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Imaging in the Courtroom: Alchemy is Back in Vogue University of Denver Sturm College of Law 3/4/2011 Jonathan D. Brodie, Ph.D., M.D. Dept. of Psychiatry © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
What is an Image? the vivid representation of anatomy or physiology the pictorial or graphic display of data Images are sexy, can convey an enormous amount of information AND can be used in a courtroom © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Anonymous Defense Attorney: Images are sexy Anonymous Defense Attorney: Images are sexy © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Normal Control Methamphetamine Abuser © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
PET Imaging of Amyloid Deposits in Alzheimer’s Disease vs Normal Controls Source: Klunk, et al. Ann Neurol 2004: 55: PET imaging with a novel tracer, Pittsburgh Compound-B (PIB), can provide quantitative information on amyloid deposits in living subjects. © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Principles of Neuroimaging ( I ) Objective is to detect some property of the brain (as measured by attenuation of x-rays, magnetic moments or dipoles, electrical signals, radioactive events) without invading it Recognize that each imaging technique has a characteristic sensitivity, precision, accuracy and fidelity with respect to a physical and/or physiological process and generally in an artificial environment divorced from the very circumstances and behaviors that engendered the test. © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Structural Imaging CAT X-Ray MRI Anatomy CAT X-Ray MRI © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Computerized Tomography (CT) Imaging (Similar image reconstruction, but based on absorption of x-rays) © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Proton density, recovery (T1) and decay (T2 and T2*) times. By ‘weighting’ the pulse sequence (and point at which data is collected) different images of the brain are obtained Weighting is achieved by manipulating TE (time to echo) and TR (time to repetition of the pulse sequence) T1 weightedDensity weightedT2 weighted © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Functional Imaging PET f MRI EEG Function © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
f MRI Paradigms (VF & Pharm) © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
fMRI Setup © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Statistical Map superimposed on anatomical MRI image ~2s Functional images Time Condition 1 Condition 2... ~ 5 min Time fMRI Signal (% change) ROI Time Course Condition Activation Statistics Region of interest (ROI) © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
f MRI from Stimulus to Publication Courtesy SPM-Website © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
K-Space – an MRI literature name for Fourier space Source: Traveler’s Guide to K-space (C.A. Mistretta)Traveler’s Guide to K-space © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
PET Function © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Imaging Alcohol’s Effects on the Human Brain FDG/PET scan demonstrates acute reductions of brain metabolism with alcohol intoxication. ( Volkow et al) sober intoxicated Same subject O HO OH 18 F © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Principles of Neuroimaging ( II ) Applying a model to interpret the signal Interpreting the reconstructed data in an experimental context or design Statistical analysis and comparisons Experimental conclusions or clinical inferences © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
PET Analysis by within subject Subtraction: Individual Variance and Mean Difference Stimulation: flickering checkerboard Control: blank screen © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Even Identical twins are not the same © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
FMRI design and analysis Basic designs. MRI studies brain anatomy. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies brain function. MRI vs. fMRI.
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