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By : 李 畅 朱建伟 李 伟 张 闻 Z h e n g H e C o l u m b u s.

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Presentation on theme: "By : 李 畅 朱建伟 李 伟 张 闻 Z h e n g H e C o l u m b u s."— Presentation transcript:

1 By : 李 畅 朱建伟 李 伟 张 闻 Z h e n g H e C o l u m b u s

2 Outline Introduction Motive Course Influence Memory Conclusion

3 Introduction — Zheng He  Zheng He’s original name was Ma He. He was born around 1371 in China, Kun Yang, a town in southwest Yunan Province.  Zheng He’s remarkable journey began when the Emperor of the Ming Dynasty ordered him to sail to "the countries beyond the horizon, all the way to the end of the earth".  Between 1405 – 1433, Admiral Zheng He sailed the Indian and Western oceans, visiting more than 30 countries from Asia to Africa and as far as the central and eastern coasts of the African nations.

4 Introduction — Columbus  Christopher Columbus (1451- 1506) was an Italian explorer who sailed across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492, hoping to find a route to India (in order to trade for spices).  He made a total of four trips to the Caribbean and South America during the years 1492- 1504.

5 Motive Introduction Motive Course Influence Memory Conclusion Economics Politics Culture Christian Faith Wealth Ambition Zheng He VS Columbus

6  The economic motive for these huge ventures may have been important, and many of the ships had large private cabins for merchants.  But the chief aim was probably political, to enroll further states as tributaries and mark the reemergence of the Chinese Empire following nearly a century of barbarian rule.  The political character of Zheng He's voyages indicates the primacy of the political elites. Despite their formidable and unprecedented strength, Zheng He's voyages were not intended to extend Chinese sovereignty overseas. Motive — Zheng He

7  More importantly, they served to transmit Chinese culture to South and Southeast Asia and the east coast of Africa.  At the time, many of the countries of these regions were still relatively undeveloped, and therefore quite attracted to China's advanced civilization. Motive — Zheng He  Zheng He's western voyages were not just an opportunity to carry out overseas trade.

8  Columbus was a man armed with the dream of reaching the East Indies by sailing West. Like every other explorer, Columbus had many reasons for his exploration.  First, he wanted to bring the Christian Faith to the inhabitants of the Indies. He was described by his contemporaries as a pious and thoughtful man. These were the qualities which most impressed Queen Isabella. Motive — Columbus  Second, and arguably of equal or greater importance as a motive, Columbus wanted a share in the wealth of any trade with the Indies in order to secure his and his family's financial future.  Third, Columbus was ambitious. He demanded of the Crown that he be named "Viceroy of the Indies" and "Admiral of the Ocean Seas."

9 Course Introduction Motive Course Influence Memory Conclusion Zheng He’s voyages from China littoral to Indian Ocean Columbus’ trips from the Mediterranean to North America ZhengHe VS Columbus

10 Zheng He’s voyages Course ---- Zheng He

11 The First Trip  Zheng He's first fleet included 27870 men on 317 ships. On the way back it sailed along the west coast of India and returned home in 1407. Course ---- Zheng He 直挂云帆济沧海直挂云帆济沧海 长 风 破 浪 会 有 时 To set the sails of cloud and brave the boun dless sea. The time will come to ride the wind and part the waves

12 The Second /Third Trip  Envoys from Calicut in India and several countries in Asia and the Middle East also boarded the ships to pay visits to China.  Zheng He's second and third voyages taken shortly after, followed roughly the same route. The Fourth Trip  In the fall of 1413, Zheng He set out with 30,000 men to Arabia on his fourth and most ambitious voyage.  From Hormuz he coasted around the Arabian boot to Aden at the mouth of the Red Sea.  The arrival of the fleet caused a sensation in the region, and 19 countries sent ambassadors to board Zheng He's ships with gifts for Emperor Yong Le. Course ---- Zheng He

13 The Fifth/Sixth Trip  In 1417, after two years in Nanjing and touring other cities, the foreign envoys were escorted home by Zheng He.  On this trip, he sailed down the east coast of Africa, stopping at Mogadishu, Matindi, Mombassa and Zanzibar and may have reached Mozambique.  The sixth voyage in 1421 also went to the African coast. Course ---- Zheng He

14 The Seventh Trip Course ---- Zheng He  Emperor Yong Le died in 1424 shortly after Zheng He's return. Yet, in 1430 the admiral was sent on a final seventh voyage.  Now 60 years old, Zheng He revisited the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea and Africa and died on his way back in 1433 in India.

15 Course ---- Columbus

16 The First Trip  Columbus sailed for King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella of Spain.  On his first trip, Columbus led an expedition with three ships, including Santa Maria (captained by Columbus), and about 90 crew members.  They set sail on Aug. 3, 1492 from Palos, Spain, and on October 11, 1492, spotted the Caribbean islands off southeastern North America.  They landed on an island they called Guanahani, but Columbus later renamed it San Salvador.  Columbus thought he had made it to Asia, and called this area the Indies, and called its inhabitants Indians. Course ---- Columbus

17 The Second Trip  On a second, larger expedition (Sept. 25, 1493-June 11, 1496), Columbus sailed with 17 ships and 1,200 to 1,500 men to find gold and capture Indians as slaves in the Indies.  He established a base in Hispaniola and sailed around Hispaniola and along the length of southern Cuba.  He spotted and named the island of Dominica on November 3, 1493. Course ---- Columbus The Third Trip  On a third expedition (May 30, 1498-October 1500), Columbus sailed farther south, to Trinidad and Venezuela.  Columbus was the first European since the Viking Leif Ericsson to set foot on the mainland of America.

18 The Fourth Trip  On his fourth and last expedition (May 9, 1502-Nov. 7, 1504), Columbus sailed to Mexico, Honduras and Panama (in Central America) and Santiago (Jamaica).  Columbus is buried in eastern Hispaniola (now called the Dominican Republic). Course ---- Columbus

19 Influence Introduction Motive Course Influence Memory Conclusion VS ZhengHe Columbus

20 Influence ---- Zheng He  Zheng He made seven wondrous voyages of discovery between 1405 and 1433. His voyages played important roles in encouraging Chinese traders to continue seeking fortune in Southeast Asia and he had the influence over the culture and religion of the local communities.

21 Influence ---- Zheng He  His achievements show that China had the ships and navigational skills to explore the world. Mysteriously, China did not follow up on these voyages.  The Chinese destroyed their ocean going ships and halted further expeditions. Thus, a century later, Europeans would "discover" China, instead of the Chinese "discovering" Europe.

22 Influence ---- Zheng He  After the death of Zheng He and Yong Le, the emperor of Dynasty Ming, the new emperor didn’t propose the deeply development of sailing.  On the contrary, he forbid the sailing to foreign countries and refuse to trade with foreign merchant. Then, China had fallen behind many other west countries.

23 Influence ---- Columbus  Columbus had found Bahamas Cuba and North America. His activity had deeply proposed the development of the communication of vary countries and the technique of sailing in the west world.  Especially, the countries like Spain,England had become the most powerful countries quickly through trading outside.

24 Influence ---- Columbus  The activities of Columbus had directly proposed the expanding of West World. Not only Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama had found Indian and Ferdinand Magellan had traveled around the world for the first time in he human history. These activities contributed a lot to the development of trading all over the world.

25 Influence ---- Columbus The establish of America  After Columbus found North America, many people especially the merchant who had lived in Europe transported to North America and live there for the need of trade. Some hundreds years later, people lived there united to fight with their original nations for freedom and had won the last victory. Then, The United States had been established.

26 Memory Introduction Motive Course Influence Memory Conclusion Stamps Navigation Hall Exhibition Hall Cultural Relics Hall Commemoration News Plaza de Colón Columbus Day Controversy ZhengHe VS Columbus

27 Memory ---- Zheng He Stamps  In memory of Zheng He, commemorative stamps is issued for The Anniversary of Zheng He's Maritime Expeditions.  The release date for "The 600th Anniversary of Zheng He's Maritime Expeditions" is now confirmed as June 28. The three postal administrations will each issue a set of three stamps in the form of a mini-pane and one stamp sheetlet.

28 Memory ---- Zheng He Navigation Hall  On December 17, 2004, the newly revamped Zheng He Navigation Hall opened to tourists in Changle City of East China's Fujian Province.  Changle was the stationing and anchoring base as well as the starting point of the massive fleet of Zhen He's Seven Voyages to the Western Seas.  Right in front of the navigation hall, there is a ten-meter-high stone sculpture of Zheng He, which is always a huge tourist attraction.

29 Exhibition Hall of Zheng He's Historical Relics Memory ---- Zheng He  In the center of downtown Changle City of East China's Fujian Province lies Zheng He Park and the Exhibition Hall of Zheng He's Historical Relics, originally known as "Southern Hill Park," which was first built in 1088 during the Song Dynasty.  There is a pagoda that was built during the Song Dynasty but which still stands like a towering giant.

30 Cultural Relics Hall Memory ---- Zheng He  Outside Zheng He Cultural Relics Hall in Malacca stands a stone statue of Zheng He.  The Malaysians consider Zheng He as an indispensable part in the history of Malacca. During ancient times, he brought hope to the Kingdom of Malacca, which entered a period of brilliance with his help.  Nowadays, Zheng He and his legacies have become a hot tourist attraction.

31 Commemoration News  Indonesian city to commemorate Zheng He in 2005  Local government and businessmen of Central Java's capital city Semarang in Indonesia contributed 0.5 million U.S. dollars to commemorate the 600th anniversary of Zheng He's navigation of the Western ocean.  Singapore to celebrate 600th anniversary of Zheng He's voyage  Singapore held a variety of celebrations from June to August to mark the 600th anniversary of Zheng He's maiden voyage. Memory ---- Zheng He

32 Plaza de Colón ( 德科隆广场 )  In homage to Columbus and his voyage to discover the Americas, Madrid has erected two monuments in the Alphonso Martinez district in an area that’s become known as Plaze de Colón. Memory ---- Columbus  Columbus Statue  Columbus himself stands atop the first monument, perching at the pinnacle of a tall column and facing eastward towards the open sea.  Columbus Monument  The second monument to Columbus is a large chunky cement piece that looks a bit like an anchor.

33 Columbus Day Memory ---- Columbus  Columbus Day is celebrated in the USA on the second Monday in October. It is a day in which Americans celebrated Christopher Columbus' trip from Spain to Hispaniola, North America in 1492.  But in fact, to celebrate or not to celebrate Columbus Day is a topic to debate all around the world.  Many historians think that Columbus had found the way of escape from Old World tyranny. He was the solitary individual who challenged the unknown sea, as triumphant Americans contemplated the dangers and promise of their own wilderness frontier...

34  Although traditional historians view Columbus' voyage as opening the New World to Western civilization and Christianity, many historians view him as a villain. They believe his discoveries marked the beginning of the destruction of Native American peoples and culture. In recent years, many people who view Columbus Day as a celebration of conquest and genocide have rejected this holiday and replaced it with Indigenous Peoples Day.  In our opinion, We should make an objective assessment of Columbus’ contributions and his mistakes. Memory ---- Columbus Controversy

35 Chinese Columbus: Fact or Fiction?  The Year China Discovered America (2002), aspires to rewrite world history on a grand scale.  Gavin Menzies maintains that four Chinese fleets, comprising twenty-five to thirty ships and at least 7,000 persons each, visited every part of the world except Europe between 1421 and 1423.  According to Menzies, proof of the passage of the Ming fleets to the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, and Polynesia is overwhelming and indisputable.  The following flash shows his viewpoint. ( Need to click the button with your mouse slowly )

36 Chinese Columbus: Fact or Fiction

37 Zheng He and Columbus Conclusion  Zheng He and Columbus obtain obviously different appraisal, even though they similarly sailed along the navigation route which their ancestors never passed through.  Zheng He earned a high reputation in Southeast Asia, including Indonesia Philippines and Malaya. From today’s concrete expression of commemoration, we believe that many of the customs and rituals have continued several hundred years.  As far as we know, the memorials for Columbus is rare except Columbus Statue and Monument at Plaza de Colón in Spain, which does not mean he made a less contribution to the world than Zheng He.

38 Conclusion  From the comparison between Zheng He and Columbus we can find the reason why China fell behind the West World in modern time --- our closed-door policy had limited our development and West World’s policy of opening to outside had promoted their expanding. Zheng He and Columbus  Culture is the values, attitudes, behaviours and beliefs shared by a group of people, which affects decision-making.  Maybe culture is an important aspect which causes different policy between Chinese and Western World.

39 联系方式: 朱建伟 李 畅 张 闻 李 伟

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