Presentation on theme: "Struggling toward Saratoga Chapter 4, Section 3 The Fall of New York and Valley Forge July 1776, Washington, with a weak and disorganized force of 23,000,"— Presentation transcript:
Struggling toward Saratoga Chapter 4, Section 3
The Fall of New York and Valley Forge July 1776, Washington, with a weak and disorganized force of 23,000, forced to retreat from NY after fleet of 500+ ships and over 32,000 British soldiers and Hessian and Prussian mercenaries lands on Long Island and is flanked repeatedly: *Battle of Long Island *Battle of Brooklyn *Battle of Kips Bay *Battle of Fort Lee *Battle of Fort Washington (Victories at Trenton and Princeton) *Battle for Philadelphia Retreat to Valley Forge–only 8,000 troops remain with Washington *all terrible losses for Americans
The contribution and sacrifice of the Maryland Line at the Battle of Long Island during the American Revolution On August 27, 1776, some four hundred Maryland troops led a rear- guard action to check the British advance and protect the retreat of Washington's greatly outnumbered army. The Marylanders launched six counter attacks at the Cortelyou House. During the last attack, Cornwallis' troops were reinforced and the Marylanders were swept back to the Gowanus Canal. After the battle, 256 Marylanders were buried in a mass grave that is located a few blocks from the park. It is for this heroic action that Maryland became known as the Old Line State. “Good God, what brave fellows I must this day lose.” –George Washington. ONLY 9 men, including the leader of the MD forces, Mordecai Gist, survived.
Primary Documents of the Battle of Long Island Letters of Sergeant Sands Extract of Maryland Gazette Toll of the Battle
Profiteering and Inflation
Trenton and Princeton Washington begins to win: Uses ruses and surprise attacks/Guerilla tactics Trenton – captures Hessians on Dec. 26,1776 Princeton – Defeat British forces near Princeton THIS IS THE TURNING OF THE TIDE FOR THE PATRIOTS NOTE: NJ campaign is to protect Philadelphia, site of the Continental Congress. Howe makes strategic blunder of not destroying Washington’s forces after NY and dividing his forces to capture RI.
FALL OF 1777 After the fall of New York, British Gen. Burgoyne pushes south, planning to meet Gen Clinton at Albany, to cut the rebel colonies in half. Burgoyne Clinton
BATTLE OF SARATOGA Benedict Arnold vs. Burgoyne KEY IDEA: Control the water, Control the land BRITISH OBJECTIVE: Divide the colonies by controlling Lake Champlain and the Hudson REBEL STRATEGY: Delay the British link-up, using winter as an ally. TURNING POINT: British defeat at Saratoga RESULT: Americans lost the battle for Canada, but helped win the war by delaying the British, brings France in on side of the Americans!! HISTORICAL PARALLEL: Braddock’s defeat in the F&I war NOTE: Arnold latter betrays the cause, jealous and petulant
7 th October th October 1777
Franco- American Alliance France gives: France gets: Americans get:
Washington and Lafayette at Winter Quarters: Washington retreats to Valley Forge, NJ, with only a few thousand men and they suffer a terrible winter with few supplies. LOW POINT FOR THE AMERICANS. However, the troops that remain are committed and trained by von Steuben. While British officers enjoyed the social life of Philadelphia, General Washington, his officers, and his men suffered from inadequate food, supplies, firewood, and shelter in their winter encampment, a situation due, in part, to the corruption and greed of military suppliers and the incompetence of the quartermaster corps. (Stock Montage ) Washington and Lafayette at Winter Quarters
Franco- American Alliance France gives: gunpowder, munitions, (90% of American gunpowder in first 2+ years comes from France!!) France gets: an ally in the New World and a weakened Britain, protection (?) for her sugar colonies in the West Indies, possibly New France back as well Americans get: 1. A wider war: France, Spain, Holland enter the fight against Britain, fighting in North America, South America, Asia, Caribbean, and on the high seas. 2. most of its supplies, training, and naval support