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Final Review Guide Answers

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1 Final Review Guide Answers
World Studies CP Final Review Guide Answers

2 Chapter 18 Section 1 = start of the war Section 3 = Russian Revolution
Section 4 = End of War Section 5 = Peace after WWI

3 18.3 Russian Revolution

4 Causes of 1905 Russian Revolution (18.3)
Russo-Japanese war caused it Russia was defeated by the tiny newly modernized nation of Japan Caused the people to lose faith in the Czar/Government. People felt they had no power Russia is the ONLY nation to still have an absolute monarch

5 Duma (18.3) 1905 first elected national Parliament was formed because of the failed revolution

6 Bolsheviks (18.3) Peace, Land, Bread Promised to withdraw from WWI
Lead by Lenin Overthrew the Provisional Government

7 Causes of WWI (18.1) Nationalism Militarism Imperialism
System of Alliance Known as Balkan Powder Keg Archduke Fernandez was the Spark

8 Balkan Powder Keg Serbia and Slavs Nickname for the start of WWI

9 Mensheviks (18.3) Rival of the Bolsheviks for control of the Soviets
Mensheviks were more moderate than the violent Bolsheviks

10 League of Nations (18.5) Was one of Wilson’s 14 points
Organization to prevent future war United States did not join

11 New Nations after WWI (18.5)
Poland Yugoslavia Finland

12 Treaty of Versailles (18.5)
Paris Peace Conference, Russia not invited Germany fully responsible Austria – Hungary split Germany military was limited

13 Alexander II Czar who made reforms but was assassinated
Freed the serfs in 1861 He was Czar Nicholas II’s grandfather

14 Nicholas II Last Czar of Russia He and his family killed

15 Wilhelm II Kaiser (German Ruler) during WWI
He replaced Wilhelm I and fired Bismarck (Blood and Iron guy)

16 Woodrow Wilson United States President Proposed 14 points

17 Homework Read and look at pictures 19.1 Answer the question
Why did WWI spark these artist movements

18 Chapter 19 19.1 = literature and art that shows disillusionment
19.2 = Economic problems world wide 19.3 = political tensions and national movements 19.4 = the rise of Germany and Italy 19.5 = Stalin’s Russia (in your russion rev packet)

19 Maginot Line pg 546 Series of fortification put up by France to protect them from Germany

20 Easter Rebellion pg 548 Irish nationalist movement 1916

21 Weimar Republic pg 553 Unpopular democratic government in Germany
Signed Treaty of Versailles

22 Black Shirts pg552 Mussolini’s private police

23 Brown Shirts pg 553 Hitler’s private police

24 Adolph Hitler Copied Mussolini's totalitarian system Great speaker
Fear of Jews Fear of communism

25 Benito Mussolini Totatlitairan system in Italy First!

26 Francisco Franco Fascist Leader of Spain
Received aid from Italy and Germany

27 Joseph Stalin USSR Collective farms and heavy machinery Five year plan

28 Vladimir Lenin Was the leader of USSR before Stalin

29 Third Reich Next 1000 years of German rule

30 Hitler’s rise to power Powerful speaker Inflation
Hate of the Treaty of Versailles Weak and hated government Blame the Jews

31 Mein Kampf Written by Hitler, his ideas on totalitarianism
Includes his ideas for the final solution

32 Communism Government owns almost everything and control the press and uses secret police *** economic equal ***

33 Fascism Started in Italy The state was above the individual
Heart and the mind Collective will

34 Collective Farms Under Stalin Were not productive
Everyone shares work and profits

35 Five year Plan Stalin’s plan to improve the economy quickly

36 New Economic Policy Lenin’s plan

37 Nazi Party National Socialist workers party Munich power base
Took over the Reichstag (government) Hitler was the leader

38 Purges Stalin got rid of opposition Killed anyone who got in his way!
In the party or out of it Sent off to Siberia

39 Chapter 20

40 British controlled areas
In Africa Mandates after WWI Egypt became independent in 1922

41 Boxer Rebellion 1900 Chinese Christians and foreign missionaries were attacked Chinese didn’t want to open to the WEST

42 Kuomintang 1912 to Sun Yat-sen Nationalist Non-communist

43 Sun Yat-sen Was a nationalist leader in China

44 Mao Zedong Communist leader of China
Escaped from nationalist during Chinese civil war on the long march (6,000 miles)

45 Russo-Japanese War 1905 Japanese defeat Russia
Created international prestige for the tiny island nation of Japan

46 Modernizing Japan Rise in population Social tensions
Lower standard of living Military began to gain influence and people were unhappy

47 Changes in Latin America
Industrialization Immigration from Europe Rise in Labor Unions Population growth

48 Mohandas Gandhi Fought for Indian independence from Britain Pacifist
Non-violent resistance

49 Mustafa Kemal Father of secular (non-Islamic) Turkey

50 Reza Pahlavi Shah of Iran Modernized Iran

51 Chiang Kai-Shek Nationalist leader of China
Fled China after communist took over

52 Zionism Desire to create a Jewish Homeland in Palestine (holly land)

53 Chapter 22

54 Cold War Soviet Union and United States
Soviet Union had aggressive nationalist policies

55 United nations Purpose
Tried to maintain world peace and security by working together.

56 Major bodies of the United nations. You need to know at least 3
General Assembly = all members Goals to create peace and human dignity Security Council = 5 members United States, Russia, Great Britain, France and China, plus 10 rotating members. This group vote on whether the UN will take military action

57 Nuremberg Trials International court held in Nuremberg Germany
Nazi leaders were put on trial for war crimes and crimes against humanity First such trial of its kind

58 Marshall Plan United States plan to loan and then rebuild European infrastructure

59 Containment American policy after WWII to keep communism from spreading

60 NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
“Western” military alliances against Communism (Russia)

61 Warsaw Pact “eastern” military alliance created in response to NATO
Cold War

62 Division of Germany Demilitarized Germany. Each allied power got a zone. United States, Great Britain, France and U.S.S.R Berlin was divided into 4 zones as well

63 European Union/common market
Increased economic cooperation among member nations Common currency = Euro Reduced trade barriers

64 Nikita Khrushchev Leader of U.S.S.R
Began De-Stalinization (taking away 5 year plans and secret police)

65 Berlin Wall Symbol of the cold war Split Berlin U.S.S.R zone cut off
Went up in 1961 Went down in 1989

66 Iron Curtain Phrase coined by Winston Churchill
Referred to all the nations under Soviet control against their wishes

67 West German Miracle Great period of prosperity in W. Germany after WWII Marshall Plan had helped Germany become an economic wunder

68 Chapter 23

69 Tiananmen Square 1989 Chinese demonstrations for democracy
Thousands of unarmed protestors killed Out cry from the international community

70 Taliban Afghanistan Fundamentalist Muslim Regime

71 Deng Xiaoping Leader in the late 1970’s after the death of Mao
4 Modernizations Moved China toward a market economy (not planned communist economy)

72 Cultural Revolution One of Mao’s Policies to make people more “communist” Created after the failure of the Great Leap forward Was an attempt to get rid of the old ways

73 Red Guards Under Mao Little Red Book Young, radical students
Enforced the Cultural Revolution

74 Mao’s 5 year plans First 5 year plan to increase the economy (it was OK) Great Leap Forward (millions died) Cultural Revolution (millions sent to re-education camp, Red Guards, little red book)

75 Taiwan Where Nationalist fled when the Communist won civil war
Wanted independence from China

76 People’s Republic of China
Communist China 1949 Mao was the first leader. Took over after the long march

77 Indira Gandhi First Prime Minister of India (was a women)
Was assassinated

78 Benazir Bhutto Prime Minister of Pakistan at age of 35
First female to serve as Prime Minister in an Islamic country

79 Corazon Aquino Philippines
Took power after Marcos was removed from power First female leader

80 4 Tigers / Pacific Rim South Korea Singapore China Japan
These are the 4 largest economies in Asia

81 Hirohito Emperor of Japan during and after WWII
Had to admit he was not divine after WWII Became head of state and nothing more

82 Chapter 24

83 OPEC Control supply and cost of oil

84 Nelson Mandela Spent 27 years in prison for attempting to overthrow racist government where blacks were not allowed to vote Later becomes first black president of South Africa

85 Apartheid Laws and culture of South Africa to keep whites and blacks segregated

86 Wars fought against Israel
Wars in 1948 Six Day war Yom Kippur Arabs were very unset with the creation of Israel and attempted to take back the land and give it all to Palestine

87 Intifada The shaking 1978 and 2001 Violent uprising of Palestinians

88 Persian Gulf War Fought to liberate Kuwait

89 Gamal Abdel Nasser Leader of Egypt 1952-1970 Anti west
Took control of Suez Canal

90 Anwar el-Sadat Leader of Egypt Signed the Camp David Accords

91 Menachem Begin Leader of Israel Signed Camp David Accord

92 Ayatollah Khomeini Leader of Iran Took power in 1979 Spiritual leader
Anti west

93 Yitzhak Rabin Israeli Prime Minister 1993 Signed Oslo Accords

94 Iranian revolution Pro west shah replaced by Khomeini
Goal to great a fundamentalist Islamic state Anti-west

95 PLO Palestinian Liberation Organization Leader, Yassir Arafat

96 Chapter 25

97 Monoculture 25.1 pg 719 Mono= one Too much of one or two crops
As the world prices of these few crops rose and fell… these nations go on a economic roller coaster

98 OAS (organization of American States)
Fosters economic and military cooperation in South America

99 Institutional Revolutionary Party 25.2 pg 723
PRI In Mexico In power for 70 years

100 Drug Cartel 25.4 Medillen and Cali drug Cartels in Colombia
Zetas and Gulf in Mexico

101 Augusto Pinochet 25.4 Leader of Chile
Used political repression to maintain power Dictatorship

102 Fulgencio Batista 25.3 pg 730 Leader of Cuba
Was taken out of power by Castro Was Pro-United States

103 Manuel Noriega 25.2 pg 728 Leader of Panama
United States believed he was helping drugs cartels George Bush sent in U.S troops Noriega was captured and convicted of drug trafficking 40 years in prison in U.S.

104 Oscar Arias 25.2 page 729 Costa Rican president
Proposed a peace plan and economic reforms. Felt there would be no peace in the region with out democracy Nobel Peace Prize in 1987 for his efforts Endorsed by Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua

105 Fidel Castro 25.3 pg 730 Took power from Batista
Communist leader of Cuba Supported communist take over in other nations

106 Jean-Bertrand Aristide 25.3 pg 734
Leader of Haiti First democratically elected president Was put back into power by the United States

107 Juan Peron 25.4 pg 738 Two time leader of Argentina
Wife Evita loved by nation

108 Contras 25.2 pg 727 Fought against the Sandinistas (Marxist group in Nicaragua) Sandinistas had ties to Cuba Contras were a guerrilla group trying to overthrow the Sandinistas and were funded by the United State s

109 NAFTA 25.1 pg 720 North Atlantic Free Trade Association
Created a free trade zone between Mexico, Canada, and the United States

110 Chapter 26

111 Northern Ireland religious issues
Catholic v. Protestants Republic of Ireland 1922, North under British rule and the south under Catholic rule with a protestant minority Page 757

112 Economic problems in France
Immigration Unemployment Recession

113 Afghanistan and U.S.S.R 1979 Russians invade to prop up the communist government

114 Perestroika Restructuring in the Soviet Union

115 Glasnost Open-ness of government

116 Velvet Revolution Vaclad Haval Czechoslovakia

117 Nikolai Ceausescu Romania dictator
Executed for crimes against humanity and his wife too

118 Slobodon Milosevic Leader of Serbia
Took parts of Croatia and Bosnia to create a “Greater Serbia” without ethnic minorities

119 Lech Walesa In Poland Political solidarity

120 Ethnic Cleaning Yugoslavia
Broke into several other countries like Serbia

121 German re-unification
Result of the fall of the Berlin wall 1989 Free Berlin Capital of Germany again Berlin October 3, 1990

122 Maastricht Treaty 1993 EEC created the EU
Not tariffs and common currency

123 Euro EU’s common currency

124 Soviet Satellite Nations
Czechoslovakia Hungary Poland

125 Osama bin Laden Planned Sept 11

126 Margaret Thatcher Conservative Prime Minster of Britain
Thatcherism = reduce government involvement in industry and reduce taxes

127 Helmut Kohl German Chancellor Christian Democrat

128 Leonid Brezhnew Successor to Khreshev
Pledged Military force to any satellite country moving away from communism

129 Boris Yeltsin First democratically elected President of Russia


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