6BBalcony- A small porch that sticks off a building above ground level.
7BBay window- A window that projects out from a building ( if it is only on an upper floor, it’s called an ORIEL WINDOW ).
8B Beam- A horizontal piece of structure supported at both ends. Example of post and beam construction
9BBracket- A piece of wood or stone used to hold up another building part, such as a cornice, balcony, lintel or sill.Stone brackets
10BUTTRESSFlying buttressesIn architecture, a buttress is a projecting mass of masonry, used for resisting the outward thrust of an arch, to strengthen and support a wall, or for ornament and symmetry.
11CCantilever- A piece of building structure that is only supported on one end.
12Column- A vertical piece of structure that supports a beam. There are three basic styles of Greek columns:1. The plain Doric came first.2. Then the stylized rams horns of the Ionic.3. Lastly the very ornate Corinthian columns capped with acanthus leaves was developed.
13Cornice- The molding that projects out from the top of a building.
14DDomeA rounded roof, with a circular base, shaped like an arch in all directions.
15DDoorDoors are generally used to separate interior spaces (rooms, closets, etc.) for privacy, convenience, security, and safety reasons. Doors are also used to secure passages into a building from the exterior for reasons of safety and climate control.
16A window that sticks out from a roof to provide more light and air. DormerA window that sticks out from a roof to provide more light and air.
17EEAVESThe eaves are the edges or lower borders of the roof of a building, which overhang the walls, and cast off the water that falls on the roof.
18The outside “ face” of the building. FacadeThe outside “ face” of the building.
19FRIEZEThe term refers to any long, narrow, horizontal panel or band used for decorative purposes—e.g., on pottery, on the walls of a room, or on the exterior walls of buildings.
20Gable- The end of a roof shaped like a triangle. The House of the Seven Gables This house was featured in Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel of the same name.
21Gazebo- An outdoor, open-air structure used for relaxing.
22HHearth - floor of the fireplace, usually extending into a room and paved with brick, flagstone or cement
23IIONIC ORDERThere are three basic styles of Greek column - The Corinthian capped with acanthus leaves, the Ionian capped with a stylized ram horns and the plain Doric.
24IIgloos (or Iglu) are snow houses used by the Inuit (Eskimos) of northern Canada. Not all Inuit people used igloos -- some built sod houses instead, using whale bones instead of wooden poles for a frame. Like a sod house, the igloo is dome-shaped and slightly excavated, but it is built from the snow, with large blocks of ice set in a spiral pattern and packed with snow to form the dome.
25JJAMB (DOOR OR WINDOW)A door jamb is the vertical portion of the frame onto which a door is secured.
27LLintel- The piece of structure over a door or window opening, which supports the weight of the wall above it.
28LLonghouses were built by native peoples in various parts of North America, sometimes reaching over 330 ft but generally around 16 feet wide.
29MMasonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar. The common materials of masonry construction are brick, stone such as marble, granite, travertine, limestone, concrete block, glass block, and tile.
30MMEDALLION Plaster like ornamental round ceiling accent, sometimes used as a trim collar for ceiling fans or hanging lights
31NThe Narthex of a church is the entrance or lobby area, located at the end of the nave, at the far end from the church's main altar.
32NAVE O F TH E CATHEDRAL OF THE ASSUMPTION Nave From navis, ship, an early symbol of the church. The central aisle; the part of a church located between the chief entrance and the chancel, and separated from the aisles by piers or columns.NNAVE O F TH E CATHEDRAL OF THE ASSUMPTIONIN LOUISVILLE KY
33NNOMADIC TENTS were used by nomads, people who followed their flocks to pasture and water, and moved around according to the seasons.
34OOrnament- Any decoration on a building that has no structural purpose.
35OOculus window the name of the round opening in the top of the dome of the Pantheon in Rome, and in reference to other round windows, openings, and skylights.Pantheon
36PParapet-A low guarding wall at any point of sudden drop, as at the edge of a terrace, roof, battlement, balcony, etc.
37P Pediment- A small gable over door or window. The upper part of the Greek National Academy building in Athens, showing the pediment with its neoclassical sculptures.
38Post and lintel construction Post and lintel is where a horizontal member (the lintel—or header) is supported by two vertical posts at either end.
39QQuoins- Large dressed stones that wrap around the corner of a building.
40Quatrefoila symmetrical shape which forms the overall outline of four partially-overlapping circles of the same diameter.
41RRoof- The top of a building which protects the inside from the weather.
42SSill- The piece of the structure under a window or door opening.
44SStoop- A short set of steps up to the front door of a building
45SStructure- The parts of the building that supports weight; a building’s skeleton.
46SSpire - any slender pointed construction surmounting a building; generally a narrow octagonal pyramid set above a square tower
47SSteeple: a tall ornamental structure; a tower, composed of a series of stories, diminishing in size, and topped by a small pyramid, spire or cupola.
48TTepees (also spelled Teepees or Tipis) are tent-like American Indian houses used by Plains tribes. A tepee is made of a cone-shaped wooden frame with a covering of buffalo hide. Like modern tents, tepees are carefully designed to set up and break down quickly. As a tribe moved from place to place, each family would bring their tipi poles and hide tent along with them. Originally, tepees were about 12 feet high, but once the Plains Indian tribes acquired horses, they began building them twice as high.
49TTurret A small tower that is part of a building, usually round and corbeled from a corner
50TTowerA building or part of a building that is exceptionally high in proportion to its width and length
51UURN - vase of varying size and shape, usually having a footed base or pedestal Found in cemeteries on monuments as a symbol of immortality (the storing of the vital organs was of extreme importance to the ancient Egyptians who believed that life would be restored through the vital organs placed in the urn).
52VVault: An arched structure of stone, brick, or reinforced concrete, forming a supporting structure of a ceiling or roof
53WWainscoting -- A decorative or protective facing, such as wood paneling.
54W Window- An opening in a wall that lets in light and air. Everything you could possibly what to know about a window:
55WWigwam The wigwam was a round shelter used by many different Native American cultures in the east and the southeast. It is considered one of the best shelters made. It was as safe and warm as the best houses of early colonists. The wigwam has a curved surface which can hold up against the worst weather in any region.
56X Xtreme architecture – Antoni Gaudi Modernist architect The Cathedral of the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona.
57over the land—sanctuary blessed in 1377) Tismana Monastery In Romania was used in theMIddle Ages as a xenodochiumXENODOCHIUMDuring the Middle Ages, a xenodochium was a room in a monastery for the reception and entertainment of strangers and pilgrims and traveler, similar to an inn or hotel.(This particular xenodochium’s foundation dates to Roman occupationover the land—sanctuary blessed in 1377)
58YYURTA yurt is a portable, felt-covered, wood lattice-framed dwelling structure traditionally used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia.
59ZZIGGURATThe ziggurat was an ancient Mesopotamian brick-built temple tower. Ziggurats were constructed of rectangular units of diminishing size, generally with a shrine for the god on top. They existed in every major Sumerian, Babylonian, and Assyrian centre.