Presentation on theme: "Hepatitis C Is treatment in primary care possible/feasible (desirable)?"— Presentation transcript:
Hepatitis C Is treatment in primary care possible/feasible (desirable)?
Objectives Understand the unique characteristics of HCV Understand the complications of HCV infection Know who is at risk and who should be screened Describe treatment history and future options Understand who should be treated and by whom
What is the Hepatitis C Virus? HCV was identified in 1989 – RNA virus – Prior: 90% of post transfusion ‘non A/non B’ hepatitis – Incubation rate for acute HCV 15-160 days but not usually associated with acute symptoms or illness – Thought to be directly cytopathic to the hepatocyte HBV: T-lymphocytes are thought to mediate liver injury
Hepatitis B vs C HCV: – Up to 80% develop chronicity The rest will likely continue to test HCV Ab+ BUT immunity is not inferred HBV: – if acquired as adult, only 20% develop acute symptoms (can be severe) – Only 5-10% develop chronic virus The remainder are immune
HCV is a diverse virus – 6 genotypes identified (with subtypes) Genotype 1 most common in US Genotype 2 - YEA! – He has genotype 2!! Genotype 3 more in far east Genotype 4 in Africa and middle east, increased frequency in Europe Genotype 5 in South Africa Genotype 6 in Hong Kong, Vietnam and Australia Genotype 1 is the nemesis of treaters, researchers and pharmaceutical manufacturers IL28B genetic polymorphism? – Huh?
Who Should Be Screened? Persons born between 1945-1965 Persons who currently inject drugs or who have injected drugs in the past, even once or in the distant past Recipients of clotting factor concentrates before 1990s Recipients of blood transfusion or donated organs before July 1992 Long term hemodialysis patients Persons with known exposures to HCV (e.g., healthcare workers after needle sticks, recipients of blood or organs from a donor who later tested positive for HCV) HIV-infected persons Children born to infected mothers Patients with signs or symptoms of liver disease (e.g., abnormal liver enzyme tests) Donors of blood, plasma, organs, tissues or semen
Birth Cohort Per the CDC, anyone born between 1945 and 1965 should be screened, regardless of risk factor “According to data from 1999 to 2008, three fourths of patients in the United States living with HCV infection were born between 1945 and 1965” (US Preventative Task Force web site) – grade B recommendation
Incidence of HCV Estimates in 2005: 185 million people globally infected (1) In United States, from a high of 250,000 new cases annually (1980s), down to 17,000 new cases annually (3) – Per CDC, current overall incidence 0.3 per 100,000 (1) Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: new estimates of age-specific antibody to HCV seroprevalence. Mohd Hanafiah K, Groeger J, Flaxman AD, Wiersma ST Hepatology. 2013;57(4):1333 (2) Surveillance for acute viral hepatitis--United States, 2006. Wasley A, Grytdal S, Gallagher K, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) MMWR Surveill Summ. 2008;57(2):1
Why Do We Care New cases are declining Infections from 1960s, 70s, 80s are suffering the consequences and complications – Cirrhosis – Hepatocellular Carcinoma – Diminished quality of life
Symptoms of HCV Typically asymptomatic Symptoms often not attributed to HCV Most common: fatigue – Along with anemia and thyroid issues, put HCV in differential Also nausea, anorexia, myalgias, arthralgias, weakness Rarely debilitating
Quality of Life Even without specific symptoms of the virus, HCV diminishes health related quality of life (4) Successful treatment improves quality of life (3) Impact of hepatitis C on health related quality of life: a systematic review and quantitative assessment Spiegel BM, Younossi ZM, Hays RD, Revicki D, Robbins S, Kanwal F Hepatology. 2005: 41(4): 790
Extrahepatic manifestations of HCV A study of 321 patients with chronic HCV, 38% had extrahepatic manifestations (4) – Dermatologic: purpura, porphyria cutanea tarda, psoriasis – Rheumatologic: arthropathies – Other: neuropathies, uveitis – (4) Extrahepatic manifestations associated with hepatitis C virus infection. A prospective multicenter study of 321 patients. The GERMIVIC. Groupe d'Etude et de Recherche en Medecine Interne et Maladies Infectieuses sur le Virus de l'Hepatite C. – Cacoub P, Renou C, Rosenthal E, Cohen P, Loury I, Loustaud-Ratti V, Yamamoto AM, Camproux AC, Hausfater P, Musset L, Veyssier P, Raguin G, Piette JC – Medicine (Baltimore). 2000;79(1):47.
Natural History of HCV Infection Acute HCV Chronic HCV 55 to 85% Stable 75 to 95% Cirrhosis 5 to 25% Stable HCC or Decompensation 1-3% /yr Resolved 15 to 45%
Complications of advanced liver disease Cirrhosis – once advanced fibrosis has developed, risk of progression to cirrhosis ~10% /year – Synthetic failure Hypoalbuminemia Jaundice Prolonged bleeding time – Portal Hypertension Ascites, peripheral edema Varices and bleeding encephalopathy – Hepatocellular carcinoma
Complications continued Hepatitis C accounts for nearly one-third of deaths annually from hepatocellular carcinoma in US Higher risk of death from complications of decompensated cirrhosis
Factors associated with disease progression Acquiring the virus after age 40 Male Blood transfusion may be a higher risk Steatosis ALCOHOL – Maintaining abstinence (hx of abuse) can improve histology in the presence of chronic virus
Burden of Disease In a study present at The Liver Meeting in 2011, the annual health care costs of a patient with hepatitis C (without cirrhosis) is nearly $18,000. (5) According to the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS)' Transplant Living Web site, the estimated U.S. average in 2011 of billed charges per liver transplant is $577,100. – ~$25,000 annually for anti-rejection drugs (5)Disease burden in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a United States (US) private health insurance claims database analysis from 2003 to 2010 - (11/15/11) AASLD Nov 5-9 2011 SF, SC Gordon,1 PJ Pockros,2 NA Terrault,3 RS Hoop,4 A Buikema,5 D Nerenz,1 FM Hamzeh4 1Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Scripps Clinic Torrey Pines, La Jolla, CA, USA; 3University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; 4Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA; 5i3 Innovus, San Francisco, CA, USA
Still wondering why we treat?
Treatment objectives Sustained viral response (SVR) – CURE! Avoid complications of cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma Success measured by – No viremia – Normalized ALT – Improved histology Decreased necroinflammatory action Stable or improved level of fibrosis
Success measured by – No viremia – Normalized ALT – Improved histology – Decreased necroinflammatory action – Stable or improved level of fibrosis
Evolution of Treatment (or how I have tortured 100s of unsuspecting souls over the years)
Medieval Standard interferon alpha, monotherapy – Mechanism of action: stimulates immune response – FDA approved in 1991 – Subcutaneous injection TIW 50% respond with normalized ALT and undetectable viral load but – 24 week course ~ 12% success rate – 48 week course ~ 24% success rate
Addition of Ribavirin 1998 FDA approval for combination therapy with interferon Mechanism of action: decreases replication by inhibiting pro (?) Ribavirin oral agent, interferon still TIW SQ 35% cure rate – VERY exciting
Pegylation Polyethylene glycol added to the interferon Improved half-life Allowed for weekly SQ combined with daily ribavirin Cure rates increased to ~40% in genotypes 1,4,5,6 ~70% in genotypes 2,3
Newer Agents Protease inhibitors approved May 2011 Direct Acting Anti-virals – Approved for genotype 1 only – NS 3/4A inhibitors with activity against HCV encoded serine protease required for cleavage of viral polyprotein= no replication – Telaprevir and Boceprevir: very similar efficacy – $$$$$ – SVR increased to >70%
BUT more side effects More anemia More pruritus More fatigue Dysgeusia Anal/rectal complaints – Anal pruritus – Diarrhea (fire-rrhea) – Hemorrhoids – Anal pain More rash Mild, moderate, severe Serious: SJS TEN: Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis DRESS: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms
Patient Selection Your most important (and often most difficult) decision
Not everyone wants treatment Not everyone needs treatment Some patients should not be treated Everyone should be evaluated and know their status
AASLD Recommendations (6) At least 18 years of age and HCV RNA + and Liver biopsy showing significant fibrosis and Compensated liver disease and Acceptable hematologic and biochemical indices and Willing to be treated and adhere to treatment requirements
AASLD continued Individualize Decision to Treat (6) – Failed previous therapy – Current alcohol or illicit substance users – No or mild fibrosis by liver biopsy – Coinfection with HIV – Chronic renal disease – Decompensated cirrhosis – Liver transplant recipients
Contraindications to HCV Therapy (7) Uncontrolled depressive illness, psychosis, or epilepsy Untreated anemia Autoimmune hepatitis or other autoimmune condition known to be exacerbated by interferon Untreated thyroid disease Pregnancy or unwillingness to comply with adequate contraception Severe concurrent medical disease (7) Ghany MG, et al. Hepatology. 2009;49:1335-1374. EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines: Management of hepatitis C virus infection. June 2011.
Lab markers of concern: – Albumin <3.7 can predict decompensation on treatment even if biopsy does not reflect cirrhosis – Platelets <75
Preparing Patients for Therapy Clear understanding of treatment options Review, explain, review, explain side effects and management (consent form to treat?) Clear description of treatment protocol, duration and administration schedule for medications Clear understanding of lab requirement and office visit expectation – Free drug possible and no-charge office visit but labs are not free
Job related issues Support system Clear understanding of prognosis, predicted response per treatment protocol Your expectations regarding alcohol, drug use This is a two way discussion – treatment is elective, no matter how necessary you think it is – Reluctant patients are not adherent to therapy
New therapies on the horizon Will likely be multi-drug cocktails Goals – High SVR – Pan genotypic – All oral – Clean SE profiles – Short duration of therapy – Smaller pill burden
American Companies Most with more than one compound – Gilead – Merck – AbbVie – Bristol-Myers Squibb – Janssen – Roche – Vertex – Kadmon
The end is near!
Final thoughts Screen per birth cohort/risk factor If +HCV Ab – get genotype, viral load to establish chronicity – If negative, repeat in 6 months to confirm – If positive and treatment not an option, don’t check viral load yearly HCV replicates 1 trillion virions daily: numbers fluctuate dramatically and do not correlate with fibrosis or inflammation
“The temporary normalization of ALT levels should not be equated with improvement of disease nor should it be used as a justification for not seeking treatment.” Melissa Palmer, MD (Dr Melissa Palmer’s Guide to Hepatitis & Liver Disease)
Markers of deterioration Albumin dropping less than 3.7 indicates worsening fibrosis and synthetic function Watch platelets Monitor synthetic function – Increasing INR, bilirubin