Presentation on theme: "CH. 8 IDENTIFYING DNA AS THE GENETIC MATERIAL. CH. 5 & 6 REVIEW ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. What macromolecule group does DNA & RNA belong in?"— Presentation transcript:
CH. 8 IDENTIFYING DNA AS THE GENETIC MATERIAL
CH. 5 & 6 REVIEW ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. What macromolecule group does DNA & RNA belong in? 2. What monomer do we use to assemble the macromolecule group from question #1.
CH. 5 & 6 REVIEW ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 3. What is a nucleotide? 4. What would a nucleotide for DNA contain? 5. What would a nucleotide for RNA contain?
Ch. 8.1 – Identifying DNA as the Genetic Material Griffith finds a “transforming principle.” - NOTES
Ch. 8.1 – Identifying DNA as the Genetic Material Griffith finds a “transforming principle.”- QUESTION & ANSWER: 1. What was “transformed” in Griffith’s experiment? 2. Explain how the results support the experimenters conclusion.
Ch. 8.1 – Identifying DNA as the Genetic Material Avery Identifies DNA as the transforming principle - NOTES
Ch. 8.1 – Identifying DNA as the Genetic Material Avery Identifies DNA as the transforming principle – QUESTION & ANSWERS: 1. How did Avery and his group identify the transforming principle? 2. Explain how the results support their conclusions for the transforming principle.
Ch. 8.1 – Identifying DNA as the Genetic Material Hershey & Chase confirm that DNA is the genetic material – NOTES
Ch. 8.1 – Identifying DNA as the Genetic Material Hershey & Chase confirm that DNA is the genetic material – QUESTIONS & ANSWERS: 1. Summarize how Hershey & chase confirmed that DNA is the genetic material. 2. Summarize why the bacteriophage was an excellent choice for research to determine whether genes are made of DNA or proteins? 3. Explain how the results support their conclusions.
LESSON OBJECTIVE 1. What did Hersey & Chase know about bacteriophages that led them to use these viruses in their DNA experiments?
8.2 – Structure of DNA DNA is composed of 4 types of nucleotides (monomer): Nucleotide composed of: __________________ group ______________________
DNA is composed of 4 types of nucleotides con’t. Nucleotide in _________________ is composed of: ____________________________________________________ group __________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ base _________________________________________________ = C _________________________________________________ = T _________________________________________________ = A _________________________________________________ = G Nucleotide in __________________ is composed of: ____________________________________________________ group ____________________________________________________ sugar Nitrogen base Cytosine = C ____________________________________ = U (replaces thymine) Adenine = A Guanine = G Letter abbreviations refer both to the base & to the nucleotides that contain that base
DNA is composed of 4 types of nucleotides con’t. CHARGAFF’S RULE: ________ = __________ QUESTION: What is the only difference among the 4 DNA nucleotides? Which part of a DNA molecule carries the genetic instructions that are unique for each individual; the sugar-phosphate backbone or the nitrogen- containing bases? Explain.
Watson & Crick Developed an accurate model of DNA - NOTES
Watson & Crick Developed an accurate model of DNA – QUESTION & ANSWER: What bases are considered pyrimidines & purines? Pyrimidines = ____________________ Purines = ________________________ How did the Watson & Crick Model explain Chargaff’s rules?
Nucleotides always pair in the same way. DNA nucleotides of a single strand are joined together by _________________ bonds connecting the _____________ of one nucleotide to the _______________ of the next nucleotide. Alternating sugars & phosphates form the sides of a double helix sort of like a ________________________________. DNA double helix is held together by ____________________ bonds between the __________________ in the middle.
Nucleotides always pair in the same way – QUESTIONS & ANSWERS: What sequence of bases would pair with the following sequence: T T A C G C G A C
8.3 – DNA Replication Replication _____________________ the genetic information Watson & Crick’s experiments showed that one strand of DNA is used as a ______________________ to build the other strand Guarantees that each strand of DNA is identical.
Proteins carry out the process of replication How : DNA is unzipped at numerous places (H bonds broken) Free floating nucleotides pair with the exposed bases (template strands) ________________________________ bonds the nucleotides together to form the new strands that are complementary to the template strand (original strand). Creates 2 identical molecules of DNA. Each DNA molecule has an __________________ & a ____________________________________. Why DNA replication is called _____________________________ replication.
Replication is fast & accurate Replication is fast because the DNA strand is opened at ______________ of different points & allowing nucleotides to be added at many spots at the same time. ________________ is carried out at the _____ time that nucleotides are added. DNA polymerase can detect _________ & make _________________________. Pg. 238, fig. 8.9 shows this process
8.4 TRANSCRIPTION _______________ carries DNA’s instructions ______________________________________ Information flows from ________ to _______ to _____________________________ Transcription converts a DNA message into an intermediate molecule, called RNA. Translation interprets an RNA message into a string of ____________________, called a polypeptide. Either a single polypeptide or many polypeptides working together make up a __________________________.
RNA carries DNA’S instructions con’t. Prokaryotic cells: Replication, transcription, and translation all occur in the ___________ at approximately the ___________ time. Eukaryotic cells: Replication, transcription, and translation occur in ________________ locations. Replication & transcription – ________ Translation – occurs in the __________
RNA carries DNA’s instructions con’t. RNA acts as an intermediate link between _______ in the nucleus & _____________ synthesis in the cytoplasm. Gets used then destroyed. RNA is ____________________, contains ribose sugar & has _________________ instead of thymine A (DNA) = U (RNA) T(DNA)= A(RNA) G (DNA) = C (RNA) C (DNA) = G (RNA)
Transcription makes ___ types of ____ ___________________ is the process of copying a sequence of DNA to produce a complementary strand of RNA. Part of the chromosome, called a _______, is transferred into an ____ ____________________________. Transcription is catalyzed by RNA polymerase.
Transcription produces 3 major types of RNA molecules _________________ (messenger RNA) – an intermediate message that is translated to form a ________________ ______ (ribosomal RNA) – forms part of ribosomes, a cell’s protein factories ____ (transfer RNA) – brings __________ _____ from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing ___________. Pg. 241, Fig visualizes transcription
Transcription vs. replication Similarities Happen in __________________________ of eukaryotic cells Need enzymes to begin the process ______________________________ the DNA double helix Complementary ______________________ to the DNA strand _______________________________________ by the cell Differences ________________ makes sure each new cell will have ____ complete set of genetic instructions & occurs only once during each round of the cell cycle. ___________________ could make hundreds or thousands of copies of certain proteins or the rRNA or tRNA molecules need to make _______________ based on the demands of the cell, using a ____________ stranded complementary rRNA strand.
8.5 TRANSLATION Amino acids are coded by ______________ base sequences Translation is the process that converts, or translates, an mRNA message into a ___________________________________. Could be ___ or _________ polypeptides to make up a protein Language of nucleic acids: DNA – uses 4 nucleotides = A, G, C, & T RNA – uses r nucleotides = A, G, C, & U Language of proteins uses ________________
Triplet Code Genetic code uses ____________, which is read in groups of ___ nucleotide bases Codon is a 3 nucleotide sequence that codes for a particular ___________________, referred to as the __________________. First 2 nucleotides are usually the ____________ important in coding for an amino acid ________________________ – signals the start of translation and the amino acid is _______________________________ 3 _________ codons – signal the end of the amino acid chain. If reading frame is ______________, changes protein or even can prevent a protein from being made. Almost all organisms, including viruses, follows the _________ ______________________. This allows scientists to insert a gene from 1 organism into another organism to make a functional protein.
DETERMINE WHAT AMINO ACID SEQUENCES ARE CREATED FROM THE FOLLOWING STRINGS OF NUCLEOTIDES 1) A U G A C C A A C A G C 2) A U G C C C C A A U G A
Amino acids are linked to become a protein Review: mRNA is a short lived molecule that carries ______________ from ________ in the nucleus to the ________________ mRNA message is read in groups of 3 nucleotides called ___________________ How it translates the codon into an amino acid requires the use of _______ & __________ molecules
Amino acids are linked to become a protein Ribosomes are made of a combination of rRNA & proteins & they catalyze the reaction that forms the bonds between amino acids. _____________________ have a large & small subunit that fit together & pull the mRNA strand through. Small unit holds the mRNA strand & the large subunit holds onto the growing protein _____________ carries _____________________________ from the cytoplasm to the ribosome Has an L shape to the tRNA molecule, one end of the L is attached to the specific amino acid & the other end of the L, is called the ____________________, which recognizes a specific codon. Anticodon is a set of 3 nucleotides that is complementary to an ___________________________ codon. PG. 246, Fig Translation, Read pg. 247
8.6 – GENE EXPRESSION & REGULATION mRNA processing Important part of gene regulation in eukaryotic cells is RNA processing. mRNA that is produced by transcription needs to be edited _____________ are nucleotide segments that code for parts of the __________________________. _________________ are nucleotide segments that are located ______________________ the exons Introns are _________________________ from mRNA before it leaves the nucleus. Exons are ______________________________ back together
8.7 MUTATIONS Some mutations affect a single gene & others affect the entire chromosome ________________________ is a change in an organism’s DNA Types of gene mutations: __________________ mutation – a mutation in which _____ nucleotide is _____________________________ for another. DNA polymerase could find & correct mistake, if not may permanently change an organism’s DNA __________________ mutation – involves the ____________ or _________________________ of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence Affects the polypeptide more than a point mutation (substitution) Causes the ___________________________ from point of insertion or deletion to change the remaining ___________
MUTATIONS ORIGINAL NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE: A U G C C G U U A A C G C G A U C C G G READS: MUTATED NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE: A U G C A C G U U A A C G C G A U C C G G READS:
Types of chromosomal mutations: Gene _______________________________: During ____________ chromosomes do _______ align & the chromosomal segments are different sizes. The chromosome receiving the __________ segment would have part of the chromosome that is _________________________________. Gene deletion: During crossing over chromosomes do not align & the chromosomal segments are different sizes. The chromosome receiving the _____________ segment would have part of the chromosome that is ________________________________________. Translocation: A piece of one chromosome ____________________ to a nonhomologous chromosome.
Mutations may or may not affect phenotype. _______________________ – Collection of all of an organism’s physical characteristics. Ex: black hair, blue eyes, attached ear lobes. Chromosomal mutations Usually have ______________ affect on organisms Ex: may break a gene causing it ___________ to function Ex: may create a ______ hybrid gene with a new function Ex: may cause a gene to be more or less active Gene mutations – could have a bad affect, no affect, or create a beneficial mutation Could change the ______________________ for an enzyme & now it cannot accept the ______________________ Could affect how protein ___________ & possibly destroying the protein’s ____________________________ Could create a premature ___, making protein nonfunctional
Impact on offspring Mutations can happen in _______ cells & in _______ cells. Body cell mutations ___________ affect that individual Germ cell mutations may be passed to ______________ Can be source of ________________________, which is the basis of ______________________________. Will affect the ______________________ of offspring Could be ______________& the offspring do _____ develop properly or could die before reproducing Could be mutations not well suited to environment & the alleles will be _________ from the population Could be a mutation that is well suited to environment & the alleles will be _______________ in the population
Mutations can be caused by several factors ______________________ – agents in the environment that can change DNA. Speed up the rate of replication _______ ____________________ DNA strands Cause __________________________ Types of mutagens: _______________________________ Industrial _______________________