Presentation on theme: "PULP & PAPER INDUSTRY TRAINING IN MAINTENANCE IN RESPECT OF ACCIDENTS PREVENTION & SAFETY ASPECTS PULP & PAPER INDUSTRY TRAINING IN MAINTENANCE IN RESPECT."— Presentation transcript:
PULP & PAPER INDUSTRY TRAINING IN MAINTENANCE IN RESPECT OF ACCIDENTS PREVENTION & SAFETY ASPECTS PULP & PAPER INDUSTRY TRAINING IN MAINTENANCE IN RESPECT OF ACCIDENTS PREVENTION & SAFETY ASPECTS
MAINTENANE PRACTICES Firstly, we discuss maintenance practices with respect to the innovation and growth perspective and also the maintenance perspective. REACTIVE MAINTENANCE PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE RELIABILITY CENTERED MAINTENANCE COMPARISON OF FOUR MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS
MAINTENANCE OF PLANT _ FIRE HAZARDS Poorly maintained plant is a cause for fires. In a survey carried out by one local authority fire brigade, 60% of all fires were due to poor maintenance of plant or premises. It is usually a combination of circumstances that leads to fires. Typically, circumstances that contribute to the start of fires are: Poor housekeeping, e.g. build-up of dust or paper causing overheating. Lack of bearing lubrication. Especially where there are many bearings, it is easy for some overlooked, leading to frictional heating. (e.g. due to drive belts rubbing); ….Continued
FIRE HAZARDS : Electrical malfunction Flammable materials used in contact with hot surfaces (e.g. lagging materials not properly separated from steam pipe flanges); Leaking of flammable liquids or gases from valves or flanges (note that most oils and greases will burn vigorously in elevated temperatures); Static sparks (e.g. from inadequate earthing of solvent tanks);
COSTS OF ACCIDENTS TO EMPLOYER 1. ESI Contributions 2. Compensation under the workmen compensation Act 3. Medical expenses 4. Man hours lost 5. Damage to Machines, tools, materials et., 6. Interference with production delivery etc., 7. Bad morale among employees 8. Bad Industrial relations 9. Threat of prosecution. 10. Bad name in Society 11. Bad name in Government 12. Feeling of a Family member lost 13. Costs – hiring and training new employees 14. Miscellaneous costs.
FOUNDATION OF MAJOR INJURY Accidents - Not Injuries – The Point Of Attack : Analysis proves that every mishap resulting in an injury there are many other similar accidents that cause no injuries whatever. From data now available concerning the frequency of potential injury accidents, and a major or lost-time injury. the accompanying diagram graphically portrays the net result of this research. THE FOUNDATION OF A MAJOR INJURY 1 29 300 NO-INJURY ACCIDENTS MAJOR INJURIES MINOR INJIURIES
Good maintenance practices : Maintenance and Repair work at a Paper Mill involve a great risk of accidents. Conditions during repair work are often are unfavourable because the broken down machine or device must be repaired rapidly without additional product loss. Because of hurry, not so much attention is necessary paid to work safely. 1.Decisions on repair work must be made jointly by the Operations and Maintenance Personnel. The Mill must make sure one way or other that the Production Department knows about the Maintenance and Repair work that is in progress. 2. The Mill must ensure that the know-ledge of Maintenance work is transferred also the following shift.
3. Lock the moving components mechanically with safety latches. 4. Clean the environment of easily inflammable materials as well as poisons. 5. Provide adequate fire extinguishing equipment. 6. Arrange for observation of Fire Guard, if necessary. 7. Protect the environment against sparks.
Management, Manager and supervisor responsibilities Management responsibility : 1) Financial 2) Legal 3) Moral : To see that after fulfilling all obligation towards his employees, the worker is also to return home safe and sound. Functions of a manager : 1) Planning 2) Organizing 3) Leading 4) Controlling in a systematic way Role of supervisor : Some one who directs and guides the work of other people. This places him in a position where he is responsible for all the work by those who report to him. He is both a leader of his own team and following in some one else team – that of his supervisor.
DEFINITION OF ACCIDENTS ; An accident is an undesired event often caused by unsafe acts and / or conditions that results in or has the potential for physical harm to persons and / or damage to the property and / or business interruption. It can be said that accidents are allowed to happen because of poor or lack of control.
CAUSE OF ACCIDENTS UNSAFE ACTS: Cause approximately 88% of all occupational accidents (Human Error). UNSAFE CONDITIONS cause approximately 10% of all occupational accidents (mechanical failures). Acts of Providence cause approximately 2% of all occupational accidents (outside human control or earthquake). FIVE BASIC CAUSE OF ACCIDENTS 1. Personal factor - Lack of knowledge and or skill - Physical or mental defect - Employer attitude or motivation job factor 2. Job factors - Unsafe conditions and physical environment - Inadequate work standards Safe worker thinks Key to Prevent Accidents
UNSAFE CONDITIONS 1. Working at unsafe place 2. Working without authority 3. Failure to secure machinery and materials 4. Bypassing safety devices in operation 5. Arranging or placing objects unsafely 6. Bad factory layout with inadequate or badly marked walk rows and exits. 7. Over crowding in work shops 8. No personal protection equipment 9. Unsafe ventilation 10. Unsafe lighting 11. Unsafe storage of hazardous substances Unsafe Condition
BASIC PHILOSOPHY OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION 1. The occurrence of an injury, invariably results from a completed sequence of factors – one factor giving the accident itself. 2. An accident can occur only when preceded by or accompanied and directly by one or both of the circumstances in the unsafe act of a person and existence of mechanical or physical hazard 3. The unsafe acts are the reasons responsible for majority of accidents. 4. The unsafe act of a person does not invariably result immediately in an accident and an injury, nor does the single exposure of a person to a mechanical or physical hazard. 5. The motives of reasons that permit the occurrence of unsafe act of persons provide corrective measure.
6. The security of an injury is the occurrence of the accident that results in the injury is largely provinces. 7. The methods of most value in accident precaution and anachronous with the methods required for the control of quality, cost and quantity of production. 8.Management has the best opportunity and ability to prevent accident occurrence and therefore should assure responsibility. 9. Foreman is the key man in industrial accident prevention. 10. The direct cost of injury Compensation, liability claims 11. Incidental and indirect cost
THE ACCIDENT SEQUENCE FIVE FACTORS IN THE ACCIDENT SEQUENCE In accident prevention, the Bull's eye of the target is in the middle of the following sequence – “An unsafe act of a person or mechanical or physical hazard.”
EXPLANATION OF FACTORS 1. ANCESTRY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT Explanation of factors Recklessness, stubbornness, avariciousness, and other undesirable traits of character may be passed along through inheritance. Environment may develop undesirable traits of character or may interfere with education. Both inheritance and environment cause faults of person. 2. FAULT OF A PERSON Inherited or acquired faults of person such as recklessness, violent temperature, nervousness, excitability, in correctness, ignore etc. of safe practice etc. constitute proximate reasons for committing unsafe acts of existence or mechanical or physical hazards.
3. HAZARD Unsafe performance a persons, such as standing under suspended loads, stating in machinery without warning, horse play and removal of safe guards and mechanical or physical hazards, such as unsecured gears, unsecured point of operation absence of race course and in accident. 4. ACCIDENT Events such as falls of persons, striking of persons by flying objects etc. are typical accidental that cause injury. 5. INJURY Fractures, lacerations, etc., are injuries that result direct from accidents.
BASIC METHODS OF PREVENTING ACCIDENTS 1.Engineering Revision: Improvement in guarding, work environmental and work processes and procedures. 2. Education and Training - Proper job instruction techniques used to improve skills - Training in safe work practices and procedures to change or reinforce attitude - General Safety Education.
3. Employment Practices: - Selection of personnel to meet physical & mental demands - Retrain those who are moved from one job to another - Select and train personnel to perform new jobs 4. Example setting: Always set good examples for all to see by obeying safety rules. 5. Enthusiasm: - Giving good enthusiasm lead acknowledging safety achievements 6. Enforcement As a last resort discipline thing is the Break Safety Rules.
Roofing Failure Walking on asbestos Roof top for attending Roof maintenance is dangerous. Due to breakage of decayed asbestos, a man has fallen from Roof top on a machine at the ground floor and lost his life. Never directly walk on Roof top without safe access(Life line and safety belts). Explosions In ClO 2 preparation plant, a generator exploded, causing stoppage of entire operation for one month. Steam Control Due to mal function of pressure reducing system(PRDS), steam at 10kg/cm 2 entered into MG Cylinder which is meant for operating at 3.5kg/cm 2 resulting in MG end shield getting blown out and passed through the building walls. Wrong Operations of Digesters In a system equipped with more digesters with common blow line extreme care is needed to shut the other blow valves properly. “Isolated” pulp has entered from blowing digester into digester under filling, causing death of crew. TYPICAL ACCIDENTS _ Some examples from industry
Improper Design Unsuitable for work Felt Rolls and Press-rolls MOC for hubs and covers with proper wall thickness of shells are to be considered. And also proper dynamic balancing is needed. Damaged rolls result in causing damage to the clothing and doctors. Due to Wear & Tear in Chippers Due to extreme Wear & Tear in chipper operations, it calls for timely replacement of worn out parts, such as cover plates for knife fixing with threaded holes. Neglect on this part resulted in the chipper cover plates getting broken along with fly knife and thrown out to long distance. Nips of Belt conveyor and screw conveyor Nobody should be allowed to work for removal of spilled material while the system is running. Unsafe Working of a man falling from Blow tank top A Man was working on blow tank top for providing additional inlet connection, during the construction stage. The welder, while doing the job, started chit chatting with people around and fallen from top as he has not possessed proper safety gadgets and died.
Coal Bunker The outlet of coal bunker feeding to the boiler chocked. To clear the chocking, a team entered into coal bunker. While carrying the job the coal from the sides of the bunker god dislodged and 1 person buried in the coal, causing in the death.
SUGGESTED READINGS: Industrial accident prevention a scientific approach by H.W.HEINRICH (McGRAW-HILL publications) National occupational safety (arcadia 0007) Wishing all the Gentlemen to go back with a good Safety Eye and practice the points discussed.