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1 State of Connecticut Radiation Professional Volunteer Program (CT-RPVP) LESSON 1 Principles of Radiation and Radiation Protection 1

2 Describe the two forms of radiation and give examples of each Distinguish between radiation exposure and radioactive contamination Describe the relationships between radiation exposure, radiation absorbed dose, and dose equivalent Understand how time, distance and shielding are used to minimize radiation exposure Describe the two forms of radiation and give examples of each Distinguish between radiation exposure and radioactive contamination Describe the relationships between radiation exposure, radiation absorbed dose, and dose equivalent Understand how time, distance and shielding are used to minimize radiation exposure Objectives 2

3 Photon and Particle Radiation 3 Radiation, as the term is used in this course, consists of: ‒photons and ‒subatomic particles Radiation is emitted from the nuclei of radioactive atoms (or radioisotopes) and is capable of causing the ionization of atoms. For this reason, this type of radiation is often referred to as “ionizing radiation” Photon Radiation Particle Radioactive Atom

4 X- and gamma rays are released from the nuclei of a radioactive atoms as packets of energy, or photons X rays are similar to gamma but have lower energy X- and gamma rays are released from the nuclei of a radioactive atoms as packets of energy, or photons X rays are similar to gamma but have lower energy Photon Radiation 4

5 Subatomic Particle Radiation Alpha (α) Beta (β) Neutron (N) (N) Alpha, and beta radiations are subatomic particles ejected from the nuclei of atoms undergoing radioactive decay Neutron radiation consists of free neutrons produced during nuclear fission, a reaction which takes place in reactors of nuclear power plants and atomic bombs following detonation

6 Which of the following can be used to in place of “radioactive atom” A)Radiation B)Radioisotope C)Photon D)Subatomic Particle Which of the following can be used to in place of “radioactive atom” A)Radiation B)Radioisotope C)Photon D)Subatomic Particle Test Your knowledge 6

7 7 Sources of Radiation Man-Made, such as x-rays generated from a medical x-ray machine, and gamma rays from radiation therapy equipment or Naturally-Occurring, such as cosmic rays from space, and gamma radiation from radon gas

8 α β X, γ and n Skin, paper, 1 to 4 inches of air Less than ¼ inch metal, glass, concrete, 1 to 18 feet air 2 to 12 inches lead, 3 to 18 inches steel, 1 to 6 feet of concrete, tens to hundreds of yards in air [Alpha] [Beta] [X-, Gamma rays and Neutrons] Protective shielding varies with the type of radiation 8 Shielding from Radiation

9 Cannot be seenCannot be smelled But, can be Cannot be feltCannot be tasted easily detected by instruments 9 Radiation Detection

10 Exposure vs. Contamination 10 Exposure to radiation occurs after entering an area in which there is a radiation source After leaving the area, the exposure no longer happens Contamination occurs when radioactive material is on the body surface (external contamination) or is in the body (internal contamination) Decontamination of external areas is accomplished by removing clothing and washing the affected areas

11 Exposure to radiation results in the absorption of a radiation dose – The unit for exposure is the roentgens (R) – The unit for absorbed dose is the Radiation Absorbed Dose (rad) – The unit for dose equivalent is the Roentgen equivalent man (rem) For practical purposes, 1 R (exposure) = 1 rad (absorbed dose) = 1 rem or 1000 mrem (dose equivalent) Exposure to radiation results in the absorption of a radiation dose – The unit for exposure is the roentgens (R) – The unit for absorbed dose is the Radiation Absorbed Dose (rad) – The unit for dose equivalent is the Roentgen equivalent man (rem) For practical purposes, 1 R (exposure) = 1 rad (absorbed dose) = 1 rem or 1000 mrem (dose equivalent) Measuring Radiation 11

12 Normal annual exposure from man-made radiation Normal annual exposure from natural radiation Approx. 0.3 rem/yr Radon gas rem Human body 0.03 rem Rocks, soil 0.02 rem Cosmic rays 0.02 rem Between rem/yr 1 chest X-ray rem Consumer products0.010 rem Air travel round trip (NY-LA)0.005 rem Watching color TV0.001 rem Nuclear industry< rem Daily sources of radiation 12

13 Test You knowledge 13 Radon gas can enter homes from surrounding soil. Radon cannot be seen and has no odor, but at elevated levels, radon in homes presents a serious health risks. Radiation emitted by radon in homes is an example of: A) Man-made radiation B) Naturally occurring radiation

14 Minimizing Radiation Doses - ALARA 14 ALARA stands for As Low As is Reasonably Achievable The purpose of ALARA is to minimize risk as a result of exposure to radiation or radioactive material to a level that is As Low As is Reasonably Achievable

15 Minimize Time Maximize Distance Maximize Shielding 15 Mitigating External Radiation Doses

16 Dose Limits for Responders Performing Emergency Services ICRP (1991), NCRP Report No. 116 and NCRP Report No. 138, DHS (2007) Dose Limit (rem)ActivityCondition 5All 10Protecting valuable property lower dose not practicable 25Life-saving or protection of large populations lower dose not practicable > 25Life-saving or protection of large populations Only on a voluntary basis to persons fully aware of the risks involved

17 Summary 17 Radiation is composed of subatomic particles or high-energy photons Contamination results form the presence of radioactive material on or in the body, whereas radiation exposure results form being in the presence of a radiation source R, rad and rem are units used to measure radiation exposure, absorbed dose and dose equivalent ALARA is a radiation safety principle for minimizing radiation doses and releases of radioactive materials by employing all reasonable methods Three basic rules of thumb for minimizing radiation exposure are time, distance and shielding

18 State of Connecticut Radiation Professional Volunteer Program (CT-RPVP) Lesson 2 Radiation and Nuclear Threats and Vulnerabilities 18

19 Describe the radiological and nuclear threats faced by the U.S. Understand the risks of contamination and exposure to volunteers when screening individuals involved in a radiological or nuclear incident Describe the radiological and nuclear threats faced by the U.S. Understand the risks of contamination and exposure to volunteers when screening individuals involved in a radiological or nuclear incident Objectives 19

20 Intentional Nuclear/Radiological Threats to the US Radiation Emission Device (RED) “Dirty” Conventional Bomb (RDD) Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) 1kT “Suitcase Nuke” Ballistic Missile Attack 250 kT Nuclear Weapon – “City Killer” Nuclear Weapon, IND Likelihood LessMore Less Impact/Damage More Dirty Bomb RED 20

21 21 Radiation Emission Device (RED) - concealed at high-traffic area: ~ 60 to 250 deaths and ~ 130 cases of radiation sickness requiring public health follow-up for 30 years; psychological trauma  Community recovery timeline: Months to years Source: Tofani A, Bartolozzi M. Ranking nuclear and radiological terrorism scenarios: The Italian case. Risk Analysis 2008;28(Oct): Possible Terrorist-Related Scenario

22 22 Radiation Dispersal Device (RDD) - explodes at busy street corner: ~ 30 to 180 deaths Few in any radiation-related injuries Decontamination efforts for people and objects Significant financial cost for decontamination of property in the affected area Source: Tofani A, Bartolozzi M. Ranking nuclear and radiological terrorism scenarios: The Italian case. Risk Analysis 2008;28(Oct): Possible Terrorist-Related Scenario

23 23 Improvised nuclear device (IND) - explosion of 10 kilotons, in center of a city, such as Coleman Dock, Seattle, WA Approximately 50,000 deaths Infrastructure damage out to 1 mile Contamination ~3,000 sq. miles $100+ billion in costs Community recovery time: Years Source: Tofani A, Bartolozzi M. Ranking nuclear and radiological terrorism scenarios: The Italian case. Risk Analysis 2008;28(Oct): Possible Terrorist-Related Scenario

24 Risk to Volunteers from Screening Individuals of a Radiological or Nuclear Incident 24 What is the risk of exposure or contamination to volunteers performing radiological surveys of people involved in a radiological or nuclear event? Depends on the nature of the event: Contamination for RED: None  Exposure only (such as in an RED incident)  Acute radiation syndrome in exposed individuals No risk of exposure or contamination to volunteers

25 25 Risk to Volunteers from Screening Individuals of a Radiological or Nuclear Incident Contamination (Radiation Dispersal Device ) Individual’s person, articles of clothing, other belongings may be contaminated Removing contaminated clothing will eliminate % of contamination Individuals may be internally contaminated Individuals with minor injuries may self-refer to screening centers Relatively low risk for contamination to volunteers; very low level exposures possible (varies with degree of individuals’ levels of contamination)

26 26 Risk to Volunteers from Screening Individuals of a Radiological or Nuclear Incident Contamination (Nuclear Power Plant Incident) Individual’s person, articles of clothing, other belongings may be contaminated Individuals may be internally contaminated Relatively low risk for contamination to volunteers; very low level exposures possible (varies with degree of individuals’ levels of contamination)

27 27 Risk to Volunteers from Screening Individuals of a Radiological or Nuclear Incident Contamination from Fall-Out, and High-Level Exposures (Nuclear detonation) Individuals’ persons, articles of clothing, and other belongings may be contaminated Individuals may be internally contaminated Individuals may incur radiation doses up to several hundred rads are possible (acute radiation syndrome) Individuals with minor injuries may self-refer Relatively low risk for contamination to volunteers; very low level exposures possible (varies with degree of individuals’ levels of contamination) Incident-related psychological stress/trauma among volunteers

28 Test your knowledge 28 Which of the following are the most likely terrorist-related threats to the U.S are: A) 250 kT nuclear weapon and an IND detonation B) Ballistic missile attack and an IND detonation C) Dirty bomb detonation and deployment of an RED D) Detonation of a RDD and IND E) No threat

29 Test your knowledge 29 Which of the following is true: A) The impact of an IND is greater than that of a 250 kT bomb B) With respect to a terrorist attack, the probability of an RDD detonation is greater than that of a IND detonation C) A dirty bomb detonation is likely to cause radiation injury, deaths and contamination of a small area D) The risk of radiation exposure and contamination to volunteers who may be called upon to screen victims of an RED is zero E) The risk of radiation exposure and contamination to volunteers who may be called upon to screen victims of an RDD is zero

30 Threats to the U.S. involving the release of radiation and radioactive materials are the use of REDs, RDDs, INDs, and nuclear weapons with yields varying from 1 – 250 kT Volunteers screening individuals impacted by an RDD have no risk of exposure or contamination Volunteers screening individuals impacted by a dirty bomb or a nuclear weapon, including an IND, have a low risk of contamination, or radiation exposure Threats to the U.S. involving the release of radiation and radioactive materials are the use of REDs, RDDs, INDs, and nuclear weapons with yields varying from 1 – 250 kT Volunteers screening individuals impacted by an RDD have no risk of exposure or contamination Volunteers screening individuals impacted by a dirty bomb or a nuclear weapon, including an IND, have a low risk of contamination, or radiation exposure Summary 30

31 State of Connecticut Radiation Professional Volunteer Program (CT-RPVP) Lesson 3 Biological and Clinical features of Radiation injuries 31

32 Distinguish between acute and chronic radiation exposure State three types of DNA changes resulting from radiation exposure Identify symptoms of acute radiation syndrome Distinguish between acute and chronic radiation exposure State three types of DNA changes resulting from radiation exposure Identify symptoms of acute radiation syndrome Objectives 32

33 Acute radiation exposure is exposure to a large, single dose of radiation, over a short period of time (seconds) A large acute exposure to radiation may result in immediate clinical effects (e.g., acute radiation syndrome) as well as long-term effects (e.g., cancer) Acute radiation exposure is exposure to a large, single dose of radiation, over a short period of time (seconds) A large acute exposure to radiation may result in immediate clinical effects (e.g., acute radiation syndrome) as well as long-term effects (e.g., cancer) Acute Radiation Exposure 33

34 Chronic radiation exposure involves exposure to low levels of radiation over a long period of time (months – years) Chronic radiation exposure may result in increased risk of developing cancer Exposure to radiation emitted by radon gas present in many homes is an example of chronic radiation exposure Chronic radiation exposure involves exposure to low levels of radiation over a long period of time (months – years) Chronic radiation exposure may result in increased risk of developing cancer Exposure to radiation emitted by radon gas present in many homes is an example of chronic radiation exposure Chronic Radiation Exposure 34

35 Test your knowledge 35 True or False: Unlike acute radiation exposure, chronic radiation exposure may result in the development of cancer A) True B) False

36 Test your knowledge 36 Of the following, which is a example of acute radiation exposure A) Radiation incurred on a round-trip flight from New York City to Los Angles B) Radiation incurred from a one-time chest x-ray C) Eating foods over one’s lifetime that contain high levels of potassium-40 (radioactive isotope) D) Living in high-altitude areas

37 Radiation Targets All Cellular Components

38 Janice Brock University RPO Deoxyribonucleic Acid - Types of DNA Damage Caused by Radiation Radiation can damage DNA resulting in:  DNA mutations and DNA breaks  Gross structural rearrangements or chromosomal aberrations, to the DNA can also occur

39 Janice Brock University RPO Deoxyribonucleic Acid - DNA Damage Caused By Radiation Radiation damages DNA may result in:  DNA mutations may not kill the cell; however over time, these mutations may transform the cell into a cancerous cell  This transformation is random (stochastic) and take place over several years  The higher the radiation dose, the greater the chance of developing cancer

40 Janice Brock University RPO Deoxyribonucleic Acid - DNA is the most important Target of Radiation Radiation damages DNA which result in: Unrepaired DNA breaks and gross structural changes to the DNA almost always lead to cell death High radiation doses, delivered quickly (seconds) and to a large area of the body, result in widespread cell death, causing: o Tissue and organ failure which manifest as acute radiation syndrome (ASR) The occurrence of these biological events and clinical manifestations are predictable (or non-stochastic) and take place relatively quickly

41 Nausea Vomiting WBC 25 – 50 rads 250 rads 650 rads Severe Vomiting (100%) Diarrhea Cramps Bleeding - mouth, kidneys 1000 rads Effects of Acute Radiation Exposure (High Dose, High Dose Rate) 100 rads WBC

42 Test your knowledge 42 Which is true of acute radiation syndrome: A.Affects more males than females B.Varies in severity according to the absorbed dose of radiation C.Can be treated with potassium iodide D.All of the above

43 43 Summary Acute radiation exposure is exposure to a large, single dose of radiation, over a short period of time Chronic radiation exposure involves exposure to low levels of radiation over a long period of time Both, acute and chronic radiation exposures can result in cancer The most important cellular target of radiation is DNA. Radiation-induced damage to DNA include DNA mutations and chromosomal aberrations The severity of ARS is directly proportional to dose

44 State of Connecticut Radiation Professional Volunteer Program (CT-RPVP) Lesson 3 External Decontamination 44

45 Describe the purpose and goal of decontamination List some key concepts of decontamination Provide an overview of the decontamination process for removing radioactive contaminants present on body surfaces, including hair Describe the purpose and goal of decontamination List some key concepts of decontamination Provide an overview of the decontamination process for removing radioactive contaminants present on body surfaces, including hair Objectives of this Section 45

46 The purpose of the external decontamination is to remove or reduce radioactive contaminants from the surfaces of individuals and pets – Skin – Hair Goal is < 2 times background or 2 decontamination attempts The purpose of the external decontamination is to remove or reduce radioactive contaminants from the surfaces of individuals and pets – Skin – Hair Goal is < 2 times background or 2 decontamination attempts 46 Decontamination Concepts

47 Decontamination, if required or advisable, follows immediately after the screening process If survey readings are:  > 2 - 3x background, decontamination is advisable (EPA/NCRP)  > x background, decontamination is required (EPA/NCRP) Decontamination, if required or advisable, follows immediately after the screening process If survey readings are:  > 2 - 3x background, decontamination is advisable (EPA/NCRP)  > x background, decontamination is required (EPA/NCRP) Decontamination 47 Decontamination Concepts for Reception Centers

48 Decontamination of individuals should continue until survey readings indicate levels below 2 times background A.True B.False Decontamination of individuals should continue until survey readings indicate levels below 2 times background A.True B.False Test your knowledge 48

49 Individuals (and pets) with contamination levels > 2x background, as per GM survey Decontamination is repeated until survey readings are < 2x background or until additional rounds of decontamination do not reduce contamination levels by more than 10% (CDC) After each round of decontamination, individuals are resurveyed Individuals (and pets) with contamination levels > 2x background, as per GM survey Decontamination is repeated until survey readings are < 2x background or until additional rounds of decontamination do not reduce contamination levels by more than 10% (CDC) After each round of decontamination, individuals are resurveyed Decontamination Concepts for Reception Centers 49

50 All contaminated clothing and valuables are placed in a plastic bag  Removing clothing will eliminate 80 – 90% of contamination Items that cannot be decontaminated (e.g., porous materials) should be discarded in waste bins for contaminated items All contaminated clothing and valuables are placed in a plastic bag  Removing clothing will eliminate 80 – 90% of contamination Items that cannot be decontaminated (e.g., porous materials) should be discarded in waste bins for contaminated items 50 Decontamination Process for Reception Centers

51 If contamination is limited to a small body surface (e.g., hand, face) it may be possible to decontaminate the area without showering Cover wounds with bandages Wash with warm water Begin with the least aggressive techniques and mildest agents (e.g., soap and water) If contamination is limited to a small body surface (e.g., hand, face) it may be possible to decontaminate the area without showering Cover wounds with bandages Wash with warm water Begin with the least aggressive techniques and mildest agents (e.g., soap and water) 51 Decontamination Process for Local Surface Contamination

52 Use the mechanical action of flushing or friction of cloth, sponge, or soft brush Keep materials out of eyes, nose, and mouth, Avoid causing mechanical, chemical, or thermal damage to skin Use the mechanical action of flushing or friction of cloth, sponge, or soft brush Keep materials out of eyes, nose, and mouth, Avoid causing mechanical, chemical, or thermal damage to skin 52 Decontamination Process for Local Surface Contamination

53 53 Decontamination Process for Extensive Body Contamination If contamination is present on the majority of the body surface contamination may be removed by showering Shower with warm water and mild soap Begin with the head, bending it forward to direct wash-water away from body Keep water out of eyes, nose, mouth, and wounds Use mechanical action of a cloth or sponge but avoid abrading the skin Shower with warm water and mild soap Begin with the head, bending it forward to direct wash-water away from body Keep water out of eyes, nose, mouth, and wounds Use mechanical action of a cloth or sponge but avoid abrading the skin

54 Separate male and female decontamination showers If possible, parent(s) should assist children with washing Keep families together Decontaminate pets in an area separate Separate male and female decontamination showers If possible, parent(s) should assist children with washing Keep families together Decontaminate pets in an area separate 54 Considerations for Decontamination Process

55 Have on-hand replacement clothing or disposable gowns For large-scale events, it may not be feasible to collect contamination from runoff Provide for the security of items of personal value Individuals with medical dependencies or with other special needs, older adults and children will require additional help with decontamination Medical care for life-threatening injuries must not be delayed in favor of decontamination Have on-hand replacement clothing or disposable gowns For large-scale events, it may not be feasible to collect contamination from runoff Provide for the security of items of personal value Individuals with medical dependencies or with other special needs, older adults and children will require additional help with decontamination Medical care for life-threatening injuries must not be delayed in favor of decontamination 55 Considerations for Decontamination Process

56 All of the following statements are true except: a. Radioactive contamination may be removed, or reduced to acceptable levels simply by washing the contaminated areas with warm water and mild soap b.Removing a contaminated individual’s clothing eliminates 80 – 90% of radioactive contamination c.Treatment of minor cuts or abrasions should never be delayed in favor of decontaminated d.To the extent possible, family members should not be separated during the decontamination process All of the following statements are true except: a. Radioactive contamination may be removed, or reduced to acceptable levels simply by washing the contaminated areas with warm water and mild soap b.Removing a contaminated individual’s clothing eliminates 80 – 90% of radioactive contamination c.Treatment of minor cuts or abrasions should never be delayed in favor of decontaminated d.To the extent possible, family members should not be separated during the decontamination process Test your Knowledge 56

57 The goal of the decontamination process is to reduce or remove contamination from body surfaces Ideally decontamination is performed until survey readings indicate levels below those of 2 times background Removing clothing eliminates 80 – 90% of contamination It may not be possible to decontaminate all personal belongings External contamination may be removed by washing with warm water and mild soap The goal of the decontamination process is to reduce or remove contamination from body surfaces Ideally decontamination is performed until survey readings indicate levels below those of 2 times background Removing clothing eliminates 80 – 90% of contamination It may not be possible to decontaminate all personal belongings External contamination may be removed by washing with warm water and mild soap Summary 57

58 Do not abrading skin, and avoid internalizing water runoff during showering Do not separate families, particularly, children from parents Make provisions to assist individuals with medical dependencies or other special needs as well as older adults with decontamination Never delay the delivery of emergency care in favor of decontamination Do not abrading skin, and avoid internalizing water runoff during showering Do not separate families, particularly, children from parents Make provisions to assist individuals with medical dependencies or other special needs as well as older adults with decontamination Never delay the delivery of emergency care in favor of decontamination Summary 58

59 State of Connecticut Radiation Professional Volunteer Program (CT-RPVP) Lesson 4 Behavioral Responses to Radiological/Nuclear Incidents 59

60 Define psychological stress Present the range of psychological responses elicited by radiation and nuclear incidents Describe elements for managing psychological stress produced by radiation and nuclear incidents Objectives 60

61 For this lesson, psychological stress is the individual's response when demands go beyond coping resources to deal with a radiological or nuclear incident What is Psychological Stress? 61

62 Reactions Following Radiation Incidents Radiation and nuclear incidents may cause psychological stress, with both short and long-term effects Extend beyond the individuals directly affected Situations with a high degree of uncertainty, regarding potential future health effects, may be more psychologically traumatic than others 62

63 Tasteless Odorless Colorless Association to malignant disease Visuals of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Osteosarcoma in a radium dial factory worker (circa 1920) Hiroshima: A boy who received radiation burns on his whole body following the atomic bomb explosion Fear Is the Initial Response 63

64 Reactions Following Radiation Incidents “When people are confused about their actual health risks, some will assume incorrectly that they have been exposed and will develop physical reactions.” National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN)

65 A Cesium-137 capsule was stolen from a discarded radiation therapy instrument and opened 250 people came in contact with Cs-137 – Fear caused 112,000 people to request screening for contamination – Of the first 60,000 screened, 5,000 individuals had psychosomatic symptoms that mimicked those of radiological exposure A Cesium-137 capsule was stolen from a discarded radiation therapy instrument and opened 250 people came in contact with Cs-137 – Fear caused 112,000 people to request screening for contamination – Of the first 60,000 screened, 5,000 individuals had psychosomatic symptoms that mimicked those of radiological exposure Goiania, Brazil (1987) Stress Reactions Mimic Physical Injury or Illness 65

66 Lack of Accurate Information Fuels Fear 66 Fear Myths Fear Myths Knowledge Facts Knowledge Facts Inaccurate or insufficient information Accurate information at a local level  Fear and anxiety of radiation exposure are as debilitating as the actual physical health effects  One role of population monitoring volunteers is to reassure individuals by providing accurate information about radiation

67 Test Your Knowledge 67 Which fact about radiation contributes to its fear? A.Causes severe sunburns and other skin rashes B.Damages cellphones C.Cannot be detected by the human senses D.Leads to birth defects such as two-headed cows

68 Responders’ Concerns and Emotional Reactions Medical professionals, First Responders and Volunteers Have limited experience in managing casualties from radiation events May experience fear, shock, anger, helplessness and worry May be concerned about exposing family/friends Psychological support services, education and training may mitigate the psychological stress exhibited by emergency responders Responders’ Concerns to Radiation Incidents 68

69 indecisiveness, worry, confusion, reduced attention span, trouble concentrating distrust, conflict, work/school problems, irritability, loss of intimacy, feeling abandoned, withdrawn tension, fatigue, edginess, insomnia, bodily aches pain, startling easily, racing heartbeat, nausea, change in appetite shock, fear, grief, anger, guilt, shame, feeling helpless, feeling numb, sadness Range of Psychological Stress Emotional Behavioral Cognitive changes in one’s belief in God, changes in assumptions about good and evil 69 Spiritual Physical

70 Prompt, safe and dignified provision of assistance – Medical care – Screening and decontamination of affected individuals Clear and credible information pertinent to: – Incident status – Protective actions Public health follow-up – Tracking of chronic health effects – Education on health risks Prompt, safe and dignified provision of assistance – Medical care – Screening and decontamination of affected individuals Clear and credible information pertinent to: – Incident status – Protective actions Public health follow-up – Tracking of chronic health effects – Education on health risks Managing the Psychological Responses to a radiological or Nuclear Incident 70

71 Test Your Knowledge 71 Which of these is not a strategy for mitigating psychological stress during a radiological or nuclear incident? A.Provide clear and credible information about the incident B.Minimize the incident as not to worry the community C.Provide education on the health risk of radiation D.Provide medical assistance to those affected by the incident

72 Radiological and nuclear incidents cause psychological stress to people directly and indirectly affected by the incidents. Fear is the first psychological response to a radiological or nuclear incidents, and perhaps the debilitating of the psychological reactions Fear may cause individuals to exhibit symptoms which resemble those of radiation exposure, and act in extreme and sometimes irrational ways to avoid the perceived or real threat Medical professionals, first responders and volunteers may also experience the same psychological stresses as those experienced by the general public Radiological and nuclear incidents cause psychological stress to people directly and indirectly affected by the incidents. Fear is the first psychological response to a radiological or nuclear incidents, and perhaps the debilitating of the psychological reactions Fear may cause individuals to exhibit symptoms which resemble those of radiation exposure, and act in extreme and sometimes irrational ways to avoid the perceived or real threat Medical professionals, first responders and volunteers may also experience the same psychological stresses as those experienced by the general public Summary 72

73 Individuals impacted by radiological or nuclear incidents may exhibit alterations in emotional, cognitive behavioral, physical and spiritual reactions Strategies for managing psychological stress in the after math of a radiological or nuclear incident are to provide prompt assistance to the affected population, disseminate clear information by credible sources about the status of the situation and instructions for protecting the public, and ensure that governmental agencies establish a means for tracking the effects of the event and provide health risk management information. Individuals impacted by radiological or nuclear incidents may exhibit alterations in emotional, cognitive behavioral, physical and spiritual reactions Strategies for managing psychological stress in the after math of a radiological or nuclear incident are to provide prompt assistance to the affected population, disseminate clear information by credible sources about the status of the situation and instructions for protecting the public, and ensure that governmental agencies establish a means for tracking the effects of the event and provide health risk management information. Summary 73

74 State of Connecticut Radiation Professional Volunteer Program (CT-RPVP) Lesson 5 74 Roles and Responsibility of Local, State and Federal Agencies

75 SETH TO DEVELOP 75


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