry of Lares must be repeated, and then we will know: victory or death. Beautiful Puerto Rico must follow Cuba; you have brave sons who wish to fight. Now, no longer can we be unmoved; now we do not want timidly to let them subjugate us.
11Nosotros queremos ser libre ya, y nuestro machete afilado esta y nuestro machete afilado esta. Por que entonces, nosotros hemos de estar, tan dormidos y sordos y sordos a esa señal? a esa senil, a esa senil?We want to be free now, and our machete has been sharpened... and our machete has been sharpened. Why then have we been so sleepy and deaf and deaf to the call? There is no need to fear, Puerto Ricans, the roar of the cannon; saving the nation is the duty of the heart.No hay que temer, riquenos al ruido del canon, que salvar a la patria es deber del corazón!
12ya no queremos déspotas, caiga el tirano ya, las mujeres indómitas también sabrán luchar. Nosotros queremos la libertad, y nuestros machetes nos la dará... y nuestro machete nos la dará. Vámonos, borinqueños, vámonos ya, que nos espera ansiosa, ansiosa la libertad. La libertad, la libertad!We no longer want despots, tyranny shall fall now; the unconquerable women also will know how to fight. We want liberty, and our machetes will give it to us... and our machete will give it to us. Come, Puerto Ricans, come now, since freedom awaits us anxiously, anxiously freedom. freedom! freedom!
13José Martí - Cuban patriot that wrote about the need for Cuban independence. He died fighting the Spanish in 1895.José Martí - Cuban patriot that wrote about the need for Cuban independence. He died fighting the Spanish in 1895.José MartíListen to La Guantanamera, Cuba's most famous song, based upon Jose Martí's poem Versos Sencillos.
14José Martí - Quotations On Liberty:“Like bones to the human body, the axle to the wheel, the wing to the bird, and the air to the wing, so is liberty the essence of life. Whatever is done without it is imperfect.”On Morality and Human Behavior:“Just as he who gives his life to serve a great idea is admirable, he who avails himself of a great idea to serve his personal hopes of glory and power is abominable, even if he too risks his life. To give one's life is a right only when one gives it unselfishly.”
15General Valeriano Weyler – Spanish governor of Cuba that used brutal tactics against the Cubans. He was responsible for detaining over 500,000 Cubans and killing over 100,000.* Americans sympathized with the Cuban desire for freedom.
16Yellow JournalismJoseph Pulitzer’s New York WordWilliam Randolph Hearst’s New York Journalcompeted to publish the most grisly stories of Spanish cruelty.(left) Joseph Pulitzer(right) William Randolph Hearst
17This competition became known as Yellow Journalism: bold headlines and articles
18· political cartoons that portrayed the Spanish as bloodthirsty.
20· Joseph Pulitzer once stated, “You supply me the photos, I’ll supply you the war.”
21- President McKinley, however, wanted to avoid war with Spain.
22Remember the Maine!· President McKinley sent the battleship Maine to Cuba to protect American citizens and property.
23· An explosion destroyed the Maine killing 260 U.S. sailors.
24JingoismAggressive nationalism established by the Republican Party towards President McKinley not going to war with Spain over Cuba.(Egs. In history Pearl Harbor, Anti-semetism, Japanese internment, War with Iraq)
36· Spain surrendered after their fleet was destroyed two days later in Santiago Bay. The torpedo was a new, highly feared weapon system which saw very little use during the war. In spite of all of the amazing claims of its abilities, the Spanish American War saw no vessel on either side sunk through the use of a torpedo. However, at the battle of Santiago, the Spanish cruiser VIZCAYA apparently suffered a torpedo hit, putting the ship out of action.
37Results of the War"The war of the United States with Spain was very brief. Its results were many, startling, and of world-wide meaning." --Henry Cabot Lodge1. Cuba was given its independence.2. The U.S. was given control of the islands of Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines.3. Spain received $20 million dollars.
40“School Begins” - In the back of the classroom students representing California, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and Alaska are quietly reading. In the front row are boys representing the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Hawaii looking as if they would rather not be there.
41“The American Policy”Miss Columbia, teacher at the Liberty School, is ringing a bell. Uncle Sam, switch in hand, is dragging by the ear a Filipino boy in loincloth and amulet. Boys from Hawaii, Cuba, and Puerto Rico are standing around watching.
42Ruling Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines The Teller Amendment gave Cuba their independence in 1899 at the conclusion of the Spanish – American War.
43· Cuba was forced to sign the Platt Amendment, which: - limited Cuba’s right to make treaties and borrow money- allowed the U.S. to intervene in Cuba- gave the U.S. control of the naval base in Guantanamo Bay
48Ruling Puerto RicoThe Foraker Act of 1900 gave Puerto Ricans their own government.Puerto Ricans were given American citizenship in 1917.Puerto Rico's official flag was adopted in 1952 on the same day that Puerto Rico became a commonwealth. The red symbolizes blood, the white symbolizes individual liberty and rights, and the blue triangle symbolizes the three branches of the republican government (and also the sky and coastal waters of this beautiful Caribbean island).
49War in the PhilippinesFilipinos were angry with the U.S. for refusing to grant them independence.Therefore, Emilio Aguinaldo and his troops continued to fight against the U.S.The war ended in 1901 when Aguinaldo was captured.Over 4,000 Americans and 220,000 Filipinos died in the war, including 20,000 Filipino soldiers.The Philippines were finally given their independence in 1946.