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Global OD: From Diversity to Multicultural Competency Enrique J. Zaldivar www.inspired-inc.com.

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Presentation on theme: "Global OD: From Diversity to Multicultural Competency Enrique J. Zaldivar www.inspired-inc.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 Global OD: From Diversity to Multicultural Competency Enrique J. Zaldivar www.inspired-inc.com

2 Introductions... CBODN 2010© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.2 (a “high-context culture” thing to do) Please, introduce yourself by stating:  Your name;  The culture(s) you’d claim belonging to; and  Why are you here today?

3 © Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.3 A conversation from three PERSPECTIVES...  Multi-national perspective  Multi-cultural perspective, in the U.S.  Organizational perspective (even when operating in a seemingly homogeneous environment) CBODN 2010

4 Imaginary Line Exercise  Please, stand up on a place in the line that you feel best reflects your own competence about performing effectively and successfully in a multicultural/multinational environment. © Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.4CBODN 2010

5 Making the case for: Multicultural Competency  Why should we care about increasing our own multicultural competence? 5© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

6 © Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.6 Global OD: From Diversity to Multicultural Competency  中國  Zh ō ngguó CBODN 2010

7 THE WORLD © Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.7CBODN 2010

8 REALLY ? © Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.8CBODN 2010

9 THE WORLD ? © Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.9CBODN 2010

10 THE WORLD ? © Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.10CBODN 2010

11 THE WORLD ? © Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.11CBODN 2010

12 THE WORLD ? © Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.12CBODN 2010

13 We need a volunteer to: Please, draw a fish... 13© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

14 A passage from... James Morier’s “The Adventures of Hajji Baba of Ispahan.” 14© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

15 Small group exercise...  Why should we care about increasing our own multicultural competence?  (in other words)  Why is it important to become even more competent than we already are at performing more effectively and successfully when working:  Multi-nationally (abroad);  Multi-culturally (in the US); or  Organizationally (mindful of organizational cultures)? 15© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

16 Purpose...  Tap into your own skills and diversity awareness to take it a step forward and develop your skill at performing more effectively/successfully in multi- cultural/-national environments  and, hopefully, also develop a life-long curiosity.  Increase your awareness of how your everyday thoughts and actions exist within a cultural context; the cultural dimension that inevitably informs our own Use of Self.  Place our own cultures into a meta-cultural context, to better understand the inherent biases we all bring to our human interactions, by introducing frameworks that improve our awareness, understanding and effectiveness of diversity & cultural competency.  Develop your confidence and commitment to apply these understandings and skills regularly, on your daily life, as well as on your own professional practices. © Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.16CBODN 2010

17 Uniqueness in Mental Programming 17© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

18 A model of culture... 18© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

19 Culture clash...  Practices/Behaviors  Norms & Values Basic Existential Assumptions 19© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

20 Normal (healthy) response to stress...  Biological responses to stress (hijacked amygdala):  Fight  Flee  Freeze  Appease  If a bio-reaction stops you …  Notice your reaction  Take a deep breath; relax your eyes and knees  Ask yourself:  What just happened?  What conversation blocker is causing my reaction?  What is important right now? 20© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

21  National (background) / Nationality  Regional / Ethnic / Linguistic  Racial (ancestral)  Generational / Age  Gender / Sexual orientation  Educational / Religious  Mental (IQ, EQ) & physical abilities  Organizational: field & hierarchy  Social issues  Social class (let’s use annual income): Poor ( 1M)  Relationship with authority (social inequality)  Relationship between ind. & group  Concepts of masculinity & femininity  Ways of dealing with uncertainty and ambiguity (related to control of aggression / expression of emotions)  Long-term vs. short-term orientation 21© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

22 Dimensions of societal cultural diversity  Relationships amongst people:  Individualism vs. Collectivism- Group – Individual  Inequality vs. Equality- Power distance  Neutral vs. Affective- Masculinity – Femininity  Specific vs. Diffuse- Uncertainty avoidance (losing face)  Universalism vs. Particularism- Relationships – rules  Achievement vs. Ascription- How we accord status  Attitudes about time:  Past vs. Present vs. Future- Long-term – short-term orientation  Monochronic vs. Polychronic- How we define & manage time  Attitudes about the environment:  From within vs. From the outside- How we relate to nature 22© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

23 CULTURAL DIMENSION Abstractive (heterogeneous)CHARACTERISTIC CULTUREAssociative (homogeneous) Individualistic (earned status)SOCIAL STRUCTURECollective (ascribed status) Objective (control of nature)PHISOLOPHIC OUTLOOKSubjective (harmony w/nature) Need for achievement (masculine) PSYCHOLOGIC FOCUS Need for affiliation (feminine) Analytic (realm of prose)THOUGHT PATTERNSRelational (realm of poetry) Future orientation (mono-chronic) (non-sensual) PERCEPTION Past/present orientation (poly-chronic) (sensual) Competition / aloof (written/electr.) (impersonal) INTERACTION Cooperation / involved (face-to-face) (personal) It’s all about DOING (independence) BASIC VALUES It’s all about BEING (interdependence/dependence) Adapted from G. Weaver, 1998 b/ 23© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010 To Do To Be

24 Exercise: In small groups: Which organization is normal?  I) An organization is a system designed to perform functions and tasks in an efficient way. People are hired to perform these functions with the help of machines and other equipment. They are paid for the tasks they perform.  II) An organization is a group of people working together. They have social relations with other people and with the organization. The functioning is dependent on these relations. “Culture still seems like a luxury item to most managers, a dish on the side.” – F. Trompenaars 24© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

25 Which organization is normal? 25© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

26 Basis of organizational cultural diversity (a way to organize cultures in organizations)  Relationships between employees & their organizations:  Attitudes about authority;  Views about the organization’s destiny, purpose & goals. equality vs hierarchy  task vs people orientations  Family- Hierarchical & people oriented (person focused)  Pyramidal- Hierarchical & task oriented (role focused)  Objective- Egalitarian & task oriented (project focused)  Existential- Egalitarian & people oriented (fulfillment focused) 26© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

27 National patterns of organizational culture Adapted from F. Trompenaars, 1998 a/ Family Organization Pyramidal Organization Objective Organization Existential Organization 27© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

28 So... What to do about all this? 28© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

29 “The test of a first rate intelligence is the ability to hold two opposed ideas in the mind, at the same time, and still retain the ability to function.” - F. Scott Fitzgerald 29© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

30 Levels of Identity... The key to transcend from the current multicultural reality, and our own mono-, bi-, or multi-cultural identity, to... 30© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

31 Multicultural reality? CBODN 2010© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.31

32 Levels of Identity... The key to transcend from the current multicultural reality, and our own mono-, bi-, or multi-cultural identity, to... a truly Transcultural Identity lies in our capacity to develop our Multicultural Competence. 32© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

33 Developing our own Multicultural Competency REQUIRES:  Self-awareness of our own cultural peculiarities  Awareness of cultural differences  Respecting cultural differences  Leveraging cultural differences (the power of diversity) 33© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

34 In conclusion... CBODN 2010© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.34  Building on our own skills, and diversity awareness, let’s take it a step further by increasing our multicultural competency;  Assessing and increasing our own level of cultural self-awareness, the cultural dimension that inevitably informs our own Use of Self, increases our efficacy in today’s world;  Placing our own culture into a meta-cultural context, inevitably helps us understand the inherent biases we all bring to our human interactions;  Trying to become competent in the culture of another individual by simply learning the “tricks” for how to behave in that culture, without doing the inner work about understanding our own culture, is a fallacy; and  Increasing our sensitivity to the differences within each client system and between different client systems increases our professional effectiveness.

35 Bibliography a) Earley, P. Christopher & Ang, Soon. Cultural Intelligence: Individual Interactions Across Cultures. Stanford U. Press, Stanford, CA, 2003. b) Hall, Edward T. Beyond Culture. Doubleday, New York,1976. c) Hofstede, Geert & Gert Jan. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. McGraw Hill, New York, 2005. d) House, Robert J. et. al. Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. Sage, New York, 2004. e) Trompenaars, Fons. Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business. 2 nd ed. McGraw Hill, New York, 1998. f) Weaver, Gary R. Culture, Communication and Conflict: Readings in Intercultural Relations; 2 nd edition. Simon & Schuster, Needham Heights, MA, 1998. g) Zaldivar, Suzanne M. Change in Afghanistan: Contrasting Values and What is Essential about OD. OD Journal, 2010. h) Zaldivar, Suzanne M. International Development through OD — My Experience in Afghanistan. OD Practitioner, 2008. 35© Copyright 2010. E. J. Zaldivar, Inspired-Inc. All Rights Reserved.CBODN 2010

36 Global OD: From Diversity to Multicultural Competency Enrique J. Zaldivar www.inspired-inc.com


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