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Post World War  Europe - Marshall Plan (1948-51; $13 Billion spent on rebuilding Europe)  U.S. – Baby boom (1946-64, 78.3 million babies born)  Germany.

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Presentation on theme: "Post World War  Europe - Marshall Plan (1948-51; $13 Billion spent on rebuilding Europe)  U.S. – Baby boom (1946-64, 78.3 million babies born)  Germany."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Post World War  Europe - Marshall Plan ( ; $13 Billion spent on rebuilding Europe)  U.S. – Baby boom ( , 78.3 million babies born)  Germany – Nuremberg Trials (Nov 1945-Oct 46; 24 Nazi leaders tried for various crimes)

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5 Nuremberg Trials

6 Charges at the trial The indictments were for:  Participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of a crime against peace  Planning, initiating and waging wars of aggression and other crimes against peace  War crimes  Crimes against humanity

7 Alfred Jodl -

8  Americans, British, French and Soviet soldiers did not face any sort of charges like Nazi leaders did for war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity

9 Post War Europe

10 Human Toll  Russian losses:  20,000,000 soldiers dead  25,000,000 homeless, jobless, wandering  US  405,000 soldiers dead

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12  Berlin and Germany divided into four sections in order to rebuild it following the war and De-nazify it.  Other nations are retained by the Soviet Union (Poland, Austria, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia)

13 Vocab  Containment = restricting Communism to its current borders  Truman Doctrine = Help anyone (with $$$ or forces) to repel communist advances  USSR = Soviet Union (aka Russia; aka Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)

14 Berlin Airlifts June 1948 – May 1949

15 Berlin Airlifts  Disagreements led the USSR shutting access to West Berlin from the West in hopes of taking it.  11 months of pilots flying in thousands of pounds supplies, food and medicine united the world against the Soviet Union

16 NATO  The North Atlantic Treaty Organization  An attack on one country will be considered an attack on all. -Harry Truman

17 Warsaw Pact  Formed in 1955 in response to West Germany being admitted to NATO  Adds military support to economic comradely Members:Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East German, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Soviet Union

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19 Communist revolution in China (1949)

20 Identity Crisis  Mao Zedong (or Chairman Mao) united his people after a long civil war + WWII time out.  Nationalist gov’t was seen as weak and corrupt; yet the U.S. involved itself to enforce Truman Doctrine  Since Stalin and Mao didn’t trust each other, Truman may had allied with China, if not for backing a loser. (Jiang Jieshi)

21  Jiang Jieshi = Chiang Kai-shek (they’re the same… don’t ask me how.)  Military leader  Political leader  Dictator of Taiwan after exile

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23 Korea  Territory of Japan until post-WWII  Divided in half [at the 38 parallel] for the US and USSR to rebuild and later reunify  North made a communist gov’t; South made a democratic/capitalistic one  N. Korea will invade the South and provoke war

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25   UN Supreme Commander for Korea  Questioned the strategy of the president  Was fired in 1951  Died in 1964, with full state honors

26 Letter of complaint  It seems strangely difficult for some to realize that here in Asia is where the Communist conspirators have elected to make their play for global conquest, and that we have joined the issue thus raised on the battlefield; that here we fight Europe's war with arms while the diplomats there still fight it with words; that if we lose the war to communism in Asia the fall of Europe is inevitable, win it and Europe most probably would avoid war and yet preserve freedom. As you pointed out, we must win. There is no substitute for victory.

27 General Stanley McChrystal  Resigned in 2010 for criticizing the Administration (Biden, others) in Rolling Stone Magazine “The Runaway General”

28 McCarthyism  Following the embarrassment with China, Americans are fearing communism. The use of tactics involving personal attacks on individuals by means of widely publicized indiscriminate allegations especially on the basis of unsubstantiated charges. -

29 Joseph McCarthy  McCarthyism: the Red Scare  Many people lost their jobs, comparable to witch hunts  The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) Hearings

30  The Rosenbergs  Soviet spies, traitors  Gave secrets of the Atomic bombs to the USSR  Executed June 1953

31 Harry Truman  Atomic Bomb  Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine  United Nations  Fair Deal  Israel  Korea

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33 Dwight “IKE” Eisenhower  End Korean War  Domino Theory  CIA  Operation to help French in Vietnam

34 ELECTION OF 1960: KENNEDY VS. NIXON  First Televised Debates

35  Bay of Pigs  Cuban Missile Crisis  Space Race  Peace Corps

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37  Berlin Crisis, 1961 (4 June – 9 November 1961)  In November 1958, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev issued an ultimatum giving the Western powers six months to agree to withdraw from Berlin and make it a free, demilitarized city.  West refuses

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39 August 12-13, 1961 East Berlin’s boarders are sealed 97 miles of barbed wire Improved wire fence (1962–1965) Concrete wall (1965–1975) Grenzmauer 75 (Border Wall 75) (1975–1989) 32,000 combat engineers build The Wall Sealing in East German citizens

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41 1989

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43 DOMESTIC POLICY: KENNEDY’S NEW FRONTIER ( )  Emphasis on Technology, Science, and Social Relations  Space Exploration

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45  April , Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin  First man in space  U.S.S.R.  Americans feared the USSR was ahead of the US in the production of missiles

46 First American Alan Shepard May 5, 1961

47 July 20, 1969

48 But just ten years later  First man on Moon  Neil Armstrong  Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin  JFK will not live to see his dream succeed U.S.A.U.S.A.

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52 FOREIGN POLICY  Bay of Pigs (1961)  Cuban exiles return to overthrow Castro  With the backing of Kennedy  Kennedy promises US air support  Kennedy abandons Cubans on the beach  Will not send airstrikes

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56 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)  October 14–28, 1962  For thirteen days the world stood at the brink of nuclear war.  Castro afraid US would invade again  USSR wanted to counter American lead in ballistic missiles  (US 298 ICBM vs USSR estimate 75. USSR did have 700 medium range missles)

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58  Khrushchev and Castro agreed to place strategic nuclear missiles secretly in Cuba.  The first consignment of R-12 missiles arrived on the night of September 8, followed by a second on September 16  Unconfirmed rumors started coming to US  Oct 14 U-2 airplane photographs missile sites

59  US imposes blockade around Cuba  2 countries play chicken  USSR blinks

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62 Kennedy Assassination  Dallas, TX – Nov 22, 1963  On the way to a meeting, group took a parade route for maximum exposure to the public  Wife Jackie and others are in the car when he is shot dead  Warren Commission  Conspiracy Theories

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