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Imaging in the Courtroom: Alchemy is Back in Vogue University of Denver Sturm College of Law 3/4/2011 Jonathan D. Brodie, Ph.D., M.D. Dept. of Psychiatry © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
What is an Image? the vivid representation of anatomy or physiology the pictorial or graphic display of data Images are sexy, can convey an enormous amount of information AND can be used in a courtroom © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Anonymous Defense Attorney: Images are sexy Anonymous Defense Attorney: Images are sexy © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Normal Control Methamphetamine Abuser © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
PET Imaging of Amyloid Deposits in Alzheimer’s Disease vs Normal Controls Source: Klunk, et al. Ann Neurol 2004: 55:306-319. PET imaging with a novel tracer, Pittsburgh Compound-B (PIB), can provide quantitative information on amyloid deposits in living subjects. © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Principles of Neuroimaging ( I ) Objective is to detect some property of the brain (as measured by attenuation of x-rays, magnetic moments or dipoles, electrical signals, radioactive events) without invading it Recognize that each imaging technique has a characteristic sensitivity, precision, accuracy and fidelity with respect to a physical and/or physiological process and generally in an artificial environment divorced from the very circumstances and behaviors that engendered the test. © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Structural Imaging CAT X-Ray MRI Anatomy CAT X-Ray MRI © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Computerized Tomography (CT) Imaging (Similar image reconstruction, but based on absorption of x-rays) © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Proton density, recovery (T1) and decay (T2 and T2*) times. By ‘weighting’ the pulse sequence (and point at which data is collected) different images of the brain are obtained Weighting is achieved by manipulating TE (time to echo) and TR (time to repetition of the pulse sequence) T1 weightedDensity weightedT2 weighted © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Functional Imaging PET f MRI EEG Function © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
f MRI Paradigms (VF & Pharm) © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
fMRI Setup © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Statistical Map superimposed on anatomical MRI image ~2s Functional images Time Condition 1 Condition 2... ~ 5 min Time fMRI Signal (% change) ROI Time Course Condition Activation Statistics Region of interest (ROI) © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
f MRI from Stimulus to Publication Courtesy SPM-Website © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
K-Space – an MRI literature name for Fourier space Source: Traveler’s Guide to K-space (C.A. Mistretta)Traveler’s Guide to K-space http://www.cis.rit.edu/htbooks/mri/ © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
PET Function © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Imaging Alcohol’s Effects on the Human Brain FDG/PET scan demonstrates acute reductions of brain metabolism with alcohol intoxication. ( Volkow et al) sober intoxicated Same subject O HO OH 18 F © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Principles of Neuroimaging ( II ) Applying a model to interpret the signal Interpreting the reconstructed data in an experimental context or design Statistical analysis and comparisons Experimental conclusions or clinical inferences © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
PET Analysis by within subject Subtraction: Individual Variance and Mean Difference Stimulation: flickering checkerboard Control: blank screen © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Even Identical twins are not the same © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie
Methods for Studying the Brain
Unit 3-B (A): Brain Monitoring Tools Mr. McCormick A.P. Psychology.
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IMAGING THE MIND Direct methods –Electrical activity (EEG, MEG) –Metabolic activity (EROS) Indirect methods –Changes in regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF)
The visual pathways. Ventral pathway receptive field properties 0 1 TE receptive field V4 receptive field V1 receptive field.
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PET POSITIVE EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY. WHAT IS IT? Small amounts of radionuclides (radioactive material) are injected into the body The radionuclides produce.
Biology and Behavior Neuroscience Scientific study of the brain and of the links between brain activity and behavior.
Chemistry and Imaging. Body Chemistry In order to be an effective health care professional, an individual must have an understanding of basic chemistry.
Principles of NMR Protons are like little magnets
A neuroimaging technique (like a CT scan) that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to vibrate atoms in the brain’s neurons to produce and image of the.
Techniques to Study the Brain. In the olden days… It was really difficult to study brain anatomy and function unless somebody died or an accident occurred.
fMRI data analysis at CCBI
Recording of electrical activity / electrical stimulation of brain tissue Spike trains Spikes.
Methods in Neuropsychology Chapter 4. Anatomical Methods Identifying anatomical connections –Axoplasmic transport Anterograde Retrograde Structural imaging.
Alternative Neuroimaging Techniques PET TMS SPECT EEG
STRATEGIES OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE The Coin of the Realm: correlations between psychological and neurophysiological events/structures Establishing two-way.
Opportunity to Participate
The History and Methods of Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Psychology Sorenson.
Methods in brain research 1.Structure a. Morphology b. Pathways 2. Function.
RF Pulse – generates a B 1 field that realigns the precessing spins in the low energy state In the case of a 90 o pulse the alignment is perpendicular.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Useful in examining soft tissues such as the brain and spinal cord.
Principles of MRI Some terms: – Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) quantum property of protons energy absorbed when precession frequency.
C O R P O R A T E T E C H N O L O G Y Information & Communications Neural Computation Machine Learning Methods on functional MRI Data Siemens AG Corporate.
Psychology Mr. Duez Unit 2 - Biological Bases of Behavior Brain Scans.
Joint Detection-Estimation of Brain Activity in fMRI using Graph Cuts Thesis for the Master degree in Biomedical Engineering Lisbon, 30 th October 2008.
Risk of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease in Persons with MCI
Techniques to Learn about the Brain and Neural Function Studying patients with brain damage linked loss of structure with loss of function –Phineas Gage.
Psychology Discovering the Brains Mysteries: Machines that can see into your brain.
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Methods of Studying the Brain. Electroencephalogram (EEG) Records the electrical activity of the brain. Used to diagnose some psychological disorders.
Cognition, Brain and Consciousness: An Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience Edited by Bernard J. Baars and Nicole M. Gage 2007 Academic Press Chapter.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Lorenz Mitschang Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 23 rd February 2009 I. Basic Concepts.
The History and Methods of Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Psychology PSY307 Sorenson.
Frontal Lobes The Immune System A healthy brain and a healthy body.
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