Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 MIS Impact on Society"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 14 MIS Impact on Society Introduction to MISChapter 14MIS Impact on Society
2The IT Environment Education Government Strategy Consumers Businesses OperationsTacticsStrategyEducationGovernmentConsumersBusinessesCulturePrivacyEmployeesCompany
3Outline Individuals Jobs Vendors and Consumers Education and training PrivacyDehumanizationJobsLoss of jobsPhysical disabilitiesTelecommutingVendors and ConsumersIntellectual propertyBalance of powerEducation and trainingSocial interactionsSocial group legitimacyAccess to technologyfreedomLiability and control of dataGovernmentRepresentatives and agenciesDemocracy and participationVotingInformation warfareRise of the world state?CrimePolice powersPrivacyFreedom of speechResponsibilities and ethicsUsersProgrammers and developersCompaniesGovernmentsCases: Health CareAppendix: Computer-Related Laws
5Government and Privacy Spying on “ordinary” people is not an issue.Spying on business and political leaders or journalists can cause problems.Collecting data on targeted individuals such as dissidents or minorities can stifle innovation.Personal financial dataCompany financial dataHealth dataTravel dataPolitical negotiations
6Privacy Problems TRW--1991 Terry Dean Rogan Employees Norwich, VTListed everyone delinquent on property taxesTerry Dean RoganLost walletImpersonator, 2 murders and 2 robberiesNCIC databaseRogan arrested 5 times in 14 monthsSued and won $55,000 from LAEmployees26 million monitored electronically10 million pay based on statisticsJeffrey McFadden--1989SSN and DoB for William Kalin from military recordsGot fake Kentucky IDWrote $6000 in bad checksKalin spent 2 days in jailSued McFadden, won $10,000San Francisco Chronicle--1991Person found 12 others using her SSNSomeone got 16 credit cards from another’s SSN, charged $10,000Someone discovered unemployment benefits had already been collected by 5 others
7Privacy Laws Minimal in US Europe Credit reports Right to add comments1994 disputes settled in 30 days1994 some limits on access to dataBork Bill--can’t release video rental dataEducational data--limited availability1994 limits on selling state/local dataEuropeFrance and some other controlsEuropean Union, controls but undecided1995 EU Privacy Controls
9Job Changes http://www.bls.gov/news.release/ooh.table1.htm Database administrators, etc.Computer engineersSystems analystsPersonal and home care aidesHome health aidesMedical assistantsTeachers, special educationAdjustment clerksTeacher aidesChild care workersSocial workersReceptionistsFood service and lodging managersNursing aides, orderlies, etc.Hand packersGuardsTeachers, secondary schoolCooks, fast foodRegistered nursesClerical supervisorsFood preparation workersMaintenance repairersCashiersGeneral managers executivesTruck driversFood counter workersMarketing supervisorsWaiters and waitressesSalespersons, retailGeneral office clerks
10Job Changes 2000-2010 http://www.bls.gov/emp/home.htm Food preparation and servingCustomer serviceRegistered nursesRetail salespersonsComputer supportCashiersOffice clerksSecurity guardsSoftware engineers, applicationsWaiters and waitressesBarbersProcurement clerksEligibility interviewers, government programsParts salespersonsWholesale and retail buyers, except farm productsPostal service mail sorters, processorsTelephone operatorsComputer operatorsLoan interviewers and clerksSwitchboard operators, including answering serviceDishwashersSewing machine operatorsWord processors and typistsInsurance claims and policy processing clerksTellersOrder clerksFarmers and ranchers
12Adaptive Technology http://www.footmouse.com The foot mouse or nohands mouse uses one pedal to move the mouse and the other to click it.Federal rules now require that all applications sold to the federal government have the ability to be used with adaptive technology to enable people with physical challenges to use the system.A variety of hardware and software devices exist to provide alternative input and output.
13Telecommuting Employees Suburban Advantages work centers Reduced commuting costs.Flexible schedule.DisadvantagesLoss of personal contacts.Distractions.The FirmAdvantagesDecreased overhead.Flexibility in part-time workers.DisadvantagesHarder to evaluate workers.Harder to manage workers.
14TelecommutingTelecommuting sounds appealing to those who spend hours in traffic commuting to work. Most knowledge workers can easily purchase the computer equipment needed to work at home. It is more difficult to provide the self-motivation and organization to be an effective worker. On the other hand, there are fewer interruptions from coworkers.
15Digital Rights Management (Microsoft) Selection and purchase.Customer money transfer to store.WebsitePurchaseBank and creditcard processorCustomer/ReaderE-Commerce bookstoreCustomer data.Selection data.Retail store data.Encrypted book sent to customer with publisher-specified level of security.One copy in e-book format.ManuscriptWholesale price charged to retailer.Commission/fee to DAS server.Money to publisher.Digital Asset Server (DAS)AuthorPublisher
16Pricing and Revenue Elasticity of demand: % change in quantity % change in priceRevenue is maximized when elasticity is -1.In terms of digital products with a copyright “monopoly” and no marginal costs, it means reducing prices will result in increased total revenue--up to a point. And publishers are free to find this point and charge the most profitable price for each unit sold.
17Education Can technology change education? Computer-assisted instruction to provide individual attentionCourse managementDistance learningDo people want more technology in education?TeachersStudentsEmployersLifelong learningProfessionalsMilitary
18Social Group Interactions Social Group LegitimacyHow do you know what is real?How cynical do you need to be?Access to technologyHardwareSoftwareInternet (access and speed)Economics and payment mechanismaccess, spam, and harassmentLiability and Control of Data
19How Cynical Can You Be? ArthritisCure.net Which of these websites do you believe?How do you decide?Does it help if you know the website?BBC News
21E-Government Government Representatives and Agencies Providing Internet access to government data.Democracy and participationGetting data and informationProviding feedback and participatingVoting—will we ever see electronic or online voting?Information warfareWill the Internet consolidate the world?
22Electronic Voting Challenges Prevent fraud by voters (identify voters).Prevent fraud by counters.Prevent fraud by application programmers.Prevent fraud by operating system programmers.Prevent attacks on servers.Prevent attacks on clients.Prevent loss of data.Provide ability to recount ballots.Ensure anonymity of votes.Provide access to all voters.Prevent denial of service attacks.Prevent user interface errors.Identify and let voters correct data entry errors.Improve on existing 1 in 6,000 to 1 in 10,000 error rates.
23Information Warfare Controlling information and knowledge Intercepting communications.Breaking codes.Providing false information.Protecting the modern economy.Winning a war depends on destroying the economic infrastructure, which today includes computers and networks.
24Rise of the World-State Early history: City-StatesPeople band together to protect a common region.Economically and politically could only control limited areas.Modern EraNation-StateDefense within physical boundaries (oceans and mountains)International CooperationEuropean UnionNorth American Free Trade AreaMercosur and moreThe Internet could remove boundariesLaws and enforcement will require international cooperation.Nations might become insular (e.g., France/Yahoo)Companies might be forced to least-common denominator
25Crime Real-world/traditional crime The Internet Police Powers Criminals and terrorists have access to information, communication, and money.Encryption and AnonymityThe InternetCon artists have access to new and more victims.Harassment ( , cell phones, stalking, etc.)Police PowersCarnivoreEchelon“Wire” tappingPrivacyFreedom of Speech (Digital Millennium Copyright Act)
26Responsibility and Ethics UsersCopyright LawsConfidentialityProgrammers and DevelopersSecure CodeConfidentiality and PrivacyKnow your LimitationsCompaniesProvide the tools to enable employees to do their jobs efficiently and legally.Training, compliance, security, backup.Partnerships and non-disclosure agreements.GovernmentsInfrastructureLawsPrivacy
28Cases: Eli Lilly Owens & Minor, Inc. What is the company’s current status?What is the Internet strategy?How does the company use information technology?What are the prospects for the industry?
29Appendix: Legal Environment Property Rights (ownership)PrivacyCrime (destruction)
30Property Rights Copyright Patent Right to sellRight to make copiesRight to make derivative worksRegistration is not required, but increases the amount of money you can receive in a lawsuitIn force for “life” + 50 years (corporate is 75 years total)Cannot copyright raw dataPatentMore expensive to obtain ($10,000 +)Prohibits similar works, even if created independently.20-year limitation (from date of filing)Useful and innovativeDigital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998Made it a federal crime to distribute devices that circumvent protection(Probably) made it a federal crime to discuss ways to circumventTrademarkPrevents use of a name or logoTrade SecretNon-disclosure agreement (NDA)Minimal legal protection, but establishes contractProperty Rights
31Privacy Freedom of Information Act Gives public access to most government filesFamily Educational Rights and Privacy ActLimits use of educational recordsFair Credit Reporting ActGives public access to their credit dataPrivacy Act of 1974Limits collection of government data—Most provisions are superceded and eroded by later legislation.Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986Extended wiretap protections to cell phones and .Video Privacy Act of 1988Limits access to video and library rental lists (Bork Bill).Driver’s Privacy Protection Act of 1994Limits access to drivers’ license records to large companies (e.g., insurance).Graham-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999Added some minor financial privacy clauses into financial deregulation. Institutions must notify customers of the ability to remove their names from marketing lists.U.S. Patriot Act (antiterrorism) of 2001Pretty much lets police agencies do anything they want for a given period of time as long as they claim it is related to terrorism.
32Privacy Government expansion/intrusion Welfare laws require identification because of fraud--some states use fingerprintsIdentification databases: fingerprints nationwide, DNA proposal“Deadbeat dads” 1999 act requires SSN to receive any license (driver’s, fishing, building, etc.)
33Crime Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 outlaws access to computers without authorizationdamage to computers, networks, data, and so onactions that lead to denial of serviceinterference with medical careEnforcement by U.S. Secret ServiceEnforcement has been difficult, but some successes
34Law Web references fedlaw.gsa.gov Basic links law.house.gov U.S. Code and C.F.R.Commentarylcweb.loc.gov/copyright U.S. copyright officeU.S. patent officeCopyright clearanceElectronic frontier found.Privacy information centerIITF white paper,/com/doc/ipnii proposed copyright changesIssue 4(1): Analysis of IITF