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The Cold War American Studies.

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1 The Cold War American Studies

2 The Cold War Era: US vs. USSR
Two opposing world views dominate international relations: US believes whole world should model itself after us Democracy: Free elections, multiple parties to choose for Capitalism: Free market, consumerism and materialism Individualism: Your needs and wants are most important Religious expression: Mostly Christianity (1954 added “under God”) USSR believes their way is better Communism: One party system Planned economy: Everyone contributes and gets the same back Collectivism: The group’s needs and wants are most important Atheism: Religion should not effect govt or divide citizen groups Cold War: No “hot” violent conflict between these two nations Both sides use propaganda, military expansion, threats, espionage, and economic influence to achieve goals

3 USSR After WWII USSR wants to be a world power and spread Communism
Soviets lost about 20 million during WWII Afterward, 25 million are homeless and hungry They need to expand in order to recover European leaders want to protect borders from any further invasions Establish buffer zone or “satellite nations” along western border US wants to help foster democracy there US emerges more powerful than ever

4 Practice Question What were the goals of the Soviet Union in the Cold War? a. To not get involved . b. Spread Democracy and build friendships. c. Create satellite nations and spread communism. d. To create capitalistic economies for all nations.

5 1945: Yalta Conference Feb. 1945: Meeting of Big 3 Allied leaders: FDR, Churchill and Stalin We agree to give USSR Poland and territory in the Balkans in exchange for help with Japan Establish idea for the United Nations: International council to help nations solve problems without war Soviets will occupy Eastern Europe until free elections can be held in the near future (never happens) Soviets want Germans to pay high reparations Other Allies know they won’t be able to and want to occupy Germany and help them instead Agree to split Germany into “spheres of influence” in order to help them recover Seeds of the Cold War: Creates severe tension

6 Potsdam Conference 1945: US is the only one with atomic bomb and uses it to take a strong negotiation stance The New Big 3 Allies: Truman, Stalin, and Attlee Meeting to finalize all plans made at Yalta Conference: War crimes trials in Nuremburg and Tokyo after the war The Potsdam Declaration: They agree that we should use the bomb on Japan

7 Practice Question In the United Nations Charter, member nations pledge to “unite our strength to maintain international peace and security.” Since ratification of its charter following World War II, the primary goal of the United Nations has been to A. restore world trade disrupted by World War II. B. encourage industrial growth begun during World War II. C. establish policies to help nations pay World War II debts. D. intervene in world conflicts to prevent another war such as World War II.

8 The Iron Curtain Speech
Feb. 1946: Stalin announces he will break off trade with all western nations and build up his weapons systems March 1946, Winston Churchill gives a speech at a college in Fulton, Missouri “A shadow has fallen upon the scene so lately lighted by the Allied Victory…an iron curtain has descended across the continent” Metaphor: NOT a real wall or curtain! Churchill says western nations must join together to fight communist aggression

9 Iron Curtain Metaphor “There is nothing the Communists admire so much as strength and nothing for which they have less respect than for military weakness.”

10 Iron Curtain

11 Practice Question In the years following World War II, the countries of communist Eastern Europe were often referred to as being “behind the iron curtain.” These countries were perceived as a single region based on A. a common cultural heritage B. unique physical features C. economic and political characteristics D. widespread immigration from other regions

12 Containment “Communism must be confronted and contained whenever and wherever it seeks to extend influence.” US Diplomat in Moscow George Kennan: Expert on the USSR, says they will avoid confrontation Containment Policy: The US won’t fight Communism where it already exists The US will try to stop all further communist expansion 1947: Becomes the Truman Doctrine: US foreign policy for next 45 years Uses it to justify providing aid to Greece and Turkey so that they could fight against communist influence

13 The Truman Doctrine

14 The Truman Doctrine “At the present moment every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is often not a free one.” “One way of life is based upon the will of the majority and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression.”

15 The Truman Doctrine “The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio, fixed elections and the suppression of personal freedom.” “I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures.”

16 Practice Question During the Cold War the United States was involved in different conflicts because they assured the world that the U.S. would help in any way to stop the spread of communism. What was this policy of containment called? a. Marshall Plan b. Domino Theory c. Isolationism d. Truman Doctrine

17 The Marshall Plan - 1948 Europe was devastated by WW II: Depression
Cities, farms, factories, roads, etc. = destroyed Millions are homeless and hungry The conditions were ripe for the spread of Communism Gaining support in France and Italy US economy needs Europe to be stable in order for all nations to grow and benefit

18 The Marshall Plan George Marshall
Truman’s Secretary of State Army Chief of Staff in WW II Later will be Secretary of Defense Served in WW I and WW II 5 Star General 2 Distinguished Service Crosses and a silver star Nobel Peace Prize for his work with the Marshall Plan Sends Herbert Hoover over to find out what Europe needs so that we can help them

19 The Marshall Plan - 1948 US will help rebuild the European nations
In exchange, they agree to spend a portion of the $ on US goods The US will spend $13 Billion helping 16 countries Soviets refuse to participate say it’s a US plot to take over Europe. However, in 1948 it was the USSR that seized control of Czechoslovakia Very Successful: Europe recovers quickly, world economies benefit, US business prospers Gains us allies and eliminates appeal of communism

20 Practice Question At the end of World War II, Soviet armies liberated the countries of Eastern Europe from Nazi Germany. The occupation of these countries by the Soviet Union contributed to the development of the Cold War by A. contributing to conflict in the Middle East B. bringing about the reunification of Germany C. strengthening the authority of the United Nations D. dividing Europe into communist and non- communist spheres

21 Berlin Crisis Berlin is located 100 miles inside East Germany
Berlin was divided into West and East West Berlin was part of Allied West Germany US desired economically strong Germany to contribute to western recovery and contain Soviets

22 Berlin Crisis Supplies reached West Berlin on road and rail lines connecting it to W. Germany In 1948 the Allies disagree on several issues involving Germany, including a new currency

23 Berlin Crisis In June 1948 the Soviets blockade the border, cutting West Berlin off from West Germany. Communications, supplies, and electricity were cut off 2 million citizens of West Berlin are trapped, 100 miles inside Communist East Germany. They have no access to supplies necessary for their survival. They have 35 days of food and 45 days of coal

24 Introducing the Berlin Airlift
Berlin Crisis Truman’s Options 1. Do nothing – Let it fall to the Communists 2. Send armored convoys across the border and risk going to war 3. Find a way to resupply that doesn’t result in war Introducing the Berlin Airlift

25 The Berlin Airlift US and British aircrews will have to bring in everything that the West Berliners need to survive. Everything will come by air - food, medicine, fuel, etc. It was the largest continuous airlift in history 324 days: 277,000 flights delivered 2 million tons of supplies 10 minutes to unload 10 tons of supplies

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27 At its peak, a plane landed in Berlin every 30 seconds

28 Practice Question How did President Truman respond to the Soviet blockade of Berlin in 1948? A. By escalating the conflict with a counter-blockade of Soviet Positions B. By sending American tanks through the blockade C. The Soviets never blockaded Berlin D. By airlifting supplies into West Berlin

29 Berlin Airlift Soviets lift blockade in May 1949: Humiliating defeat
Flights continued until September to build up supplies US won the first “battle” of the Cold War Allies agree to unite to form Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) prevents Soviet blockade Stalin retaliated forming German Democratic Republic (East Germany) 1961: Berlin Wall built to split East and West Berlin Torn down in 1989

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31 NATO 1949: Soviet Union detonates their
1st atomic bomb = tensions rise China becomes Communist Chairman Mao Zedong takes over US feels we “lost” China NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization was an alliance created to defend the West against Soviet aggression Mutual defense agreement where nations promised to consider an attack on one member an attack on all, go to aid of any member Initially 12 nations were members

32 Practice Question During World War II, Japanese troops occupied much of China. This weakened the Chinese government, and in 1949, communist forces overthrew the government and established a communist state. What effect did the Chinese Communist Revolution have on the development of the Cold War? A. It decreased tensions, because it led to the formation of the Warsaw Pact. B. It increased tensions, because it strengthened the independence movement in India. C. It increased tensions, because it increased Western fears of communist expansion. D. It decreased tensions, because it led to the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union.

33 NATO vs. The Warsaw Pact In 1955 the Soviets and their allies formed the Warsaw Pact: Communist version of NATO alliance NATO nations trained and prepared throughout the Cold War to fight WW III

34 NATO Today In 1949 they were Communist!
NATO forces are actively serving in Afghanistan Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia are now members of NATO In 1949 they were Communist!

35 Practice Question In the years following World War II, there emerged the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw Pact nations. These are examples of A. regional economic cooperative efforts. B. military alliance systems C. environmental impact studies. D. international tribunals.

36 The Cold War at Home: 1950s-1960s
After WWII: Feared it would be hard to re-absorb all the troops at home The G.I. Bill of Rights: Provided funds for servicemen/women to go to college or get other job training Health and unemployment benefits and housing loans Baby Boom: Couples start families as troops return ( ) A baby every 10 seconds! Suburbs rapidly expand along with interstate highways New economic prosperity: Time/labor saving appliances Everyone is buying cars and televisions Story of Us video

37 The Red Scare Returns Fear of Soviet aggression and subversion changed the way the US saw the world and each other Causes era of hysteria, suspicion and accusation of disloyalty due to fear of Communism If you criticize the govt, you must be Communist Federal Employee Loyalty Program (FELP): to conduct security checks on over 2 million govt employees People could be fired for being a potential threat without evidence Large number resigned and 200 fired State/Local govts do the same Make employees take loyalty oaths

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39 The 2nd Red Scare in the US
McCarran Internal Security Act (1950) Required Communist organizations/members to register with attorney general Prohibited defense industries from hiring known commies Legalized internment of certain people during national emergencies Truman vetoed saying it was violation of constitutional rights by Congress overruled https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKqXu-5jw60 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AWeZ5SKXvj8

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41 The McCarthy Era Joseph McCarthy: House Rep. who exploited US fear of Communism for his own political gain Sparked national frenzy by claiming that he had a list of 205 known communists employed by US State Dept Never offered any evidence and eventually discredited Many disapproved but not publically because of fear of being accused of sympathizing with Commies Loses credibility in 1954: Investigated US Army Televised hearings: Show lack of evidence Dec. 1954: His influence came to an end, climate of fear gradually declined but never disappeared

42 The Red Scare House Un-American Activities Committee (1938, 1947) HUAC investigated allegations of Communist influence in Hollywood movie industry Wanted to prove that Communists in Screen Writers Guild inserted subversive propaganda into Hollywood films 10 witnesses refused to testify exercising 5th amendment protection against self-incrimination Hollywood Ten were found guilty of contempt of Congress and served up to 12 months in jail Blacklisted so other studios would not hire them 1948: Alger Hiss, who attended Yalta and helped organize UN, accused of spying for Soviets during 1930s Fought for innocence but sentenced to 5 years in jail

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44 Practice Question Which was a common factor in the United States that caused the Red Scare following World War I and McCarthyism following World War II? A. racial tension in major cities B. signs of economic downturn C. fear of communist expansion D. the counterculture movement

45 The Cold War Constant Arms Race between US and USSR
1950: Truman order comprehensive investigation of US military strength NSC-68 report says US should operate under assumption that USSR desires world domination Truman thought to guarantee security US must increase nuclear arsenal and enlarge its capacity to fight wars against Soviets Should be a source of encouragement to all nations to resist Need to be ready for rapid mobilization Congress doesn’t want to raise taxes for bigger military, but then…

46 The Korean War ( ) North and South Korea split at the end of WWII South Korea: Democratic supported by US North Korea: Communist supported by USSR Stop at 38th parallel in the middle

47 The Korean War: “The Forgotten War”
1950: Northern troops invade South Korea in order to unite the nation under Communism Led by Kim Il Sung China supports them UN Security Council: Condemns the invasion and authorizes use of military to expel the invading North Police Action: US did not officially declare war but participated to contain communist expansion US sends naval and air support, then ground troops Sets precedent for undeclared involvement in the future US spent over $64 billion, lost over 33,000 American soldiers 3 million Koreans and Chinese killed: Majority were civilians Scorched Earth policy: Destroy everything so they can’t rebuild US drops more bombs here than all Allied bombs in WWII

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49 The Korean War ( ) Korea remained divided at the end of the war Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) on both sides of the border (38th parallel) Did not solve any long-term issues in Asia DID allow for massive US military build-up SEATO: Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, like NATO alliance Korea today: Still divided, with democratic South Korea and Communist dictatorship in North Korea

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51 Practice Question The Cold War influenced U.S. foreign policy and involvement after World War II. Which of the following demonstrates that influence? A. Korean War B. Persian Gulf War. C. Internment of Japanese Americans. D. Growth of suburbs in the 1950’s.

52 Issues with Cuba After WWII: Nationalist movements in Latin America
People resented US business involvement Many living in desperate poverty 1958: Fidel Castro led a communist revolt in Cuba : Castro takes over and nationalizes all businesses, eliminating US involvement/control President Eisenhower breaks off diplomatic relations Cuba signs a treaty with the USSR

53 The Bay of Pigs Incident
1961: JFK becomes President and is concerned about having a Soviet ally so close to US borders (90 miles) US tries to invade Cuba at Bay of Pigs with intent of igniting an uprising against Castro Uses anti-Castro groups trained by US military Invasion failed miserably: US appeared weak and ineffective JFK uses covert CIA operatives to disrupt Cuban trade, conduct raids, and attempt assassinations of Castro

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55 The Cuban Missile Crisis
Castro is angry and Nikita Khrushchev wants to protect his ally near US USSR installs missiles in Cuba that could strike the US 1962: US spy plane discovers missiles Some want to attack, risking all-out nuclear war Kennedy’s advisors meet over tense week Sec. of Defense Robert McNamara recommends naval blockade to stop any further missile installation JFK demands Khrushchev remove the missiles or the US will destroy them Byt1GZs&safe=active

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57 The Cuban Missile Crisis
Announced to the public 8 days after discovery Military on high alert: 180 ships in blockade, bomber planes stay in the air Closest we’ve ever come to nuclear war: Citizens are panicked and preparing for nuclear holocaust After 4 days: Soviets back down and remove missiles In exchange, US removes missiles in Turkey JFK respected for averting crisis Some tensions reduced; communication to avoid disaster Arms race continues: Both afraid and want to remain strong

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59 Practice Question The use of atomic weapons at the end of World War II fostered fears about their potential use during the Cold War years. These fears were critical in determining the U.S. response to A. the Marshall Plan B. the Berlin Blockade C. the Cuban Missile Crisis D. the independence movement in India

60 The Space Race Arms Race: Build up military for protection and threat
Space Race: Show power and technological advancement Oct. 1957: Soviets launch Sputnik I, 1st manmade object to orbit Earth Sputnik II carries a dog, 6 more Sputniks through 1961 1958: US launches Explorer to orbit Earth 1961: Soviets send first person into space to orbit Earth Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin Weeks later, US sends Alan Sheppard for 15 minute flights 1962: John Glenn is the first American to orbit Earth JFK decides we must make it to the moon in order to win Story of Us video

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62 The Space Race 1968: US launches Apollo 8 to orbit the moon
July 1969: The moon landing is completed by US Apollo 11: Buzz Aldrin, Neil Armstrong, and Michael Collins orbit the moon and then walk on its surface “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind” Worldwide TV audience watched in awe

63 Practice Question The successful launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in 1957 signaled the beginning of A. Americans competing to prove technological superiority over the Soviets B. The Cold War in the United States C. Soviet aggression in Afghanistan and China D. Disarmament discussions between the superpowers

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65 The Vietnam War Vietnam was a French colony in Southeast Asia
Civil war: Communist rebels led by Ho Chi Minh try to drive out French Imperial govt US supports French anti-communist regime Eisenhower justifies this based on the Domino Theory If one country falls to communism, all other would be sure to follow 1954: Vietnamese forces defeated French Temporary treaty divides Vietnam at 17th parallel with Communists in north

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67 The Vietnam War Vietnam divided: Elections to be held in 1956 to reunite country under one government =cancelled Fearing that commie rebels would win, southern leader Ngo Dinh Diem cancelled elections Rebel groups formed National Liberation Front (NLF): Communist Vietcong rebelled in democratic south Ho Chi Minh in north helped supply rebels in the south Communist China also provided aid to Vietcong Use of guerilla warfare: Hidden, small group attack strategy, sometimes armed civilians Kept track of body counts not land “Victory is around the corner”

68 The Vietnam War JFK demands that Southern govt stop corruption in return for US aid and military training 1963: 16,000 Us military advisors were in Vietnam, but Diem did not institute serious reforms South Vietnamese govt regularly stole much of the aid Troops were unsuccessful in fighting Vietcong forces 1963: CIA supports a coup to kill Diem and put others in power Nov. 1963: Lee Harvey Oswald assassinated JFK Lyndon B. Johnson becomes president

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70 The Vietnam War Johnson believed that communist rebels were a threat to global balance of power August 1964: Johnson said North Vietnam attacked two US ships and asks Congress to increase troop strength Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: Gives Johnson power to use any necessary action against Communists Gives him the power to take “all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the US and to prevent further aggression” Later, the public discovered two US ships provoked the attack by helping attack the north US never declares war, but we are heavily involved in the war

71 The Vietnam War Rolling Thunder: Consistent bombing of North Vietnam by the US from Destroy infrastructure without ground invasion of the North Jan. 1968: Tet is the Lunar New Year holiday in Vietnam Both sides announced a two day cease-fire to celebrate The Tet Offensive: North Vietnam and the Vietcong launch a surprise attack on the south during holiday weekend Attack military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam Turns the tide of war: Now we realize that we may lose People who had supported war begin to question our continued involvement

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73 Practice Question Following World War II, France attempted to re-establish control over its colony, Indochina, which included Vietnam. Leaders of the Vietcong, a communist-supported independence movement in Vietnam, fought against France’s efforts to retake the colony. The United States viewed this conflict as part of the Cold War and aided France. This U.S. action was based on which policy? A. a policy of opposing colonialism B. a policy of helping Japan rebuild its economy C. a policy of containing the spread of communism D. a policy of participating in United Nations’ peacekeeping efforts

74 Protesting Vietnam 2.2 million are drafted into the war: Can fight in a war at 18 but can’t vote until they’re 21 Civil Disobedience: Break a law to call attention to a perceived injustice Example: Burn draft cards to show they see law as unfair 1971: 26th Amendment: Vote at 18 starting 1971 Draft dodgers: Refuse to serve, many flee to Canada Baby boomers protest in large numbers

75 Protesting Vietnam Why they protest:
Distrust of Govt: War never declared, Gulf of Tonkin Hypocritical: Not allowing self determination or supporting true democracy Meddling in foreign affairs: Costing $ and lives Morally opposed to war: Sending the poor to fight for the rich govt First televised war shows brutality and killing civilians US used chemical weapons like Napalm and Agent Orange Reports of US military abuses: My Lai massacre 1968: Mass murder of unarmed Vietnamese civilians, including men, women and children, by US troops Not reported in US for a year Many were gang-raped or had their bodies mutilated 26 soldiers charged with the crime, only one convicted and sentenced to life, but only served three years

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77 More bombs dropped here than both Allies and Axis dropped in WWII

78 Protesting Vietnam Most protesters were students
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) Hippies: Peace, love, and protest songs 1970 Kent State Shootings: 4 students killed by National Guard while peacefully protesting Chant “Hey Hey LBJ! how many kids have you killed today?” 1971: Pentagon papers show govt had been lying for years 1968 Democratic National Convention: Riots in Chicago outside, politicians debate inside Johnson won’t run again: Humphrey or Muskie On the news: Protesters and police fight in the streets Chant “Hell no, we won’t go!” about the draft

79 The Vietnam War Over next 11 years until the fall of Saigon in 1975:
About 58,000 US military personnel died in Vietnam Four Presidents tried to prevent rebels from gaining control and reuniting it under communism US efforts failed: 1976 Vietnam was united under Communism and became a Soviet ally Still communist today Controversial war sparked by fear resulted in: Large-scale, sometimes violent, protests at home Over 3-4 million Vietnamese deaths Widespread distrust of the government

80 Practice Question The burning of draft cards by those who objected to the Vietnam War is an example of civil disobedience because it was an action that A. was protected by the U.S. Constitution. B. was intended to draw the attention of the media. C. violated a law that the protesters considered to be unjust. D. expressed a point of view that was unpopular at the time.

81 The End of the Cold War 1985: Mikhail Gorbachev is the Premier of the USSR Soviet people are poor and unhappy: Can’t afford to continue the arms race Enacts reforms to provide more freedoms to the people Moves from command economy to mixed economy Reduces control of the satellite nations 1990: Reunification of Germany Ronald Reagan “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down that wall!” 1991: Satellite nations begin to declare independence Struggle for control of new govts in Eastern Europe Dec. 1991: Communist party and Soviet economy collapses and disbands

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