2CHAPTER 11, Section 1 The Causes Hitler’s ideas and goals: “cancer of democracy,” “create the highest authoritarian state,” forge a new domestic unity, “only a struggle can save us,’ everything else must be subordinated to this idea,” the youth must be trained “to fight with all means,” Germany must rearm and institute a military draft, men must not be “poisoned by pacifism, Marxism, or Bolshevism” for “the conquest of new living space in the east and its ruthless Germanization.”
3Hitler defies Versailles 1935 creation of the Luftwaffe (air force), thedraft -army from 100,000 to 550,000 troops.Saw Western states as weak & would not enforce the restrictions of Versaillessent troops into the demilitarized Rhineland.Britain began policy of appeasement.
4What are the Western nations scared of? (France and G B)
6Italy becomes Aggressive Mussolini -new Roman Empire.In 1935, he invaded Ethiopia & was condemned by Western powersLoN does nothing
7AXIS Alliances are formed In 1936, Germany & Italy helped created Rome-Berlin Axis.in Nov. Germany also signed the Anti-Comintern Pact w. Japan
8Anschluss 1938, Hitler forced the Austria to put Nazis in power. Hitler annexed Austria
9Munich Conference:Hitler demanded the Sudetenland (German speaking area of Czechoslovakia.)Western powers appeased Hitler in return for his “promise” to not make more demands.British PM Neville Chamberlain called it “peace for our time.”But in 1939, Hitler took ALL of western Czechoslovakia
10White BoardWhat pieces of land has Germany taken as their own and what has the L O N done.
12Hitler wants PolandAfter Hitler demanded port city of Danzig, Britain promised to protect new independent country of Poland from Nazi aggression.
13Nazi-Soviet PactFearful of a two-front war, Hitler signed the peace alliance with Communist USSRStalin was promised east Poland and the Baltic statesSeptember 1, Hitler attacked Poland. Britain & France declared war. WWII had begun!
14DiscussWhy does Hitler want this land and why would he make a deal with Stalin
15Invasion of PolandSeptember 1, 1939 Hitler attacked Poland. Britain & France declared war.WWII had begun!
16Japan Increases aggression Back in 1931, seizure of mineral rich Chinese region of Manchuria and created the puppet state of Manchukuo.League of Nations condemned, so Japan withdrew!
17China weak due to civil wAR Chiang Kai-shek- Nationalist LeaderMao Ze Dong-Communist
18Japan Invades ChinaNationalist leader Chiang Kai- shek tried to appease Japan by allowing it to govern areas in northern China.But as Japan moved southward, in 1936Chiang stopped fighting Mao & the communists & created a united Chinese force vs. Japanese expansion.In 1937, Japan began the “Rape of Nanjing.”
19Japan’s Asian EmpireTokyo had hoped to force Chiang into a “New Order”, with Japan as the modern leader of East Asia.Japan began to cooperate w. Nazi Germany and planned on a joint attack vs. the Soviet Union.after the Nazi-Soviet Pact was signed, Japan had to look to Southeast Asia for needed resources.
2011.2 A The Axis Powers Advance THE TWO ALLIANCES Italy- MussoliniJapan-TOJO (Hirohito)Germany- HitlerALLIESUSA- Franklin D RooseveltG.B-Winston ChurchillUSSR- StalinFRANCE-De GaulleCHINA- Mao
21Invasion of Poland Sept. 1, 1939 blitzkrieg to conquer in only four weeks-Lighting War quick attack from land and airHitler addressed Reichstag“I am going into this struggle strong in heart. My whole life has been nothing but a struggle for Germany… I myself am ready to risk my life… I demand the same of everyone else…Anyone who thinks that he can oppose this national commandment… will die!”Sept. 28, 1939, Germans & Soviets divided a conquered Poland.
22White BoardBased on Hitler's speech, what does he expect of his people.
23Nazis Advanceblitzkrieg attack took-Denmark ,Norway ,Netherlands, Belgium & France.Germans went around the Maginot Line.(line of French fortification)French & British troops caught off-guard & trapped at beaches.“Miracle of Dunkirk.”- thousands of boats sail to rescue soldiers bring to GB
24France ConqueredFrance signed armistice on June 22. Most of France occupied by Nazis.Authoritarian regime set up in south, called Vichy France.Britain stood alone vs. Nazis & began to appeal to U.S. for help.
25White BoardHow is the German Attack on France similar to that of WWI and how is it different?
26US Stays OutFranklin D. Roosevelt denounced aggressors but U.S. followed strict policy of isolationism.U.S. passed a series of neutrality acts,Policies relaxed to provide supplies to Britain (eg. Lend- Lease Act- give and sell weapons to allies
27Germans Wants Britain Battle of Britain Aug, 1940 the Luftwaffe launched major offensive vs. key British sites.Britain developed radar & had broken German military code w. captured Enigma machine.
29Churchill Takes Charge Royal Air Force was outnumbered but fought bravely.“Never before in the course of human history, have so many, owed so much, to so few.” (Winston Churchill)Churchill’s Elected prime minister of Britain.“We shall never surrender!”
30DiscussWho was Churchill and what are his quotes trying to say?
31Britsh fight off the Nazi’s bombing unified British vs. enemy, civilians slept in the Underground.British quickly rebuilt air strength & began inflicting major losses vs.German bombers.
32Axis focus on Eastern Europe Hitler took Greece & Yugoslavia 1941.Italy tried but failedBegan to attack USSRHitler thought Soviet army was weak and could be defeated before winter.
33Germans Attack the Soviets Germany captured two million Soviet soldiers!An early winter & fierce Soviet resistance stalled advancing German soldiers, who were wearing summer uniforms!
34Japan Advances on the Pacific Front December 7, 1941 Japan attaked US Navy at Pearl Harbor.US stopped selling Steel and Oil and was the only major force in the Pacific“A date thatwill live in infamy” (F.D.R.)Congress declared war on Japan.Pearl was devastated but aircraft carriers survived.
35Japanese take the Pacific Japan attacked Philippines, Malaya, Dutch East Indies & other Pacific islands.Defeated US and Filipino forcesBataan Death March1942, Japan ControlledS.E. AsiaNamed Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.
36White BoardGood or bad idea to attack Pearl Harbor for Japan? 1 reason why.
38Attack united American people U.S. joined Allied Powers to fight the Axis Powers in European Theater& Pacific TheaterGrand Alliance of USSR, USA, & GB
3911.2 B Allied Road to Victory Gen. Erwin Rommel led Afrika Korps to victories vs. British in N. Africa.Hitler “British Empire will collapse.”British stopped Rommel in 1942 at Battle of El Alamein, in Egypt (turning point in war.)BRT & U.S. troops forced GRM & ITL to surrender in N. Africa in 1943.
40White BoardWhat vital Natural resource in in North Africa and the Middle East?
41Battle of Stalingrad -Soviets Advance E Front (industrial city deep inside the Soviet Union.) wasextremely bloody. Soviets limited weaponsNight Witches (female Soviet pilots.)Feb.1943 Soviets launched counterattack that encircled German forces & supply lines were cut offin frigid winter conditions. Entire German Sixth Army surrendered!
42White BoardWhy is this battle a turning point of the war?
43Allies Advance in Pacific In Pacific, Battle of the Coral Sea, May, 1942 stopped Japanese advance and saved Australia from invasion.Battle of Midway, U.S. planes destroyed four Japanese aircraft carriers (US broke Japanese secret military code.)U.S. naval supremacy.
44Allied forces in Pacific led two offensive campaigns 1.One commanded by U.S. general Douglas MacArthur would reclaim Philippines,“I shall return.”2.“island hop” selected islands until reaching Japan.
45DiscussWhy use Island hopping instead of taking every single Island the Japanese controlled?
48Italy is attacked From N Africa 1943 Sicily fell, Mussolini arrest by Victor Emmanuel III.Italian govt. surrendered,Mussolini escaped prison w. help of Nazi commandos,Rome was finally captured in June,Mussolini killed April, 1945
49D-Day & Liberations of France Largest amphibious invasion in world history on June 6, 1944 (D-Day.) Crossed EnglishChannel & landed on beaches of Normandy FR,German resistance was heavy, but slow to respondParis was liberated by Aug, 1944.
53Battle of the Bulge Nazis launched last all-out offensive in Dec. Highest number of American casualties in war, but Germans were stopped & began to retreat.Spring 1945 Allies crossed Rhine River & linked up with Soviet forces in northern Germany.
54White BoardWhich battle in Europe had the greatest impact on the outcome of the warGive one reason to justify you answer.
56Soviets advanced from East advancing into German-held territory ever sinceBy Jan the Soviets had taken Warsaw, Poland & in April they entered German capital of Berlin.
57Yalta Conference 1945 Feb-Leaders USSR,GB, US meet -USSR help fight Japan after defeat Germanyagree to split Germany 4 zones controlled- FR, GB, US, USSR
58White BoardWhat things did GB, US, and USSR have in common and what is a major difference between them?
59Fall of NAZI Germany Hitler had been directing war from bunker deep under Berlin.In Hitler’s final testament, he blamed Jews forthe war! He commanded German leaders :continue“the laws of race and to merciless opposition to the universal poisoner of all peoples, international Jewry.”Hitler & his mistress/wife committed suicide on April, 30. On May 7, 1945, German commanders surrendered (VE-Day!)
60April, 1945 F.D.R. died. VP Harry S. Truman -new president. top-secret atomic bombs.(Manhattan Project)He decided to use bombs vs. Japan to avoid an invasion ofJapanese mainland and loss of huge numbers of Allies.
61White BoardWhat are positives and negatives for the US of using the A bomb in Japan.
62A BOMBSHiroshimaAug Air Plane “Enola Gay” drop A-bomb“Little Boy” on Hiroshimakilling 70,000 peopleNagasakiAug Air plane “Bockscar” drop “Fat Man” city- NagasakiKilling 40,000 peoplemany more died later of wounds and/or radiation poisoning.
64(VJ- Day!)Emperor Hirohito forced his military generals to surrender unconditionally on August 14, 1945 (VJ- Day!)
65Casualties ALLIES Country Military Civilian AXIS Britain264,00093,000France213,000350,000China1,31,0001,000,000Soviet Union7,500,00015,000,000US292,000Germany3,000,000780,000Italy242,00053,000Japan1,300,000672,000
66Women had been active in espionage (spies) during WWII. Yoshiko Kawashima born in China but raised in Japan. Sent to China by Japanese authorities to gather info. for invasion of China. Disguised as young man, she was effective spy until her arrest & execution. Egyptian dancer Hekmath Fathmy was a Nazi spy. Sang & danced for British at nightclub & then seduced officers to gain info. Arrested, but spent only one year in prison.Violette Szabo spied for Allies to avenge her husband’s death. She joined British Intelligence & parachuted into France. Caught by German Gestapo, tortured & executed.
6711.3 Nazi and Japanese Control During WWII (New Order) “Nazi occupied Europe” organized two ways:1. some regions directly annexed & made German provinces (eg. W. Poland,)2. most areas ruled by military or civilian officials w. help from local collaborators.
68White BoardWhat areas were annexed and what were simply under Nazi control.
69Nazis “crimes vs. humanity” against those “unfit” for the Third Reich. “The prisoners would be marched by one of the doctors who would make spot decisions… Those who were fit for work were sent into the camp. Other were sent immediately to the extermination plants. Children of tender years were invariably exterminated since by reason of their youth they were unable to work.”(Rudolph Hoss, commandant of Auschwitz, the largest death camp.)
70Heinrich Himmler (SS)charge of “resettlement” plans to Germanize these lands and to enslave and exterminate the Slavs.“Whether nations live in prosperity or starve to death interests me only insofar as we need them as slaves for our culture. Otherwise it is of no interest.”
71Final Solution= genocide of all European Jews. Reinhard Heydrich, head of SS’s Security Service, was put in chargeGestapo- police searched out JewsEinsatzgruppen special strike unit, forced Polish Jews into ghettosFind Jews, execute them and bury them in mass graves, dug by the victims.
72White BoardWhat actions did the Nazi Take prior to WWII that gave signs of the holocaust coming?
73Concentration Campsslave labor & mass extermination in gas chambers and crematoriums.Jews packed in freight trains to camps.Cruel “medical” experiments performed.
74Holocaust14-16 million “undesirables” murdered (Jews, Gypsies, Slavs, “political enemies,” homosexuals, “intellectuals,” “people of conscience,” certain P.O.W.’s, etc.)Civilianssome collaborated by hunting down “undesirables,”most were apathetic, pretended not to know.
75DiscussWhy would some people decide to work as collaborators with the Nazi’s
77“Asia for the Asiatics”, Japanese slogan contact w. anticolonialists & promised local govts. would be established under Japanese control,but real power rested w. Japanese military.
78Resources taken from S E Asia Economic resources of SE Asia used for Japanese war machine & native peoples forced to work.At first, many Asian nationalists cooperated w. Japan.Japanese true intentions became clear,Asian’s turned vs. Japan.
79Japanese AbusesOver a million Vietnamese starved to death as Japan forcibly took their rice and other food productsJapanese military spent several days killing, raping and looting Nanjing, China.Over 800,000 Koreans became slave laborers. Over 100,000 P.O.W. and =
80White BoardWhich nation was responsible for more war atrocities in your opinion give a reason why.
821. Tehran Conference = “Big Three” (FDR, Churchill, Stalin) Agreed to an American-British (& Canadian) invasion through France. The plan meant that Western Allies would meet up w. Soviet Allies in a north-south dividing line in defeated Germany, and then partition postwar Germany.
83Soviet UnionSoviet Union = 1.5 million civilians killed in Leningrad alone! As German army made advances, Soviets dismantled & shipped their factories from western region deeper into Soviet Union. Machines were placed on bare ground & work began, even before a factory was built around machines!“A battle of machines” (Stalin.) Soviets produced 78,000 tanks & 98,000 artillery! Food/housing shortages.Women & girls worked in industries, mines, railroads, dug antitank ditches & were air-raid wardens. Soviets were only ones who used females in combat: snipers, aircrews, etc.GermanyNazi attitude towards women was that they were to keep out of the job market. But as the war progressed, women were encouraged to take on a job, but few German women wanted to.City of Cologne attacked by 1,000 bombers. Dresden torched by incendiary bombs, firestorm killed 100,000! Germans fought on driven by the desire to survive. Industrial production actually increased despite bombings, but destruction of transportation systems made difficult to get materials to the front.Germany = Hitler believed that Germany lost WWI because of a collapse of the will to win by those on the home front. So, Hitler refused to cut production of consumer goods.But w. German setbacks in war, Hitler ordered massive increase in armaments production & size of army.Albert Speer, Hitler’s architect & prime minister for armaments, tripled production within 1 year, despite Allied air raids!
84Widespread migration. Over a million African Americans moved from rural South to urban North & West.
85Japan = highly mobilized society, govt Japan = highly mobilized society, govt. control of prices, wages, labor,, resources. Traditional values of obedience and hierarchy exploited.Kamikaze (divine wind) were volunteer suicide pilots used vs. U.S. ships.General Hideki Tojo, prime minister, opposed female employment. Korean & Chinese slave laborers were imported to fill the job shortage.Crowded cities made of flammable materials were torched by U.S. B-29 bombers.Govt. ordered all people between 13 and 60 to join the People’s “Volunteer” Corps!
86Atomic Bomb = A letter from Albert Einstein to F. D. R Atomic Bomb = A letter from Albert Einstein to F.D.R. convinced him that the U.S. should develop the atomic bomb before the Germans did. Top secret Manhattan Project was an enormous task that cost billions of dollars & employed 600,000. Physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer directed the center in Los Alamos, New Mexico. Three bombs were developed. First one successfully tested in July. On Aug. 6, 1945 Hiroshima was flattened and hundreds of thousands killed. Nagasaki destroyed on Aug. 9. Nuclear Age had begun!
8711.4 Home Front and Aftermath of WWII -New Weapon made the US the dominant world Power -Soviets feared the US and the West
90US Home FrontUnited States = Not fighting on own soil. The great arsenal of Allies (by end of war, produced more war supplies than all of the other countries of the world combined!)
91Women Women filled the Jobs of many men off to war Women did traditional male jobs like constructions and weapons manufacturing
92African AmericansRacial tensions resulted in some race riots. Blacks were segregated in military.Tuskegee Airmen- African American Pilots who broke racial barriers
93Japanese Internment Camps Japanese Americans faced even more serious discrimination. On West Coast, 110,000 Japanese-Americans (most of whom were U.S. citizens) were removed to internment camps for “security reasons.”
94White BoardWhat was hypocritical about these American actions toward minorities?
952.Yalta ConferenceRussia was invading Germany from the East with 11 million Soviet soldiers would occupy Eastern & Central Europe.FDR favored having each nation having democratic governmentsIssue of free elections became a dividing point.FDR wanted Soviet help vs. Japan, so in return he agreed to allow Soviets to gain two Japanese islands & warm-water ports plus railroad rights in Manchuria.
96White BoardWhich of these three nations is not like the other and why?
973.Potsdam ConferenceGermany would be partitioned into four zones (GB, US, FR & USSR.)Harry S. Truman, who demanded free elections in E. Europe.Stalin responded, “A freely elected govt. in any of these East European countries would be anti-Soviet, and that we cannot allow.”
98Soviet leave troops in Eastern Europe Soviets feared invasion of WestWant border of nations to protect from invasionBuffer StatesNo Free Elections they would be communist
99United NationsCreation of the United Nations was agreed upon and first meeting set for April, 1945 in San Francisco.US and USSR key nationsMilitary support would be providedGoal to keep peace around the world
100White BoardWhat other organization is this similar to? What is one major difference
101Nuremberg TrialsNazi leaders were tried and convicted as war criminals at the in 1945 & 46.Trial of 24 highest officials of the Nazi partyConvictions led to death and life sentences for war crimes and crimes against Humanity (Holocaust)
102DiscussMany of the men on trial never directly killed a person why were they put on trial and not the ground troops
103Start of the Cold WarTension between Western Allies and USSR decades-long global struggle called the Cold War!West saw Soviet actions as plan for worldwide communist domination.Soviets viewed western powers as part of global capitalist expansion.“An iron curtain has descended across the continent” dividing Europe into two hostile camps. (Former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill)