2 The Cold War Era: US vs. USSR Two opposing world views dominate international relations:US believes whole world should model itself after usDemocracy: Free elections, multiple parties to choose forCapitalism: Free market, consumerism and materialismIndividualism: Your needs and wants are most importantReligious expression: Mostly Christianity (1954 added “under God”)USSR believes their way is betterCommunism: One party systemPlanned economy: Everyone contributes and gets the same backCollectivism: The group’s needs and wants are most importantAtheism: Religion should not effect govt or divide citizen groupsCold War: No “hot” violent conflict between these two nationsBoth sides use propaganda, military expansion, threats, espionage, and economic influence to achieve goals
3 USSR After WWII USSR wants to be a world power and spread Communism Soviets lost about 20 million during WWIIAfterward, 25 million are homeless and hungryThey need to expand in order to recoverEuropean leaders want to protect borders from any further invasionsEstablish buffer zone or “satellite nations” along western borderUS wants to help foster democracy thereUS emerges more powerful than ever
4 Practice QuestionWhat were the goals of the Soviet Union in the Cold War?a. To not get involved .b. Spread Democracy and build friendships.c. Create satellite nations and spread communism.d. To create capitalistic economies for all nations.
5 1945: Yalta ConferenceFeb. 1945: Meeting of Big 3 Allied leaders: FDR, Churchill and StalinWe agree to give USSR Poland and territory in the Balkans in exchange for help with JapanEstablish idea for the United Nations: International council to help nations solve problems without warSoviets will occupy Eastern Europe until free elections can be held in the near future (never happens)Soviets want Germans to pay high reparationsOther Allies know they won’t be able to and want to occupy Germany and help them insteadAgree to split Germany into “spheres of influence” in order to help them recoverSeeds of the Cold War: Creates severe tension
6 Potsdam Conference1945: US is the only one with atomic bomb and uses it to take a strong negotiation stanceThe New Big 3 Allies: Truman, Stalin, and AttleeMeeting to finalize all plans made at Yalta Conference:War crimes trials in Nuremburg and Tokyo after the warThe Potsdam Declaration: They agree that we should use the bomb on Japan
7 Practice QuestionIn the United Nations Charter, member nations pledge to “unite our strength to maintain international peace and security.” Since ratification of its charter following World War II, the primary goal of the United Nations has been toA. restore world trade disrupted by World War II.B. encourage industrial growth begun during World War II.C. establish policies to help nations pay World War II debts.D. intervene in world conflicts to prevent another war such as World War II.
8 The Iron Curtain Speech Feb. 1946: Stalin announces he will break off trade with all western nations and build up his weapons systemsMarch 1946, Winston Churchill gives a speech at a college in Fulton, Missouri“A shadow has fallen upon the scene so lately lighted by the Allied Victory…an iron curtain has descended across the continent”Metaphor: NOT a real wall or curtain!Churchill says western nations must jointogether to fight communist aggression
9 Iron Curtain Metaphor“There is nothing the Communists admire so much as strength and nothing for which they have less respect than for military weakness.”
11 Practice QuestionIn the years following World War II, the countries of communist Eastern Europe were often referred to as being “behind the iron curtain.” These countries were perceived as a single region based onA. a common cultural heritageB. unique physical featuresC. economic and political characteristicsD. widespread immigration from other regions
12 Containment“Communism must be confronted and contained whenever and wherever it seeks to extend influence.”US Diplomat in Moscow George Kennan: Expert on the USSR, says they will avoid confrontationContainment Policy:The US won’t fight Communism where it already existsThe US will try to stop all further communist expansion1947: Becomes the Truman Doctrine: US foreign policy for next 45 yearsUses it to justify providing aid to Greece and Turkey so that they could fight against communist influence
14 The Truman Doctrine“At the present moment every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is often not a free one.”“One way of life is based upon the will of the majority and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression.”
15 The Truman Doctrine“The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio, fixed elections and the suppression of personal freedom.”“I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures.”
16 Practice QuestionDuring the Cold War the United States was involved in different conflicts because they assured the world thatthe U.S. would help in any way to stop the spread of communism. What was this policy of containment called?a. Marshall Planb. Domino Theoryc. Isolationismd. Truman Doctrine
17 The Marshall Plan - 1948 Europe was devastated by WW II: Depression Cities, farms, factories, roads, etc. = destroyedMillions are homeless and hungryThe conditions were ripe for the spread of CommunismGaining support in France and ItalyUS economy needs Europe to be stable in order for all nations to grow and benefit
18 The Marshall Plan George Marshall Truman’s Secretary of StateArmy Chief of Staff in WW IILater will be Secretary of DefenseServed in WW I and WW II5 Star General2 Distinguished Service Crosses and a silver starNobel Peace Prize for his work with the Marshall PlanSends Herbert Hoover over to find out what Europe needs so that we can help them
19 The Marshall Plan - 1948 US will help rebuild the European nations In exchange, they agree to spend a portion of the $ on US goodsThe US will spend $13 Billion helping 16 countriesSoviets refuse to participate say it’s a US plot to take over Europe.However, in 1948 it was the USSR that seized control of CzechoslovakiaVery Successful: Europe recovers quickly, world economies benefit, US business prospersGains us allies and eliminates appeal of communism
20 Practice QuestionAt the end of World War II, Soviet armies liberated the countries of Eastern Europe from Nazi Germany. The occupation of these countries by the Soviet Union contributed to the development of the Cold War byA. contributing to conflict in the Middle EastB. bringing about the reunification of GermanyC. strengthening the authority of the United NationsD. dividing Europe into communist and non- communist spheres
21 Berlin Crisis Berlin is located 100 miles inside East Germany Berlin was divided into West and EastWest Berlin was part of Allied West GermanyUS desired economically strong Germany to contribute to western recovery and contain Soviets
22 Berlin CrisisSupplies reached West Berlin on road and rail lines connecting it to W. GermanyIn 1948 the Allies disagree on several issues involving Germany, including a new currency
23 Berlin CrisisIn June 1948 the Soviets blockade the border, cutting West Berlin off from West Germany.Communications, supplies, and electricity were cut off2 million citizens of West Berlin are trapped, 100 miles inside Communist East Germany. They have no access to supplies necessary for their survival.They have 35 days of food and 45 days of coal
24 Introducing the Berlin Airlift Berlin CrisisTruman’s Options1. Do nothing – Let it fall to the Communists2. Send armored convoys across the border and risk going to war3. Find a way to resupply that doesn’t result in warIntroducing the Berlin Airlift
25 The Berlin AirliftUS and British aircrews will have to bring in everything that the West Berliners need to survive.Everything will come by air - food, medicine, fuel, etc.It was the largest continuous airlift in history324 days: 277,000 flights delivered 2 million tons of supplies10 minutes to unload 10 tons of supplies
27 At its peak, a plane landed in Berlin every 30 seconds
28 Practice QuestionHow did President Truman respond to the Soviet blockade of Berlin in 1948?A. By escalating the conflict with a counter-blockade of Soviet PositionsB. By sending American tanks through the blockadeC. The Soviets never blockaded BerlinD. By airlifting supplies into West Berlin
29 Berlin Airlift Soviets lift blockade in May 1949: Humiliating defeat Flights continued until September to build up suppliesUS won the first “battle” of the Cold WarAllies agree to unite to form Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) prevents Soviet blockadeStalin retaliated forming German Democratic Republic (East Germany)1961: Berlin Wall built to split East and West BerlinTorn down in 1989
31 NATO 1949: Soviet Union detonates their 1st atomic bomb = tensions riseChina becomes CommunistChairman Mao Zedong takes overUS feels we “lost” ChinaNATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization was an alliance created to defend the West against Soviet aggressionMutual defense agreement where nations promised to consider an attack on one member an attack on all, go to aid of any memberInitially 12 nations were members
32 Practice QuestionDuring World War II, Japanese troops occupied much of China. This weakened the Chinese government, and in 1949, communist forces overthrew the government and established a communist state. What effect did the Chinese Communist Revolution have on the development of the Cold War?A. It decreased tensions, because it led to the formation of the Warsaw Pact.B. It increased tensions, because it strengthened the independence movement in India.C. It increased tensions, because it increased Western fears of communist expansion.D. It decreased tensions, because it led to the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union.
33 NATO vs. The Warsaw PactIn 1955 the Soviets and their allies formed the Warsaw Pact: Communist version of NATO allianceNATO nations trained and prepared throughout the Cold War to fight WW III
34 NATO Today In 1949 they were Communist! NATO forces are actively serving in AfghanistanBulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia are now members of NATOIn 1949 they were Communist!
35 Practice QuestionIn the years following World War II, there emerged the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw Pact nations. These are examples ofA. regional economic cooperative efforts.B. military alliance systemsC. environmental impact studies.D. international tribunals.
36 The Cold War at Home: 1950s-1960s After WWII: Feared it would be hard to re-absorb all the troops at homeThe G.I. Bill of Rights: Provided funds for servicemen/women to go to college or get other job trainingHealth and unemployment benefits and housing loansBaby Boom: Couples start families as troops return ( )A baby every 10 seconds!Suburbs rapidly expand along with interstate highwaysNew economic prosperity: Time/labor saving appliancesEveryone is buying cars and televisionsStory of Us video
37 The Red Scare ReturnsFear of Soviet aggression and subversion changed the way the US saw the world and each otherCauses era of hysteria, suspicion and accusation of disloyalty due to fear of CommunismIf you criticize the govt, you must be CommunistFederal Employee Loyalty Program (FELP): to conduct security checks on over 2 million govt employeesPeople could be fired for being a potential threat without evidenceLarge number resigned and 200 firedState/Local govts do the sameMake employees take loyalty oaths
39 The 2nd Red Scare in the US McCarran Internal Security Act (1950) Required Communist organizations/members to register with attorney generalProhibited defense industries from hiring known commiesLegalized internment of certain people during national emergenciesTruman vetoed saying it was violation of constitutional rights by Congress overruledhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKqXu-5jw60https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AWeZ5SKXvj8
41 The McCarthy EraJoseph McCarthy: House Rep. who exploited US fear of Communism for his own political gainSparked national frenzy by claiming that he had a list of 205 known communists employed by US State DeptNever offered any evidence and eventually discreditedMany disapproved but not publically because of fear of being accused of sympathizing with CommiesLoses credibility in 1954: Investigated US ArmyTelevised hearings: Show lack of evidenceDec. 1954: His influence came to an end, climate of fear gradually declined but never disappeared
42 The Red ScareHouse Un-American Activities Committee (1938, 1947) HUAC investigated allegations of Communist influence in Hollywood movie industryWanted to prove that Communists in Screen Writers Guild inserted subversive propaganda into Hollywood films10 witnesses refused to testify exercising 5th amendment protection against self-incriminationHollywood Ten were found guilty of contempt of Congress and served up to 12 months in jailBlacklisted so other studios would not hire them1948: Alger Hiss, who attended Yalta and helped organize UN, accused of spying for Soviets during 1930sFought for innocence but sentenced to 5 years in jail
44 Practice QuestionWhich was a common factor in the United States that caused the Red Scare following World War I and McCarthyism following World War II?A. racial tension in major citiesB. signs of economic downturnC. fear of communist expansionD. the counterculture movement
45 The Cold War Constant Arms Race between US and USSR 1950: Truman order comprehensive investigation of US military strengthNSC-68 report says US should operate under assumption that USSR desires world dominationTruman thought to guarantee security US must increase nuclear arsenal and enlarge its capacity to fight wars against SovietsShould be a source of encouragement to all nations to resistNeed to be ready for rapid mobilizationCongress doesn’t want to raise taxes for bigger military, but then…
46 The Korean War ( )North and South Korea split at the end of WWIISouth Korea: Democratic supported by USNorth Korea: Communist supported by USSRStop at 38th parallel in the middle
47 The Korean War: “The Forgotten War” 1950: Northern troops invade South Korea in order to unite the nation under CommunismLed by Kim Il SungChina supports themUN Security Council: Condemns the invasion and authorizes use of military to expel the invading NorthPolice Action: US did not officially declare war but participated to contain communist expansionUS sends naval and air support, then ground troopsSets precedent for undeclared involvement in the futureUS spent over $64 billion, lost over 33,000 American soldiers3 million Koreans and Chinese killed: Majority were civiliansScorched Earth policy: Destroy everything so they can’t rebuildUS drops more bombs here than all Allied bombs in WWII
49 The Korean War ( )Korea remained divided at the end of the warDemilitarized Zone (DMZ) on both sides of the border (38th parallel)Did not solve any long-term issues in AsiaDID allow for massive US military build-upSEATO: Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, like NATO allianceKorea today: Still divided, with democratic South Korea and Communist dictatorship in North Korea
51 Practice QuestionThe Cold War influenced U.S. foreign policy and involvement after World War II. Which of the following demonstrates that influence?A. Korean WarB. Persian Gulf War.C. Internment of Japanese Americans.D. Growth of suburbs in the 1950’s.
52 Issues with Cuba After WWII: Nationalist movements in Latin America People resented US business involvementMany living in desperate poverty1958: Fidel Castro led a communist revolt in Cuba: Castro takes over and nationalizes all businesses, eliminating US involvement/controlPresident Eisenhower breaks off diplomatic relationsCuba signs a treaty with the USSR
53 The Bay of Pigs Incident 1961: JFK becomes President and is concerned about having a Soviet ally so close to US borders (90 miles)US tries to invade Cuba at Bay of Pigs with intent of igniting an uprising against CastroUses anti-Castro groups trained by US militaryInvasion failed miserably: US appeared weak and ineffectiveJFK uses covert CIA operatives to disrupt Cuban trade, conduct raids, and attempt assassinations of Castro
55 The Cuban Missile Crisis Castro is angry and Nikita Khrushchev wants to protect his ally near USUSSR installs missiles in Cuba that could strike the US1962: US spy plane discovers missilesSome want to attack, risking all-out nuclear warKennedy’s advisors meet over tense weekSec. of Defense Robert McNamara recommends naval blockade to stop any further missile installationJFK demands Khrushchev remove the missiles or the US will destroy themByt1GZs&safe=active
57 The Cuban Missile Crisis Announced to the public 8 days after discoveryMilitary on high alert: 180 ships in blockade, bomber planes stay in the airClosest we’ve ever come to nuclear war: Citizens are panicked and preparing for nuclear holocaustAfter 4 days: Soviets back down and remove missilesIn exchange, US removes missiles in TurkeyJFK respected for averting crisisSome tensions reduced; communication to avoid disasterArms race continues: Both afraid and want to remain strong
59 Practice QuestionThe use of atomic weapons at the end of World War II fostered fears about their potential use during the Cold War years. These fears were critical in determining the U.S. response toA. the Marshall PlanB. the Berlin BlockadeC. the Cuban Missile CrisisD. the independence movement in India
60 The Space Race Arms Race: Build up military for protection and threat Space Race: Show power and technological advancementOct. 1957: Soviets launch Sputnik I, 1st manmade object to orbit EarthSputnik II carries a dog, 6 more Sputniks through 19611958: US launches Explorer to orbit Earth1961: Soviets send first person into space to orbit EarthCosmonaut Yuri GagarinWeeks later, US sends Alan Sheppard for 15 minute flights1962: John Glenn is the first American to orbit EarthJFK decides we must make it to the moon in order to winStory of Us video
62 The Space Race 1968: US launches Apollo 8 to orbit the moon July 1969: The moon landing is completed by USApollo 11: Buzz Aldrin, Neil Armstrong, and Michael Collins orbit the moon and then walk on its surface“That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind”Worldwide TV audience watched in awe
63 Practice QuestionThe successful launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in 1957 signaled the beginning ofA. Americans competing to prove technological superiority over the SovietsB. The Cold War in the United StatesC. Soviet aggression in Afghanistan and ChinaD. Disarmament discussions between the superpowers
65 The Vietnam War Vietnam was a French colony in Southeast Asia Civil war: Communist rebels led by Ho Chi Minh try to drive out French Imperial govtUS supports French anti-communist regimeEisenhower justifies this based on the Domino TheoryIf one country falls to communism, all other would be sure to follow1954: Vietnamese forces defeated FrenchTemporary treaty dividesVietnam at 17th parallel withCommunists in north
67 The Vietnam WarVietnam divided: Elections to be held in 1956 to reunite country under one government =cancelledFearing that commie rebels would win, southern leader Ngo Dinh Diem cancelled electionsRebel groups formed National Liberation Front (NLF):Communist Vietcong rebelled in democratic southHo Chi Minh in north helped supply rebels in the southCommunist China also provided aid to VietcongUse of guerilla warfare: Hidden, small group attack strategy, sometimes armed civiliansKept track of body counts not land“Victory is around the corner”
68 The Vietnam WarJFK demands that Southern govt stop corruption in return for US aid and military training1963: 16,000 Us military advisors were in Vietnam, but Diem did not institute serious reformsSouth Vietnamese govt regularly stole much of the aidTroops were unsuccessful in fighting Vietcong forces1963: CIA supports a coup to kill Diem and put others in powerNov. 1963: Lee Harvey Oswald assassinated JFKLyndon B. Johnson becomes president
70 The Vietnam WarJohnson believed that communist rebels were a threat to global balance of powerAugust 1964: Johnson said North Vietnam attacked two US ships and asks Congress to increase troop strengthGulf of Tonkin Resolution: Gives Johnson power to use any necessary action against CommunistsGives him the power to take “all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the US and to prevent further aggression”Later, the public discovered two US ships provoked the attack by helping attack the northUS never declares war, but we are heavily involved in the war
71 The Vietnam WarRolling Thunder: Consistent bombing of North Vietnam by the US fromDestroy infrastructure without ground invasion of the NorthJan. 1968: Tet is the Lunar New Year holiday in VietnamBoth sides announced a two day cease-fire to celebrateThe Tet Offensive: North Vietnam and the Vietcong launch a surprise attack on the south during holiday weekendAttack military and civilian command and control centers throughout South VietnamTurns the tide of war: Now we realize that we may losePeople who had supported war begin to question our continued involvement
73 Practice QuestionFollowing World War II, France attempted to re-establish control over its colony, Indochina, which included Vietnam. Leaders of the Vietcong, a communist-supported independence movement in Vietnam, fought against France’s efforts to retake the colony. The United States viewed this conflict as part of the Cold War and aided France. This U.S. action was based on which policy?A. a policy of opposing colonialismB. a policy of helping Japan rebuild its economyC. a policy of containing the spread of communismD. a policy of participating in United Nations’ peacekeeping efforts
74 Protesting Vietnam2.2 million are drafted into the war: Can fight in a war at 18 but can’t vote until they’re 21Civil Disobedience: Break a law to call attention to a perceived injusticeExample: Burn draft cards to show they see law as unfair1971: 26th Amendment: Vote at 18 starting 1971Draft dodgers: Refuse to serve, many flee to CanadaBaby boomers protest in large numbers
75 Protesting Vietnam Why they protest: Distrust of Govt: War never declared, Gulf of TonkinHypocritical: Not allowing self determination or supporting true democracyMeddling in foreign affairs: Costing $ and livesMorally opposed to war:Sending the poor to fight for the rich govtFirst televised war shows brutality and killing civiliansUS used chemical weapons like Napalm and Agent OrangeReports of US military abuses: My Lai massacre1968: Mass murder of unarmed Vietnamese civilians, including men, women and children, by US troopsNot reported in US for a yearMany were gang-raped or had their bodies mutilated26 soldiers charged with the crime, only one convicted and sentenced to life, but only served three years
77 More bombs dropped here than both Allies and Axis dropped in WWII
78 Protesting Vietnam Most protesters were students Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)Hippies: Peace, love, and protest songs1970 Kent State Shootings: 4 students killed by National Guard while peacefully protestingChant “Hey Hey LBJ! how many kids have you killed today?”1971: Pentagon papers show govt had been lying for years1968 Democratic National Convention: Riots in Chicago outside, politicians debate insideJohnson won’t run again: Humphrey or MuskieOn the news: Protesters and police fight in the streetsChant “Hell no, we won’t go!” about the draft
79 The Vietnam War Over next 11 years until the fall of Saigon in 1975: About 58,000 US military personnel died in VietnamFour Presidents tried to prevent rebels from gaining control and reuniting it under communismUS efforts failed: 1976 Vietnam was united under Communism and became a Soviet allyStill communist todayControversial war sparked by fear resulted in:Large-scale, sometimes violent, protests at homeOver 3-4 million Vietnamese deathsWidespread distrust of the government
80 Practice QuestionThe burning of draft cards by those who objected to the Vietnam War is an example of civil disobedience because it was an action thatA. was protected by the U.S. Constitution.B. was intended to draw the attention of the media.C. violated a law that the protesters considered to be unjust.D. expressed a point of view that was unpopular at the time.
81 The End of the Cold War1985: Mikhail Gorbachev is the Premier of the USSRSoviet people are poor and unhappy: Can’t afford to continue the arms raceEnacts reforms to provide more freedoms to the peopleMoves from command economy to mixed economyReduces control of the satellite nations1990: Reunification of GermanyRonald Reagan “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down that wall!”1991: Satellite nations begin to declare independenceStruggle for control of new govts in Eastern EuropeDec. 1991: Communist party and Soviet economy collapses and disbands
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