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American Studies. What is Imperialism?  Imperialism: Build an empire by taking over other countries Powerful countries take over weaker countries Gain.

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Presentation on theme: "American Studies. What is Imperialism?  Imperialism: Build an empire by taking over other countries Powerful countries take over weaker countries Gain."— Presentation transcript:

1 American Studies

2 What is Imperialism?  Imperialism: Build an empire by taking over other countries Powerful countries take over weaker countries Gain political, economic, and social control over other parts of the world  Reasons why: Economic: Expand markets and gain more natural resources ○ Industrialization increases Imperialism: Make more $ Nationalism: Extreme pride in one’s nation ○ Our nation is better than others Psychological: Racism and Social Darwinism ○ Weaker country is inferior Political: To become more powerful ○ Have influence in the world

3 “The sun never sets on the British Empire”

4 Imperialism or Colonialism  The countries an empire conquers are called colonies  Empire=Colonizers: Forced their cultural, religious and political beliefs on conquered people  Colonized: Conquered people lose their right to self-govern and natural resources are stolen from them Forced immersion schools, draw new boundaries Given no money for resources and low pay for labor Not allowed to industrialize and become independent

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6 Practice Question  Describe how the people in Africa felt about European colonialism (imperialism) in the 19 th century? They were:  A. pleased because they were taught new religions.  B. upset that new beliefs were forced on them.  C. happy to have a stable European government.  D. angry that Europeans did not take them over earlier.

7 Before 1900s  US was isolationist: Don’t get involved in other countries  Expansion was only westward Manifest Destiny  Many were against Imperialism: Washington: Trade but stay out of foreign affairs/wars Democracy suffers when we deny people their independence

8 Reasons for U.S. Imperialism  Improved Communication Technology Transatlantic cable and new steamships  Need for raw materials and new markets No more frontier, need to cross the ocean  Powerful nations have a powerful Navy Navy needs island bases to re-supply ships  Nationalism: We’re the best

9 Economic Reasons  After Industrialization: US has world’s strongest economy in 1900  Industrialization encourages imperialism Big Business: To continue growth we need more land, labor, materials, and people to sell to  TR and Republicans support using diplomacy to continue expanding

10 Manifest Destiny  Our race/culture/religion is superior and should be spread to others Now used to justify expanding into Pacific, South America and Asia  “Advanced” civilized nations have a duty to teach “uncivilized” White Anglo-Saxon Protestants: English- speaking whites must spread Christianity

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12 British Rudyard Kipling: The White Man’s Burden

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15 Practice Question  One factor that motivated U.S. imperialism during the late 19th and early 20th centuries was the  A. development of closer political ties with European nations.  B. closing of China to all foreign trade.  C. support of international peacekeeping operations.  D. acquisition of new markets and sources of raw materials.

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17 Japanese Imperialism  During Shogun Feudal System: Isolationist  1853: US Commodore Perry arrives with US Fleet to request trade Japanese govt impressed by US technology so they agree to trade treaty  Japan adopts policy of modernizing, industrializing, and westernizing  Small island: Must expand for resources

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20 China and Imperialism  Isolationist and self-sufficient  British want tea: Get Chinese addicted to opium to make money, then buy tea Late 1800s Opium Wars: weaken Chinese govt  Other countries gain “spheres of influence” in China Areas that were economically controlled by foreign countries

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23 1899: Open Door Policy  US wants to protect own trading interests Secretary of State John Hay sent two notes to foreign powers:  Policy states that all countries will have equal trading rights in China Suggests all powers in East Asia respect territorial integrity of China Japan violates this and occupies China

24 Boxer Rebellion of 1900  Boxers: Protest group wants to remove European influence from China Attack embassies in Peking (Beijing) Kill Chinese who support westerners Kill Christian missionaries and other whites  Foreign powers send an army to put down the rebellion Then force China to pay damages

25 Practice Question  The boxer rebellion was an attempt by Chinese Nativists to: A. obtain rights for all citizens of China. B. remove European influence from China. C. remove Chinese influence from Europe. D. promote Chinese imperialist expansion.

26 Acquisition of Hawaii  Ruled by native monarchy  Many Asians, Christian missionaries, and US businessmen move to the island  Sugarcane: major plantation crop Growers don’t want to pay US tariffs when selling their sugar  1887:Pearl Harbor Naval Base built Becomes strategic military position for US

27 Annexation of Hawaii  1893: Sugar growers and US Marines overthrow Queen Liliuokalani  President Cleveland was anti-imperialism and allowed them to remain independent  President McKinley was pro-imperialism and made it a US territory in 1900  Became a US state in 1959

28 American Samoa  1890s: Small islands desired for military reasons  Germany and US: Agree to split them

29 The Spanish-American War  1895: Cubans revolt against Spanish colonizers : 100,000 Cuban civilians are put in concentration camps and killed by “Butcher” Weyler  Why does the US care: US desired power in Cuba: Close to Florida ○ A war there could effect us Yellow Journalism: Wrote shocking and exaggerated stories about Spanish atrocities ○ US citizens sympathize with Cuban refugees ○ De Lome Letter from Spanish minister insulting President McKinley ○

30 De Lome Letter to the King of Spain  “Besides the ingrained and inevitable bluntness with which is repeated all that the press and public opinion in Spain have said about Weyler, it once more shows what McKinley is, weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.”

31 Cuba: 90 miles off the coast of Florida anish-american- war/videos#roosevelt-fights-in- spanish-american-war

32 Remember the Maine! To Hell with Spain!  Feb. 1898: USS Maine battleship in Havana, Cuba exploded Kills 260 US soldiers  Newspapers immediately blame Spain There was no evidence of this  US demands Spain agree to a cease-fire with Cuba Spain agrees, but people are still angry  People in US demand war with Spain

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34 The Spanish-American War  President McKinley asks Congress to vote about declaring war  Causes: US sympathy caused by Yellow Journalism To save Cubans from bloodshed and economic devastation US wants power and naval base  Teller Amendment: US will allow Cuba to be independent after the war

35 In Cuba  US volunteer troops: poorly trained and unprepared 5000 die of diseases like malaria or meat poisoning Only 400 in battle  War lasts 4 months: TR leads group of troops called the Rough Riders Along with African American troops, they defeat Spanish at Battle of San Juan Hill

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37 Practice Question  In 1898, U.S. support for Cuban independence led to war with Spain and contributed to the United States becoming an imperial power. Which of the following was not a decisive factor in the decision to go to war?  A. the U.S. citizens felt bad for the Cubans because of Yellow Journalism.  B. the desire to acquire a naval base and help the Cuban people.  C. the sinking of the U.S.S. Maine.  D. the need for a shorter route from the Atlantic to the Pacific

38 The Philippines  Spanish colony since the 1500s  Filipino rebels unite with US soldiers to overthrow Spanish imperial govt  US Navy devastates Spanish Fleet in Manila Bay  Filipinos want independence Not independent until 1946  No independence: Became a US territory/colony Spain “sold” the colony to the US for $20 million Causes Filipino rebellion led by Emilio Aguinaldo Takes 3 years and many lives to put down

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40 Practice Question  During the Spanish-American War, the U.S. Navy destroyed the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay in the Philippines. The U.S. Congress later voted for annexation of the Philippines. What was one reason for this act of U.S. imperialism?  A. to provide the U.S. with new markets in the Pacific and a become world power.  B. to provide the U.S. with a place to relocate its immigrant population  C. to decrease the U.S. need to export raw materials for industrialization  D. to increase the U.S. population by extending citizenship to the Filipinos

41 End of the War with Spain  Naval Blockade: US troops and Cuban rebels trap Spanish fleet in harbor  They break out and US fleet destroys them  Spanish realize they can no longer defend islands and surrender to US  Peace Treaty in Paris Dec. 1898: John Hay calls it a “splendid little war” Spain gave US most of their colonies

42 Results of the War  Spain gave US: Puerto Rico and Guam Both become US territories  Cuba is granted independence, but becomes US protectorate: The Platt Amendment: US gets naval base in Cuba ○ Guantanamo Bay US is the only country allowed to intervene in Cuba Philippines are a territory: no independence

43 US Debate over the US Imperialism  Anti-Imperialist: William Jennings Bryan Hypocritical: US is abandoning everything we stand for like freedom and democracy Philippines: Might involve US in Asian wars Immoral: It’s wrong to take away people’s rights  Pro-Imperialist: Teddy Roosevelt US has a duty to involve itself in world affairs Need territory to become a world power Better off under our care than another country’s rule

44 Practice Question  What was one of the results of the Spanish American War?  A. U.S. became a world power.  B. Spain granted Cuba their Independence.  C. Spain sold the Philippines to the United States.  D. All of the above.

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46 Practice Question  By acquiring the Philippines and Puerto Rico following the Spanish-American War, the United States was trying to  A. Preserve indigenous languages in those two cultures.  B. Protect the nature preserves of those two nations  C. Encourage religious tolerance throughout the world.  D. Demonstrate its presence as a world power.

47 Roosevelt’s Foreign Policy  US foreign policy should “speak softly but carry a big stick” Big Stick Diplomacy  Many Central American countries were in debt to Europeans Europeans sent in troops to collect  TR sees this as a threat to US power in the western hemisphere

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49 Big Stick Diplomacy  Monroe Doctrine (1823): European countries can’t intervene in Western Hemisphere No colonizing  Roosevelt Corollary (1904): US has “international police power” in the Western Hemisphere US will send in troops to collect debts

50 Practice Question  Which statement best describes President Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy position toward the Western Hemisphere in the early 1900’s?  A. The United States should reduce its involvement in Latin American affairs.  B. The Monroe Doctrine permits the United States to intervene actively in the affairs of Latin American nations.  C. European nations are allowed to intervene and help the countries in the Western Hemisphere.  D. The United States will protect any country in the world.

51 The Panama Canal  US wants to build the Panama Canal to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans Economic benefits: Faster, safer trade routes to transport goods Military benefits: Faster naval troop movements  Columbia owns Panama: TR offers $10 million to lease land to build canal They refuse, so US supports Panama rebellion for independence from Columbia

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53 The Panama Canal  Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty: Panama gives US control of the canal zone  1904: Construction begins headed by Col. Goethals, takes 10 years to build Mosquitoes carrying malaria and yellow fever kills 5,500 canal workers 10 miles wide: clear land, great feat of engineering

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55 -Latin Americans resent US control in the region -Control of the canal is given to Panama in Neutral territory, US protected

56 Practice Question  During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, U.S. foreign policy was closely tied to domestic economic concerns. The annexation of Hawaii, the Open Door Policy with China, and the construction of the Panama Canal in Latin  America were all motivated by an interest in:  A. breaking up monopolies and trusts.  B. extending land grants for railroad construction.  C. acquiring new markets and sources of raw materials.  D. limiting the power of labor unions to strike.

57 US Foreign Policy  Roosevelt Corollary influences diplomacy of the future: US presidents continue to intervene in Latin America  Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy”: Becomes involved in Nicaragua to protect US business investments  Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy”: Intervenes in Haiti, Honduras, Mexico and Dominican Republic Support movements/govt that US likes Latin Americans resent US intervention/control

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