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Renewable Energy. Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability &15.ppt.

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Presentation on theme: "Renewable Energy. Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability &15.ppt."— Presentation transcript:

1 Renewable Energy

2 Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability &15.ppt

3 Energy Efficiency Increasing energy efficiency of common devices has economic and environmental advantages Reducing oil imports Prolonging fossil fuel supplies Reducing pollution and environmental degradation Saving money Buys time to develop new technology Creating jobs

4 Efficiency of Some Common Devices Device Efficiency (%) ß ßDry-cell flashlight battery90 ß ßHome gas furnace85 ß ßStorage battery70 ß ßHome oil furnace65 ß ßSmall electric motor62 ß ßSteam power plant38 ß ßDiesel engine38 ß ßHigh-intensity lamp32 ß ßAutomobile engine 25 ß ßFluorescent lamp22 ß ßIncandescent lamp 4

5 Energy Efficiency percentage of energy input that does useful work in an energy conversion system &15.ppt

6 Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency Between 1985 and 2001, the average fuel efficiency for new motor vehicles sold in the United States leveled off or declined Fuel-efficient models account for only a tiny fraction of car sales Hybrid-electric cars are now available and sales are expected to increase Fuel-cell cars that burn hydrogen fuel will be available within a few years Electric scooters and electric bicycles are short-range transportation alternatives

7 Energy use of various types of transportation &15.ppt

8 Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency Superinsulated house is more expensive than a conventional house, but energy savings pay back the extra cost Strawbale houses have the additional advantage of using an annually renewable agricultural residue, thus slowing deforestation

9 Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency Existing homes can be made more energy efficient adding insulation plugging leaks installing energy-saving windows wrapping water heaters installing tankless models buying energy-efficient appliances and lights

10 Natural Gas or Electricity ßWater heater ßElectricity is produced at power plant via gas or coal and transferred via wire to your home ßSome energy is lost over the wire, …

11 Water Heater ßTank ßWater is heated 365/24/7 ßBecause heat is lost through the flue and the walls of the storage tank (this is called standby heat loss), energy is consumed even when no hot water is being used.

12 Water Heater ßTankless ßThe energy consumption of these units is generally lower since standby losses from the storage tank are eliminated. ßDemand water heaters with enough capacity to meet household needs are gas- or propane- fired. ß

13 Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability

14 Solar Energy Buildings can be heated passive solar heating system active solar heating system Solar thermal systems are new technologies that collect and transform solar energy into heat that can be used directly or converted to electricity Photovoltaic cells convert solar energy directly into electricity

15 Suitability of Solar Usage best when more than 60% of daylight hours sunny &15.ppt

16 Solar Heating Passive system: Absorbs & stores heat from the sun directly within a structure Active system: Collectors absorb solar energy, a pump supplies part of a buildings heating or water heating needs. &15.ppt

17 &15.ppt

18 Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) ßAn open circuit hot water system heats the domestic water directly on the roof of the building ßThe water flows from the heat collector into the hot water tank to be used in the house ßIntegration of solar energy conservation in homes can reduce energy consumption by 75-90%. ß SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

19 Photovoltaic (Solar) Cells Provides electricity for buildings &15.ppt

20 Inside the PV cell ßPV cells are made from silicon alloys ßPV module ß1cm by 10cm cells ß36 cells connected SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

21 &15.ppt

22 Solar Thermal Techniques Solar Two SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

23 Heliostats ßHeliostats provide concentrated sunlight to the power tower ßThe reflecting mirrors follow the sun along its daily trajectory SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

24 Power Tower ßSunlight from mirrors are reflected to fixed receiver in power tower ßFluid transfers the absorbed solar heat into the power block ßUsed to heat a steam generator Solar One SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

25 &15.ppt

26 Solar-Hydrogen Revolution Splitting water can produce H 2 gas If scientists and engineers can learn how to use forms of solar energy to decompose water cheaply, they will set in motion a solar-hydrogen revolution Hydrogen-powered fuel cells could power vehicles and appliances


28 &15.ppt Energy Efficiency Solar EnergyHydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability

29 History of Hydroelectric ßB.C. - Used by the Greeks to turn water wheels for grinding wheat into flour, more than 2,000 years ago ß U.S. Army Corps of Engineers founded, with establishment of Chief Engineer for the Continental Army ß Michigan's Grand Rapids Electric Light and Power Company, generating electricity by dynamo, belted to a water turbine at the Wolverine Chair Factory, lit up 16 brush-arc lamps. hydroelectric/hydro.ppt

30 – By % of electrical generation was hydropower – Between 1921 and conventional capacity in the U.S. tripled; almost tripled again between 1940 and 1980 – Currently - about 10% of U.S. electricity comes from hydropower. hydroelectric/hydro.ppt History of Hydroelectric

31 hydroelectric/hydro.ppt

32 Turbine Technologies ßReaction ßfully immersed in fluid ßshape of blades produces rotation hydroelectric/hydro.ppt

33 &15.ppt

34 Tidal Power Plant &15.ppt

35 &15.ppt Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability

36 Rotary Windmill

37 Vertical Blades

38 &15.ppt

39 Energy from Wind Production of electricity and hydrogen gas by wind farms is expected to increase Western Europe currently leads in the development of wind power Land used for wind farms also can be used for ranching or crops and most profits stay in local communities ßNorth Dakota

40 Optimization ßLow Torque – Rapid Speed ßgood for electrical generation ßHigh Torque – Slow Speed ßgood for pumping water ßSmall generator ßlow wind speeds ßcaptures small amount of energy ßLarge generator ßhigh wind speeds ßmay not turn at low speeds

41 &15.ppt

42 Source: American Wind Energy Association

43 &15.ppt

44 &15.ppt Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind PowerBiomass Geothermal Sustainability

45 Energy from Biomass In the developing world, most people heat homes and cook by burning wood or charcoal Plant materials and animal wastes also can be converted into biofuels, Biogas Liquid ethanol Liquid methanol ßUrban wastes can be burned in incinerators to produce electricity and heat &15.ppt

46 Types of Biomass Fuel &15.ppt

47 Conversion Processes Biomass Feedstock – – Trees – – Forest Residues – – Grasses – – Agricultural Crops – – Agricultural Residues – – Animal Wastes – – Municipal Solid Waste Fuels: Ethanol Renewable Diesel Methanol Hydrogen Electricity Heat Products – – Plastics – – Foams – – Solvents – – Coatings – – Chemical Intermediates – – Phenolics – – Adhesives – – Fatty acids – – Acetic Acid – – Carbon black – – Paints – – Dyes, Pigments, and Ink – – Detergents – – Etc. Biorefinery - - Acid Hydrolysis/Fermentation - - Enzymatic Fermentation - Gas/liquid Fermentation - Thermochemical Processes - Gasification/Pyrolysis - Combustion - Co-firing 01.ppt

48 &15.ppt

49 &15.ppt Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power BiomassGeothermal Sustainability

50 Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy can be used to heat buildings and to produce electricity Geothermal reservoirs can be depleted if heat is removed faster than natural processes renew it, but the potential supply is vast

51 Technology ßGeothermal Heat Pumps ßshallow ground energy ßDirect-Use ßhot water can be piped to facilities ßPower Plants ßsteam and hot water drive turbines ßdry steam plants ßflash steam plants ßbinary cycle plants geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

52 Dry Steam Power Plants ßHydrotherm al fluids are primarily steam ßSteam goes directly to turbine ßNo fossil fuels geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

53 Flash Steam Power Plant ßFluids above 200 degrees Celsius ßFluid is sprayed into tank at lower pressure ßFluid rapidly vaporizes ßSteam drives turbine geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

54 Binary Cycle Power Plant ßCooler water (below 200 degrees Celsius) ßHot thermal fluid and a second fluid pass through heat exchanger geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

55 Heat Mining ßLast week the Massachusetts Institute of Technology released a study concluding that heat mining could generate enough energy by 2050 to replace the coal-fired and nuclear power plants that are likely to be retired over the next several decades. ßBoston Globe Gareth Cook, Globe Staff | January 29,









64 ßAt present the DHM project and drilling activities are financed by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the canton of the city of Basel, the water and energy public utilities of Basel (IWB), a power company (Elektra Basel Land), and a private foundation (G.H. Endress)

65 Benefits ßClean Energy ßone sixth of carbon dioxide vs. natural gas ßvery little if any nitrous oxide or sulfur compounds ßAvailability ß24 hours a day, 365 days a year ßHomegrown ßRenewable geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

66 Environmental Effects ßOnly emission is steam ßSalts and dissolved minerals reinjected ßSome sludge produced ßMineral extraction ßLittle Visual Impact ßSmall acreage, no fuel storage facilities geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

67 Location ßHot geothermal fluid ßLow mineral and gas content ßShallow aquifers ßProducing and reinjecting the fluid ßPrivate land ßSimplifies permit process ßProximity to transmission lines geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

68 rebasics_geothermal.html

69 Future ßOnly tiny fraction is currently used ßDry hot rock heated by molten magma ßDrill into rock and circulate water geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

70 Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass GeothermalSustainability

71 Suggestions to make the transition to a more sustainable energy future. &15.ppt

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