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Presentation on theme: "CAMPUS TITLE IX INVESTIGATION TRAINING presented by SAUNDRA K"— Presentation transcript:


2 © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved
MEET YOUR PRESENTER Saundra K. “Saunie” Schuster, J.D. is a partner with NCHERM. She was previously General Counsel for Sinclair College and Senior Assistant Attorney General for the State of Ohio. Prior to practicing law she was Associate Dean of Students at Ohio State University. She is an author, and consultant focusing on higher education legal issues. © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

Erika Pearsol-Christie, Esq. has practiced in the areas of education, employment and labor law for the past 14 years. She is currently the Director of Employee and Labor Relation and in-house counsel with Ohio University. Prior to working with OU, Erika was a litigator in the Education Section of The Ohio Attorney General’s Office, representing Colleges and Universities; before moving to the AG’s office, Erika was a partner in a Columbus law firm and spent the first 10 years of her career representing educators in a variety of matters, including allegations of inappropriate conduct with students and co-workers.

4 Overview of Title IX © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

5 Title IX “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.” Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 Implementing Regulations at: 20 U.S.C. § 1681 & 34 C.F.R. Part 106 © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

6 Title IX Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 is a federal law intended to end sex discrimination in all areas of education Applies to non-discrimination based on gender to all recipients of federal funds, both public and private institutions Applies to issues of program equity, such as in athletics, and also to sexual harassment and sexual assault In addition to the implementing regulations – guidelines for compliance are provided by U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights: IN 1992 THE U.S. SUPREME COURT DECIDED FRANKLIN V. GWINETT COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS WHICH ESTABLISHED THAT SEXUAL HARASSMENT CONSTITUTED SEX DISCRIMINATION UNDER TITLE IX GWINETT ALSO PROVIDED A PRIVATE RIGHT FOR THE RECOVERY OF MONETARY DAMAGES UNDER TITLE IX HOWEVER, GWINETT DID NOT ADDRESS ISSUES CONCERNING THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUITON’S LIABILITY—THAT CAME LATER IN THE DAVIS CASE (1999) AND THE GEBSER CASE (1998) © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

7 Essential Title IX Compliance Elements
Once a school has notice of sexual harassment/sexual misconduct of a student, the school should: Take immediate and appropriate steps to investigate what occurred Take prompt and effective action to: End the harassment Remedy the effects Prevent the recurrence The school must appoint a Title IX Officer to oversee all the compliance elements © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

8 The IX Commandments Thorough Reliable Impartial Prompt Effective
Equitable End the Discrimination Prevent its Recurrence Remedy the effects upon the victim & community Investigation Process Remedies © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

9 The Role of the Title IX Officer in the Investigation Process
© 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

10 Supervisor Of The Investigation Structure
The Title IX Officer is responsible for: The appointment of investigators Supervision of investigators and investigations Strategizing investigations Assurance of initial remedial actions Timeline compliance Communication and coordination of investigation teams Providing institutional memory to investigators Training of investigators, hearing boards & appeals officers © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

11 Training Is Critical In order for investigations of sex discrimination complaints to be thorough and reliable, any individual who conducts them must have relevant and in-depth training and knowledge. Establish competencies and minimum training schedule Update and refresh © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

12 Example Training Competencies
Patterns Predation Recantation Communication Training Rape Myths Consent Force Incapacity Strategic process Questioning skills Evaluating evidence Establishing rapport Good report writing Alcohol & Other drugs Victimology © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

13 Training Should Also Include
The institution’s policies and procedures Applicable legal standards and framework Applicable federal and state law and court decisions Investigative techniques including specifically interviewing witnesses Cultural sensitivity; diversity competence How to analyze evidence in relation to the standard How to synthesize evidence, write reports, make findings © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

14 Supervisor Of Investigation Process
The Title IX Officer or designee is responsible for: Notice of investigation Gatekeeping Determining extent of investigation Notice of charge Notice of hearing Notice of outcome Duty to warn Assurance of remedies Recordkeeping of all activities © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

15 When Processes Collide
What happens when the employee is a student or the student is an employee? There is a difference Oversight of Deputy Coordinators/Investigators Ability to merge/combine the investigatory and hearing processes Coordination of remedies in student-to-employee and employee-to-student grievances © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

16 Significant Concepts © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

17 Why Apply Investigation Model?
Sex based misconduct is not only a campus behavioral violation, but also a violation of federal civil rights laws. Often requires Title IX response Civil Rights Investigation Model most effective for victim- based violations Campus conduct process involves passive receipt of information Investigation process involves strategic information gathering, comprehensive investigation, credibility information Better information leads to better decisions Investigation model can stand alone or be grafted onto and/or integrated into existing procedures. ADVERSARIAL MODELS RELY ON THE PARTIE’S ABILITY TO ANTICIPATE WHAT QUESTIONS A BOARD WILL HAVE AND WHAT INFORMATION IT WILL NEED BOARDS GO INTO DELIBERATIONS WITHOUT CRITICAL INFORMATION THEY NEED TO ASSESS A COMPLAINT BECAUSE NONE OF THE PARTIES PROVIDED IT. STUDENT CONDUCT ADMINISTRATORS HAVE TO BE CAUTIOUS ABOUT WEARING TOO MANY HATS IN THE PROCESS (CHIEF INVESTIGATOR, PRESENTER OF THE COMPLAINT, CUSTODIAN OF THE CONDUCT PROCESS, IMPLEMENTER OF SANCTIONS) © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

18 Should There Be More Than One Investigator?
No specific requirement, but: Investigation must be prompt, thorough and impartial Investigatior must collect the maximum amount of relevant information available to make a determination A pool of investigators may help to ensure that your investigation meets these requirements. © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

19 Additional Benefits of Team Investigations
Who investigates may be strategic to each specific case Ability to brainstorm investigation steps and lines of questioning with co-investigators, co-facilitate interviews Flexibility if there is any conflict with investigators and parties © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

20 How Is Investigation Different In Hr Contexts Than In Student Conduct Contexts?
Role of FERPA, Employee/Faculty Handbook/Collective Bargaining Agreement impacts process Issues of First Amendment protections State Public Records Laws At-will v. property interest Due Process and Fundamental Fairness © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

21 Role of Investigator in Decision Process
Variations in role of decision process: Investigator presents findings to accused individual Investigator recommends to supervisor or hearing panel Investigator only presents investigation report without findings The investigator may recommend a finding The investigator may be the key witness at the hearing The investigation report is admitted as evidence Other witnesses can be called, or the investigation may summarize their testimony The investigator can attest to credibility, call attention to discrepancies, and arrange for expert sources of information, as needed © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

22 Some Variations in Decision Process
Administrator accepts or rejects finding, makes determination subject to appeal Or, hearing is held, subject to appeal Or, investigator presents findings: Accused individual accepts Recommended finding implemented Not appealable May recommend sanctions or sanctions by administrator If rejected, hearing on sanctions Appeal © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

23 Continued….. Investigator presents findings:
Accused individual rejects Hearing Appeal Accused individual accepts in part, rejects in part Hearing only on disputed findings © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

24 Model Policy Language © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

25 Sexual Harassment Sexual Harassment is:
Unwelcome, gender-based verbal or physical conduct that is, Sufficiently severe, persistent or pervasive such that it, Unreasonably interferes with, limits or deprives someone of the ability to participate in or benefit from the university’s educational program and/or activities, and is… Based on power differentials (quid pro quo), the creation of a hostile environment, or retaliation. Examples include: an attempt to coerce an unwilling person into a sexual relationship; to repeatedly subject a person to egregious, unwelcome sexual attention; to punish a refusal to comply with a sexual based request; to condition a benefit on submitting to sexual advances; sexual violence; intimate partner violence, stalking; gender-based bullying. Should we ignore less severe behaviors? © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

26 Three Types of Sexual Harassment
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27 Hostile Environment Any situation in which there is harassing conduct based on sex or gender that is severe, pervasive/persistent and objectively offensive such that it alters the conditions of education or employment, from both a subjective (the alleged victim’s) and an objective (reasonable person’s) viewpoint. The determination of whether an environment is “hostile” must be based on the “Totality of the Circumstances”. These circumstances could include… © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

28 Considerations for Hostile Environment
The frequency (persistent or pervasive), nature and severity of the conduct; Whether the conduct was physically threatening; Whether the conduct was humiliating; The effect on the alleged victim’s mental or emotional state; Whether the conduct was directed at more than one person; Whether the conduct unreasonably interfered with the alleged victim’s educational or work performance; Whether the statement is an utterance of an epithet which is offensive, or offends by discourtesy or rudeness Whether the speech or conduct deserves the protections of academic freedom or the 1st Amendment protection. © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

29 Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harassment
Exists when there are: 1) Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature; and 2) Submission to or rejection of such conduct results in adverse educational or employment action. © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

30 Retaliatory Harassment
Is any adverse employment or educational action taken against a person because of the person’s participation in a complaint or investigation of discrimination or sexual misconduct? Also includes retaliation against the victim by the accused or by the accused friends or others who are sympathetic to the accused Also can include retaliation directed toward a 3rd party because of their participation in a grievance process or for supporting a grievant © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

31 Model Policy Non-consensual Sexual Contact
Non-Consensual Sexual Contact is: Any intentional sexual touching, However slight, With any object, By one person upon another person, That is without consent and/or by force © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

32 Sexual Contact Defined
Sexual Contact includes: Intentional contact with the breasts, buttock , groin, or genitals, or touching another with any of these body parts, or making another touch you or themselves with or on any of these body parts; OR any other intentional bodily contact of a sexual manner © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

33 Model Policy Non-Consensual Sexual Intercourse
Non-Consensual Sexual Intercourse is Any sexual intercourse However slight, With any object, By one person upon another person, That is without consent and/or by force © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

34 Intercourse Defined Non-Consensual Sexual Intercourse includes:
Vaginal penetration by a penis, object, tongue or finger, anal penetration by a penis, object, tongue, or finger, and oral copulation (mouth to genital contact or genital to mouth contact), no matter how slight the penetration or contact. © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

35 Model Policy Sexual Exploitation
Occurs when a person takes non-consensual or abusive sexual advantage of another for his/her own advantage or benefit, or to benefit or advantage anyone other than the one being exploited, and that behavior does not otherwise constitute one of other sexual misconduct offenses. Examples of sexual exploitation include, but are not limited to… © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

36 Sexual Exploitation (Cont’d)
Invasion of sexual privacy; Prostituting another person; Non-consensual video or audio-taping of sexual activity; Going beyond the boundaries of consent (such as letting someone hide in the closet to watch you having consensual sex); Engaging in voyeurism; Knowingly transmitting an STD or HIV to another person; Exposing one’s genitals in non-consensual circumstances; inducing another to expose their genitals; Sexually-based stalking, bullying and cyber-bullying may also be forms of sexual exploitation © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

37 Stalking Model policy language: Repetitive and/or menacing pursuit, following, harassment and/or interference with the peace and/or safety of a member of the community; or the safety of any of the immediate family members of the community May be a series of legal actions, but campus policy is not required to mirror criminal standards in most jurisdictions Can be a form of sexual harassment © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

38 Bullying & Cyber-bullying
Bullying is typically portrayed as aggressive behavior or intentional harm that is carried out repeatedly and over time and occurs within an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. Olweus (1999) It often includes comments about race, color, national origin, sex, sexual orientation or disability It often involves an imbalance of power, aggression, and a negative repeated behavior. Falls within Title IX when gender-based © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

39 Relationship Violence
Other terms include interpersonal violence, domestic violence, intimate partner violence Always involves another Code violation If based on gender/sex would fall within Title IX © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

40 An Analytic for Sexual Misconduct Allegations

41 Overview of the Three Questions
Was force used by the accused individual to obtain sexual access? Was the victim incpacitated? Did the accused individual know, or should s/he have known that the alleged victim was incapacitated? What clear words or actions by the complainant gave the accused individual permission for the specific sexual activity that took place?

42 Force There are four types of force to consider:
Physical violence -- hitting, restraint, pushing, kicking, etc. Threats -- anything that gets the other person to do something they wouldn’t ordinarily have done absent the threat Intimidation -- an implied threat that menaces and/or causes reasonable fear Coercion – the application of an unreasonable amount of pressure for sexual access. Consider: Frequency Intensity Isolation Duration © 2010 NCHERM all rights reserved

43 Force Because consent must be voluntary (an act of free will), consent cannot be obtained through any type of force. If force, in any of the four forms (or other forms as defined in your policy), was used, stop here. You are done. The policy has been violated. Consent and incapacity are irrelevant at this point.

44 Incapacity If incapacity could be involved (was alcohol, drugs or other form of incpapcity an issue in the matter), there is a two-step analysis: First, did the victim believe he/she was incapacitated at the time of the sexual encounter? Could s/he make rational, reasonable decisions? Could s/he appreciate the situation and address it consciously such that any consent was informed consent? Knowing who, what, when, where, why and how ADDRESS THIS QUESTION SECOND, BECAUSE IT CAN BE RULED OUT QUICKLY AND EFFICIENTLY IF ALCOHOL, DRUGS OR OTHER INCAPACITY ARE NOT IN ISSUE. IF NOT, MOVE ON TO THE 3RD AND FINAL QUESTION ABOUT CONSENT. © 2012 NCHERM all rights reserved

45 Incapacity Second, did the accused individual know that the alleged victim was incapacitated? OR, should the accused individual have known (from all the circumstances)? Use a reasonable person standard. © 2012 NCHERM all rights reserved

46 Incapacity Information
Incapacitation is a determination that can only be made after the incident in light of all the facts available Assessing incapacitation is very fact dependent Blackouts are frequent issues Blackout = incapacitation Blackout = no working (form of short term) memory, thus unable to understand who, what, when, where, why or how Partial blackout must be assessed as well What if the accused student was drunk too? A PERSON WHO IS PHYSICALLY INCAPICATED AS A RESULT OF ALCOHOL OR OTHER DRUG CONSUMPTION (VOLUNTARILY OR INVOLUNTARILY) ONE WHO IS UNCONSCIOUS, UNAWARE OR OTHERWISE PHYSICALLY HELPLESS PHYSICALLY INCAPICATEED PERSONS ARE CONSIDERED INCPABLE OF GIVING EFFECTIVE CONSENT WHEN THEY LACK THE ABILITY TO APPRECIATE THE FACT THAT THE SITUATION IS SEXUAL AND/OR CANNOT RATIONALLY AND REASONABLY APPRECIAT THE NATURE AND EXTENT OF THAT SITUATION YOU WILL NEED TO DECIDE IF INCAPACITATION IS TO BE INCLUDED IN YOUR POLICY OR SIMPLY AS A PART OF THE TRAINING TO PROVIDE ADDITIONAL GUIDANCE © 2010 NCHERM all rights reserved

47 Consent The Consent question: What clear words or actions by the complainant gave the accused individual permission for the specific sexual activity that took place? Consent Is: Informed (knowing) Voluntary (freely given) Active (not passive) Clear words or actions Indicating permission to engage in mutually agreed upon (sexual) activity

48 Rules To Remember No means no, but nothing also means no. Silence and passivity do not equal permission To be valid, consent must be given prior to or contemporaneously with the sexual activity Consent can be withdrawn at any time, as long as that withdrawal is clearly communicated by the person withdrawing it © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

49 Investigation Process Overview
© 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

50 The Investigation Process
Incident Notice Strategy development Informal, Administrative or Formal Resolution? Investigation Plan Interview all witnesses Gather and assesses evidence Write the investigation report Make a finding or recommendation (will vary by school) May recommend sanction Appeal © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

51 When Do You Investigate?
Receive Complaint Actual Notice or Constructive Notice How do rumors, gossip, online postings, etc. fit in? Once notice exists, the duty to investigate is absolute Small “i” preliminary Big “I” comprehensive investigation © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

52 Notice Standard OCR applies a “constructive notice” standard that is broader than the notice standard used by the courts – which is “actual notice” This brings under its ambit all complaints about which the university knew, or should have known The OCR standard of “knew or should have known” is more favorable to student complainants than the “actual knowledge” standard used to determine civil liability Complaints are often resolved by agreement requiring schools to adopt effective anti-harassment policies and procedures, train staff and students, address incidents in question and to take other steps to restore a non-discriminatory environment THE OCR REVISED GUIDANCE MOVES AWAY6 FROM SPECIFIC LABELS TO TYPES OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT IT GENERALLY REFERS TO HARASSMENT AS THAT CONDUCT THAT DECREASES OR LIMITS A STUDENT’S ABILITY TO PARTICIPATE IN OR BENEFIT FROM THE EDUCATION PROGRAM. “EDUCATION PROGRAM OR ACTIVITY” INCLUDES ALL OF THE SCHOOL’S OPERATIONS, INCLUDING ACADEMIC, EDUCATIONAL, EXTRA-CURRICULAR, ATHLETIC, WHETHER IN THE FACILITIES OF THE SCHOOL, ON A BUS, AT A CLASS OR TRAINING PROGRAM SPONSORED BY THE SCHOOL AT ANOTHER LOCATION OCR CONSIDERS ALL RELEVANT CIRCUMSTANCES WHEN EVALUATING SEXUAL HARASSMENT ALLEGATIONS. AS STATED IN THE DAVIS CASE, AN EVALUATION MUST INVOLVE THE CONSTELLATION OF SURROUNDING CIRCUMSTANCES, EXPECTATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS © NCHERM, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

53 Actual Notice Individual files a Title IX grievance
Individual notifies the Title IX Coordinator or other responsible employee Individual complains to campus police or security official Staff member witnesses harassment Indirect notice from sources such as flyers posted on campus, media, online postings, video © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

54 Constructive Notice In some cases, the pervasiveness of the harassment may be enough to conclude that the college should have known of the hostile environment – where harassment is widespread, openly visible, or well known to students and/or staff. In other cases, OCR can conclude the institution should have known of incidents of harassment from a report to an employee who had a reporting duty to a supervisor, but: failed to uphold that duty, or based on a complainant’s reasonable understanding of the apparent authority of the person to whom the report was made, though that employee in fact lacked actual authority as a mandated reporter. © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

55 Forms of Notice in Civil Rights Investigation
In a civil rights model, notice has many phases, some or all of which may come to pass (equitably): Notice of investigation and/or initial meeting Post-gatekeeper phase, notice of charges (complaint) Post-investigation, notice of hearing (if applicable) Updates of status of investigation (ongoing) Notice of outcome and sanctions Notice of appeal Notice of final determination © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

56 Notice & Employee Obligations
OCR requires that a college or university may be held accountable for harassment of students (even by other students) if any person perceived to be a responsible school employee was put on notice and took no corrective action This is different from the standard applied by the courts, which imposes liability when a school official with authority to take corrective action fails to respond, or is deliberately indifferent © NCHERM, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

57 Responsible Employee and Reporting Obligations
A responsible employee includes any employee who: Has the authority to take action to redress the harassment, Has the duty to report harassment or other types of misconduct to appropriate officials, Someone a student could reasonably believe has this authority or responsibility. Institutions must ensure that employees are trained regarding their obligation to report harassment to appropriate administrators. © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

58 Training For Responsible Employee
Colleges and universities should ensure that employees are trained so that: Those with authority to address harassment know how to respond appropriately Other responsible employees know that they are obligated to report harassment to appropriate officials Essential Topics for training Knowledge of institutional and community resources Information regarding reporting Confidentiality requirements Importance of remediation © NCHERM, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

59 Informal And Formal Resolution Process
OCR endorses and encourages informal resolution, and we believe it is a best practice, as long as it is voluntary Some minor incidents can be resolved through confrontation and/or intervention More significant discrimination can also be resolved informally, by a process in which the accused individual accepts responsibility, and/or by some forms of ADR or conflict resolution. Mediation not appropriate for sexual assault © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

60 Strategy is Key The investigation team, in consultation with their supervisors, and/or the Title IX Coordinator strategizes the entire investigation. This includes: What Policy(s) elements may have been violated? What are the undisputed facts? Which ones are significant to the investigation? What are the facts in dispute? Which ones are significant to the investigation? Who do you need to interview? What should be the order of the interviews © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

61 Other Elements to Consider in Strategy
What are the key issues involved? What additional strategies do you need to address key issues? What additional documentary evidence will be important to the investigation? Discuss your Methodology for this case (what approach will you use?) Timeline (within days will vary by case) © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

62 Understanding Role of Gatekeeping
As the investigation unfolds, the investigators should determine if there is reasonable cause to believe that policy has been violated. If that threshold is reached, the investigators should communicate with the Coordinator to ensure a formal charge ensues. If investigation cannot produce sufficient evidence of reasonable cause, the investigation should end prior to the issuance of the formal charge, and no hearing should be held. © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

63 Ensuring Equity In the Process
Each party’s rights, privileges and opportunities need to be balanced. Not exact parity, but equitable procedures that reach equitable outcomes that impose equitable remedies. Equitable = fair under the circumstances What you do for one party, ask whether you need to do for the other(s) Determine if a variation is important and if so, what are the issues of equity? © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

64 Todd & Amy Part I Order of interviews
What Policy(s) elements may have been violated? What are the undisputed facts? Which ones are significant to the investigation? What are the facts in dispute? Which ones are significant to the investigation? Who do you want to interview? Order of interviews What other information do you need? Do you need to interview an expert witness? © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

65 Interviewing © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

66 Important to Remember: As an investigator, you have no “side” other than the integrity of the process! © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

67 Demeanor of Investigator
Work to establish a baseline of relaxed conversation Maintain good eye contact Listen carefully to the answers to your question Avoid writing while they are talking, if possible Do not be thinking about your next question while they are talking Ask questions in a straightforward, non-accusatory manner Nod affirmatively to keep witness talking © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

68 Interview Skills General Interview Skills:
Outline your interview questions but be flexible Plan the order of interviews; may be beneficial to interview Respondent last Most beneficial to conduct interviews in person Interviews should be conducted in a neutral, quiet and private setting with a minimal or no likelihood of interruptions Explain process, your role as a neutral fact finder, and privacy protections and limitations © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

69 Interview Skills Establish rapport before questioning
Discuss thoroughness and the need for completeness; make sure parties don't leave facts out because they are afraid of getting into trouble Ascertain who the individual is and their relation to the other parties in the case Create comfort with language and sensitive subjects Document whether the individual is cooperative or resistant Be professional: gather the facts, make no judgments, make no statements about the parties © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

70 General Interview Skills (cont’d)
Pay attention to alcohol / drug consumption and timing of consumption Be cognizant of the difference between what was “heard” (rumor) and what was “witnessed” (facts) Ask who else you should talk to and ask for any relevant documentation (i.e. texts, s) Let parties know you may need to follow up with them as the investigation progresses Recommend that the parties and witnesses not discuss the investigation Discuss non-retaliation Obtain FERPA releases © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

71 Establish Pre-interview Ground Rules
Can subject record? Who will attend? How will records be kept? Advisors Attorneys Roommates, Parents, etc. FERPA/confidentiality © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

72 Questioning Guidelines
Take the complaint from start to finish through a process of broad to narrow questions and issues that need to be addressed Engage in a matching process Ask questions about the allegations and the evidence and the policy elements Focus on areas of conflicting evidence or gaps of information Drill down on timelines and details Don’t leave a question or gap unanswered © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

73 Interviewing The Complainant
Acknowledge difficulty of reporting and thank them. Acknowledge that they may have told this story multiple times already explain why you are taking notes and/or ask for permission to record if applicable Provide a copy of your policies and procedures Ask them to share a complete account of what occurred Good to have them give full story without asking questions, then drill down on details Ask whom they spoke to and told about the incident. Ask about outcry witnesses and possible documentation such as blogs or journal © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

74 Interviewing The Complainant
Ask what the complainant’s motivation is for reporting and what they hope to see as a result Find out if their academics and/or work have been affected Ask how this has affected them emotionally and /or physically Advise that the complaint will be discussed with the respondent and witnesses Discuss other reporting options © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

75 Interviewing The Complainant
Discuss counseling options if they are not already connected Discuss non-retaliation and intermediary steps such as no contact orders and class changes and give examples of retaliation, and to whom it should be reported immediately Let the complainant know next steps and when they will hear from you, and that they can contact you anytime with questions or any problems that rise © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

76 Confidentiality Issues of Complainant
If a complainant requests that his or her name not be used: The institution should take all reasonable steps to respond and investigate consistent with that request So long as doing so does not prevent the school from responding effectively and preventing the harassment of other students or the complainant © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

77 Confidentiality for Complainant
The college or university should explain to the complainant that: Its responsive action may be limited. It cannot guarantee privacy if doing so would jeopardize the safety of the complainant or others. emphasize that only those with a need to know will be informed. Train those who will be informed about confidentiality expectations © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

78 The Reluctant Victim When an alleged victim is reluctant to make a formal complaint, or returns to withdraw a formal complaint, Investigators should honor that request and determine the reason for reconsideration Those reasons that involve the investigation or hearing process should be addressed by the Investigator. Those that involve other issues should be addressed by their support person © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

79 The Reluctant Victim The victim should be notified as to their options: That the process will still be available to them, regardless of how long they wait That the institution will support them in any way it can (housing, classes, no contacts, etc.) That, if information is brought to the attention of the of the institution that may involve a threat to the community, the office may be forced to proceed with an investigation, but that the victim will be notified of this process © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

80 Interviewing The Respondent
Acknowledge difficulty of the situation and thank them for meeting with you Provide a copy of your policies and procedures Ask them to share a complete account of what occurred Question the Respondent as to the allegations- ask a combination of open and closed ended questions Get detailed- do not leave a question unanswered Ask about witnesses and any other relevant information Ask about possible motivation for complaint © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

81 Interviewing The Respondent
Let the Respondent know next steps and when they will hear from you, and that they can contact you anytime with questions Discuss counseling options if they are not already connected Discuss non-retaliation and any intermediary steps such as no-contact orders, housing moves and exclusions If interim suspension is employed, review the terms and provide a time frame © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

82 Interviewing Witnesses
It may be helpful to not label the allegations as “sexual misconduct” or “sexual harassment” but to describe it in terms of the behavior. Ascertain relation to the other parties in the case Ask questions; address the need for complete truthfulness Ask for opinions Ask if either party spoke about the incidents after they happened. Did they see any change in behavior? © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

83 Interviewing Witnesses
Ask if they have been contacted already by one of the parties Ask if they have made any previous statements Ask if there is anything you should know that was not been covered or if there is anyone else they think that should be contacted Discuss non-retaliation and give examples of it as some people only see it as threats Discuss privacy; execute FERPA release Ask all interviewees to contact you if they remember anything else or want to add to their interview. © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

84 Witness Lists And Flowcharts
Witness lists and flowcharts are important identify the role/involvement of the witness and his/her relation to other parties specify how the witness was identified (referred by a party or on your own) keep track of statements / compare accounts as between witnesses document your outreach attempts quickly locate how to contact a witness Timeline of incident also very helpful © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

85 Provide Information to those Interviewed
Each party should receive: a copy of the policies alleged to have been violated a copy of the procedures that will be used to resolve the complaint, including the rights that extend to the parties Consider providing parties copies of your non- retaliation provision. © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

86 Todd & Amy Part II What questions do you want to ask Todd?
What questions do you want to ask Amy? What questions do you need to ask from witnesses? © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

87 Case Analysis © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

88 Understanding Evidence
Formal rules of evidence do not apply. If the information is considered relevant to prove or disprove a fact at issue, it should be admitted. Evidence is any kind of information presented with the intent to prove what took place Certain types of evidence may be relevant to the credibility of the witness, but not to the charges Consider if drugs or alcohol played a role If so, do you know what you need to know about the role of alcohol on behavior? Timing? Incapacitation? Look for evidence of prior planning Evidence is relevant when it tends to prove or disprove an issue in the complaint. Irrelevant evidence admissible in campus proceedings unless prejudicial Evidence must be credible Presence, proximity, clarity, loyalty, prominence, vehemence, rehearsal, honesty, hidden motives, expertise, emotionality, delivery style © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

89 Understanding Evidence
You may assign weight to evidence based on: Direct or testimonial evidence (personal observation or experience) Circumstantial evidence (not eyewitness – but compelling) Documentary evidence (supportive writings or documents) Real evidence (physical object) Hearsay evidence (statement made outside the hearing but presented as important information) Character evidence (generally not relevant or acceptable) Past record (should only be presented prior to sanctioning if it relates to significant pattern of behavior that would impact “more likely than not” determination) Impact statements (should only be reviewed after a finding) What if law enforcement is the sole source of evidence collection? And they won’t release the evidence to you? Does it matter if they are local or campus Law Enforcement/Public Safety? What if there is a pending criminal or civil case? What if the accused individual threatens to call a lawyer or files a lawsuit? What if the alleged victim files a suit or with OCR? © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

90 Credibility Pay attention to the following factors…
“To assess credibility is to assess the extent to which you can rely on a witnesses’ testimony to be accurate and helpful in your understanding of the case” Credible is not synonymous with truthful Memory errors do not necessarily destroy a witness’ credibility Refrain from focusing on irrelevant inaccuracies and inconsistencies Pay attention to the following factors… © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

91 Factors to Consider for Credibility
Demeanor Nonverbal language Demeanor issues should be your cue to ask more questions Non-cooperation Look for short, abrupt answers or refusal to answer OK to ask, “you seem reluctant to answer these questions - can you tell me why?” Logic/Consistency Ask “Does this make sense?” Corroborating evidence © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

92 Making Credibility Determinations
Look at consistency of story – substance and chronology of statements Consider inherent plausibility of all information given Look for the amount of detail (facts) provided, factual detail should be assessed against general allegations, accusations, excuses or denials that have no supporting detail Pay attention to non-verbal behavior, but don’t read too much into it © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

93 Analyzing the Information
Examine only actions that have a direct relation to the situation under review Explore motivation, attitude and behavior of complainant, accused and witnesses Apply relevant standards: Force, Consent, Incapacity Unwelcomeness; reasonable person; discriminatory effect Analyze the broadest, most serious violations first and make a determination of each and every violation alleged © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

94 Analytic to Use in Making A Finding
Parse the policy (policies) that form basis of investigation Address key issues identified Assess whether answers are factual, opinion-based, or circumstantial (assess their evidentiary value) Weigh other elements of evidence (relevance & credibility) Withhold judgment until all evidence has been considered Determine whether more likely than not policy (policies) has been violated © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

95 Applying the Preponderance Standard to Your Analysis
Use language the community understands 50.1% (50% plus a feather) “More likely than not” The “tipped scale” Try NOT to use just the term “preponderance of the evidence” - it is not common language Should be articulated throughout your policy, procedure, investigation and hearings Educate the parties and their advisors © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

96 Investigation Notes and Report
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97 Note Taking Considerations
Assemble an investigative file and keep it in a secure location. Keep a timeline of the steps in the process, including dates of all meetings and interviews. Date all records and include who was present at any meetings; number pages Keep records of all contacts including and phone calls with all parties Use pre-prepared numbered questions as a framework, but be flexible © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

98 Note-Taking: Other Considerations
Notes should be free from bias and subjectivity Notes should be complete and detailed Decision may turn on small details Where possible, include verbatim statements on critical issues – use their words, not yours Keep notes on what is told to the complainant, respondent and witnesses Identify any delays in the process and reasons for the delays If it isn’t written down, it didn’t happen © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

99 Note-taking: Other Considerations
Taking notes may slow down the interview in a good way- may help detect deception Note-taking should occur throughout the entire interview, not just when the accused individual makes a pertinent disclosure or an “incriminating” Remember that a student has the right to inspect their education record under FERPA “Sole possession” FERPA exception is very limited © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

100 Note-Taking Review your notes before the interview concludes; Clarify anything you are unclear about Document any refusal to answer, evasion or refusal to participate Capture key quotes Summarize your perceptions of credibility, honesty Record any requests or unusual interaction with interviewee Review and finalize notes immediately upon completion of interview © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

101 Preparing the Investigation Report
The investigation report is the one comprehensive document summarizing the investigation, including: Results of interviews with parties and witnesses Results of interviews with experts Summary of other information collected, i.e. information from police reports including pretext calls, medical exams, video surveillance and photographs, copies of text, and social networking messages, etc. Assessment of weight, relevance and credibility of information gathered Assessment of credibility of parties © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

102 The Investigation Report
Helpful to have a “skeleton” outline of what report will include The report should: Detail the allegations and how they were brought forward Explain the role of the parties and witnesses, and ant relations between them Summarize information collected Identify evidence collected (direct, circumstantial, documentary, expert) Assess weight, relevance and credibility of information gathered © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

103 The Investigation Report
Explain unsuccessful attempts to collect information and/or interview witnesses Highlight key factual findings for each allegation Measure the information gathered against the policies alleged to have been violated, applying the standard of proof (analysis) Recommend a finding on whether the policy has been violated, or make the finding, depending on your process The file should contain all policies and procedures currently applicable. © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

104 OTHER ISSUES Jurisdiction Timelines and Timeliness Confidentiality
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105 Jurisdiction For Sexual Misconduct/Title IX Cases
There is an expectation that you have SOME jurisdiction over off campus incidents Jurisdictional Limitations Geographic Temporal When is a student a “student?” Application-Admission-Registration-Attendance-Breaks © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

106 Timelines Ensure that all steps in the investigation are conducted according to the timelines in the institution’s policy. Parties and witnesses should be interviewed as soon as possible so that recollections are as fresh and accurate as possible to secure necessary remedies as soon as possible Document unavoidable delays Notice any extensions provided What about delays caused by the complainant? Delays caused by other processes Provision of partial remedies © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

107 “Confidentiality” Of The Process
Privacy of the parties’ and witnesses’ names and the allegations should be maintained to the greatest extent possible. Absolute confidentiality is not possible – must explain limitations of confidentiality Best practice not to furnish the respondent with a copy of the complaint without redaction or summarizing © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

108 Investigating Retaliation Claims
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109 Investigating Retaliation Claims Keys To Understanding
Establishing retaliation, unlike establishing sexual harassment, requires proving motive – the intent to retaliate. Since someone’s intention is rarely displayed openly, the legal framework is about whether a retaliatory motive can be inferred from the evidence. Gathering details of what occurred is critical. © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

110 Investigating Retaliation Claims Preliminary Elements of a Claim
The following elements establish an inference of retaliation: Did the complainant engage in protected activity? Usually straightforward Unless there is a question of reasonableness of belief or manner Was the complainant subsequently subjected to adverse action? Do the circumstances suggest a connection between the protected activity and adverse action? Did the individual accused of retaliation know about the activity? How soon after the protected activity did the adverse action occur? © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

111 Investigating Retaliation Claims Rebutting The Inference
What is the stated non-retaliatory reason for the adverse action? Is the explanation for the action legitimate on its face? Is there evidence that the stated legitimate reason is a pretext? This is the heart of the case – is the explanation the true reason? The preponderance of the evidence must establish that the adverse action was motivated by retaliation. © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

112 Investigating Retaliation Claims Is The Explanation Legitimate?
Factors to consider: The explanation makes sense The action was consistent with established policy or practice No adverse action was taken against others who engaged in protected activity Complainant was treated the same as other individuals. © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

113 Investigating Retaliation Claims Is There Evidence Of Pretext?
Factors to consider: The explanation given is not credible Other actions by the same individual are inconsistent with the explanation. The explanation is not consistent with past policy or practice. There is evidence of other individuals treated differently in similar situations. © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

114 Final Advice Focus On Remedies
Throughout process Investigation Stop behavior Remediate impact (often not sanction-based) Prevent re-occurrence Consider the effect of “educational” sanctions 2nd victim is both Title IX and negligence concern Consider what educational/training needs to be implemented, changed, etc. © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

115 CASE STUDY © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

116 Strategy for Case Study
What Policy(s) elements may have been violated? What are the undisputed facts? Which ones are significant to the investigation? What are the facts in dispute? Which ones are significant to the investigation? Who do you want to interview? Order of interviews What other information do you need? Do you need to interview an expert witness? What questions do you want to ask Dencie? What questions do you want to ask Will? What questions do you need to ask from witnesses? © 2012 ATIXA all rights reserved

117 Questions? THANK YOU!
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