2Learning OutcomesLO1: Discuss the primary goals of civil law and criminal law, and explain how these goals are realized.LO2: Explain the differences between crimes mala in se and mala prohibita.LO3: Identify the publication in which the FBI reports crime data and list the three ways in which the data are reported.
3Learning OutcomesLO4: Distinguish between the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and self-reported surveys.LO5: Identify the three factors most often used by criminologists to explain increases and decreases in the nation’s crime rate.
5Classifications of Crimes Three important classifications of crimesinclude:Civil Law and Criminal LawFelonies and MisdemeanorsCrimes Mala in Se and Mala Prohibita
6Learning Outcome 1 Civil Law Civil court is concerned with responsibility.The burden of proof is preponderance of the evidence.The remedy for violations of civil law is compensation.Criminal LawCriminal court is concerned with guilt.The burden of proof is beyond a reasonable doubt.The remedy for violations is some form of punishment.
7Learning Outcome 1 The Burden of Proof: The burden of proof is greater in criminal trials.Criminal cases – beyond a reasonable doubtCivil cases – preponderance of the evidence.
8Learning Outcome 1 Felonies More serious or atrocious than misdemeanors.Punishable by death or imprisonment in a penitentiary for a period of a year or longer.MisdemeanorsLess serious crimes.Punishable by a fine and or incarceration in a local jail for up to one year.
9Learning Outcome 1 Four degrees of Felonies: Capital Offenses, for which the maximum punishment is death.First Degree Felonies, for which the maximum punishment is life in prison.Second Degree Felonies, punishable by up to ten years’ imprisonment.Third Degree Felonies, punishable by up to five years’ imprisonment.
10Learning Outcome 1 Degrees of Murder: First Degree Murder PremeditatedDeliberateSecond Degree MurderMalice Aforethought
12Learning Outcome 1 Degrees of Manslaughter: Voluntary Manslaughter Intent to kill was present in the mind of the offender, but malice was lacking.Involuntary ManslaughterNegligent homicide; the intent to kill was lacking.
15Learning Outcome 2 Mala in Se Acts that are inherently wrong, regardless of whether they are prohibited by law.Examples include murder, rape, and theft.Mala ProhibitaActs that are made illegal by criminal statute and are not necessarily wrong in and of themselves.Examples include speeding and loitering.
16CAREERPREP Paralegal Job Description: Assist lawyers in many aspects of legal work, including preparing for trial, researching legal documents, drafting contracts, and investigating cases.In addition to criminal law, work includes civil law, corporate law, intellectual property, bankruptcy, immigration, family law, and real estate.What Kind of Training Is Required?A community college–level paralegal program that leads to an associate degree.For those who already have a college degree, a certificate in paralegal studies.Annual Salary Range?$30,000–$75,000For additional information, visit:
19Learning Outcome 3 The Uniform Crime Report (UCR) Produced by the Federal Bureau of InvestigationIncludes data collected from 17,500 policing agencies each year, including:Number of arrests.Number of crimes reported.Number of officers and support specialists.
20Learning Outcome 3 UCR data is reported as: A rate per 100,000 persons.As a percentage change from previous years.As an aggregate, or total number of crimesThis data is published by the Department of Justice in Crime in the United States.
21Learning Outcome 3 Part I Offenses: Violent Crimes Property Crimes Murder and non-negligent manslaughterRobberyAggravated assaultForcible RapeProperty CrimesBurglaryLarceny-TheftMotor Vehicle TheftArson
22Learning Outcome 3 Part II Offenses: Includes all crimes that do not fall into the category of Part I offenses.Measured only by arrest data.Occur six times more often than Part I offenses.
24Learning Outcome 4Victim Surveys are a method of gathering crime where citizens are surveyed directly regarding their criminal victimizations.Victim surveys attempt to uncover the dark figure of crime.The most well-known victim survey is the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS).
25Learning Outcome 4 Advantages of the NCVS over the UCR Measures both reported and unreported crimeUnaffected by police bias and distortions in reporting crime to the UCRDoes not rely on victims reporting crime to the policeReliability of the NCVS
27Learning Outcome 4Self-report surveys ask respondents to tell about their criminal activities.Subjects tend to be more honest because there is no penalty.Results suggest that the dark figure of crime is much larger than UCR or NCVS would suggest.
32Learning Outcome 5 Drug Wars of the 1980’s The impact of crackThe methamphetamine scourgeQuestioning the legality of drugsCrime in the 1990s and 2000sThe great crime declineLeveling offWhat the future holds
34CAREERPREP Gang Investigator Job Description: Conduct assessments and refer at-risk youth to appropriate activities, programs, or agencies as an alternative to becoming involved in criminal activity. Also, counsel troubled youths and their families.Serve as a liaison between the police department and schools and community organizations regarding gangs and other youth-related matters.What Kind of Training Is Required?At a minimum, a high school diploma and any combination of training, education, and experience equivalent to three to five years’ social service employment involving youth. A law enforcement background is also very helpful.Preferred candidates will have a bachelor’s degree in counseling, criminal justice, or another social science field. Bilingual (English/Spanish) skills are desired.Annual Salary Range?$40,000–$49,000For additional information, visit:
36Learning Outcome 5 Crime, Race and Poverty: In general, poor people and minorities commit more crimes and are more often the victims of crimes, than wealthier people and whites.
37Learning Outcome 5 Race and Crime: Official data indicates a strong relationship between minority status and crime.Less than half those arrested for violent crimes are Black, but Blacks account for over half of all convictions and 60% of prison admissions.
38Learning Outcome 5 Class and Crime: The highest crime rates in the U.S. are consistently recorded in low-income, urban neighborhoods with the highest unemployment rates.Lack of education is also related to criminal offending.However, while these things are correlated, poverty does not cause crime.d
39Learning Outcome 5 Ethnicity and Crime: Race – based on physical characteristics.Ethnicity – based on national or cultural background.Many crime studies exclude Hispanics, Asian Americans, Native Americans, and other immigrant groups.d
40Learning Outcome 5 Women and Crime In 1970, 6,000 women in federal and state prisons……today, more than 114,000.Explanations for the increase:The life circumstances and behavior of women have changed dramatically.Criminal justice system’s attitude towards women has changed.
41ABC Video: Women in Maximum Security Prison: Murderers