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Imaging in the Courtroom: Alchemy is Back in Vogue University of Denver Sturm College of Law 3/4/2011 Jonathan D. Brodie, Ph.D., M.D. Dept. of Psychiatry.

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Presentation on theme: "Imaging in the Courtroom: Alchemy is Back in Vogue University of Denver Sturm College of Law 3/4/2011 Jonathan D. Brodie, Ph.D., M.D. Dept. of Psychiatry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Imaging in the Courtroom: Alchemy is Back in Vogue University of Denver Sturm College of Law 3/4/2011 Jonathan D. Brodie, Ph.D., M.D. Dept. of Psychiatry © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

2 What is an Image?  the vivid representation of anatomy or physiology  the pictorial or graphic display of data  Images are sexy, can convey an enormous amount of information AND can be used in a courtroom © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

3 Anonymous Defense Attorney: Images are sexy Anonymous Defense Attorney: Images are sexy © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

4 Normal Control Methamphetamine Abuser © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

5 PET Imaging of Amyloid Deposits in Alzheimer’s Disease vs Normal Controls Source: Klunk, et al. Ann Neurol 2004: 55: PET imaging with a novel tracer, Pittsburgh Compound-B (PIB), can provide quantitative information on amyloid deposits in living subjects. © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

6 Principles of Neuroimaging ( I )  Objective is to detect some property of the brain (as measured by attenuation of x-rays, magnetic moments or dipoles, electrical signals, radioactive events) without invading it  Recognize that each imaging technique has a characteristic sensitivity, precision, accuracy and fidelity with respect to a physical and/or physiological process and generally in an artificial environment divorced from the very circumstances and behaviors that engendered the test. © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

7 Structural Imaging CAT X-Ray MRI Anatomy CAT X-Ray MRI © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

8 Computerized Tomography (CT) Imaging (Similar image reconstruction, but based on absorption of x-rays) © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

9 Proton density, recovery (T1) and decay (T2 and T2*) times. By ‘weighting’ the pulse sequence (and point at which data is collected) different images of the brain are obtained Weighting is achieved by manipulating TE (time to echo) and TR (time to repetition of the pulse sequence) T1 weightedDensity weightedT2 weighted © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

10 Functional Imaging PET f MRI EEG Function © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

11 f MRI Paradigms (VF & Pharm) © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

12 fMRI Setup © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

13 Statistical Map superimposed on anatomical MRI image ~2s Functional images Time Condition 1 Condition 2... ~ 5 min Time fMRI Signal (% change) ROI Time Course Condition Activation Statistics Region of interest (ROI) © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

14 f MRI from Stimulus to Publication Courtesy SPM-Website © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

15 K-Space – an MRI literature name for Fourier space Source: Traveler’s Guide to K-space (C.A. Mistretta)Traveler’s Guide to K-space © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

16 PET Function © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

17 Imaging Alcohol’s Effects on the Human Brain FDG/PET scan demonstrates acute reductions of brain metabolism with alcohol intoxication. ( Volkow et al) sober intoxicated Same subject O HO OH 18 F © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

18 Principles of Neuroimaging ( II )  Applying a model to interpret the signal  Interpreting the reconstructed data in an experimental context or design  Statistical analysis and comparisons  Experimental conclusions or clinical inferences © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

19 PET Analysis by within subject Subtraction: Individual Variance and Mean Difference Stimulation: flickering checkerboard Control: blank screen © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie

20 Even Identical twins are not the same © 2011 Jonathon D. Brodie


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