2What is Imperialism?Imperialism: Build an empire by taking over other countriesPowerful countries take over weaker countriesGain political, economic, and social control over other parts of the worldReasons why:Economic: Expand markets and gain more natural resourcesIndustrialization increases Imperialism: Make more $Nationalism: Extreme pride in one’s nationOur nation is better than othersPsychological: Racism and Social DarwinismWeaker country is inferiorPolitical: To become more powerfulHave influence in the world
4Imperialism or Colonialism The countries an empire conquers are called coloniesEmpire=Colonizers: Forced their cultural, religious and political beliefs on conquered peopleColonized: Conquered people lose their right to self-govern and natural resources are stolen from themForced immersion schools, draw new boundariesGiven no money for resources and low pay for laborNot allowed to industrialize and become independent
6Practice QuestionDescribe how the people in Africa felt about European colonialism (imperialism) in the 19th century? They were:A. pleased because they were taught new religions.B. upset that new beliefs were forced on them.C. happy to have a stable European government.D. angry that Europeans did not take them over earlier.
7Before 1900sUS was isolationist: Don’t get involved in other countriesExpansion was only westwardManifest DestinyMany were against Imperialism:Washington: Trade but stay out of foreign affairs/warsDemocracy suffers when we deny people their independence
8Reasons for U.S. Imperialism Improved Communication TechnologyTransatlantic cable and new steamshipsNeed for raw materials and new marketsNo more frontier, need to cross the oceanPowerful nations have a powerful NavyNavy needs island bases to re-supply shipsNationalism: We’re the best
9Economic ReasonsAfter Industrialization: US has world’s strongest economy in 1900Industrialization encourages imperialismBig Business: To continue growth we need more land, labor, materials, and people to sell toTR and Republicans support using diplomacy to continue expanding
10Manifest DestinyOur race/culture/religion is superior and should be spread to othersNow used to justify expanding into Pacific, South America and Asia“Advanced” civilized nations have a duty to teach “uncivilized”White Anglo-Saxon Protestants: English-speaking whites must spread Christianity
15Practice QuestionOne factor that motivated U.S. imperialism during the late 19th and early 20th centuries was theA. development of closer political ties with European nations.B. closing of China to all foreign trade.C. support of international peacekeeping operations.D. acquisition of new markets and sources of raw materials.
17Japanese Imperialism During Shogun Feudal System: Isolationist 1853: US Commodore Perry arrives with US Fleet to request tradeJapanese govt impressed by US technology so they agree to trade treatyJapan adopts policy of modernizing, industrializing, and westernizingSmall island: Must expand for resources
20China and Imperialism Isolationist and self-sufficient British want tea: Get Chinese addicted to opium to make money, then buy teaLate 1800s Opium Wars: weaken Chinese govtOther countries gain “spheres of influence” in ChinaAreas that were economically controlled by foreign countries
231899: Open Door Policy US wants to protect own trading interests Secretary of State John Hay sent two notes to foreign powers:Policy states that all countries will have equal trading rights in ChinaSuggests all powers in East Asia respect territorial integrity of ChinaJapan violates this and occupies China
24Boxer Rebellion of 1900Boxers: Protest group wants to remove European influence from ChinaAttack embassies in Peking (Beijing)Kill Chinese who support westernersKill Christian missionaries and other whitesForeign powers send an army to put down the rebellionThen force China to pay damages
25Practice QuestionThe boxer rebellion was an attempt by Chinese Nativists to:A. obtain rights for all citizens of China.B. remove European influence from China.C. remove Chinese influence from Europe.D. promote Chinese imperialist expansion.
26Acquisition of Hawaii Ruled by native monarchy Many Asians, Christian missionaries, and US businessmen move to the islandSugarcane: major plantation cropGrowers don’t want to pay US tariffs when selling their sugar1887:Pearl Harbor Naval Base builtBecomes strategic military position for US
27Annexation of Hawaii1893: Sugar growers and US Marines overthrow Queen LiliuokalaniPresident Cleveland was anti-imperialism and allowed them to remain independentPresident McKinley was pro-imperialism and made it a US territory in 1900Became a US state in 1959
28American Samoa 1890s: Small islands desired for military reasons Germany and US:Agree to split them
29The Spanish-American War 1895: Cubans revolt against Spanish colonizers: 100,000 Cuban civilians are put in concentration camps and killed by “Butcher” WeylerWhy does the US care:US desired power in Cuba: Close to FloridaA war there could effect usYellow Journalism: Wrote shocking and exaggerated stories about Spanish atrocitiesUS citizens sympathize with Cuban refugeesDe Lome Letter from Spanish minister insulting President McKinley
30De Lome Letter to the King of Spain “Besides the ingrained and inevitable bluntness with which is repeated all that the press and public opinion in Spain have said about Weyler, it once more shows what McKinley is, weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.”
32Remember the Maine! To Hell with Spain! Feb. 1898: USS Maine battleship in Havana, Cuba explodedKills 260 US soldiersNewspapers immediately blame SpainThere was no evidence of thisUS demands Spain agree to a cease-fire with CubaSpain agrees, but people are still angryPeople in US demand war with Spain
34The Spanish-American War President McKinley asks Congress to vote about declaring warCauses:US sympathy caused by Yellow JournalismTo save Cubans from bloodshed and economic devastationUS wants power and naval baseTeller Amendment: US will allow Cuba to be independent after the war
35In Cuba US volunteer troops: poorly trained and unprepared 5000 die of diseases like malaria ormeat poisoningOnly 400 in battleWar lasts 4 months:TR leads group of troops called the Rough RidersAlong with African American troops, they defeat Spanish at Battle of San Juan Hill
37Practice QuestionIn 1898, U.S. support for Cuban independence led to war with Spain and contributed to the United States becoming an imperial power. Which of the following was not a decisive factor in the decision to go to war?A. the U.S. citizens felt bad for the Cubans because of Yellow Journalism.B. the desire to acquire a naval base and help the Cuban people.C. the sinking of the U.S.S. Maine.D. the need for a shorter route from the Atlantic to the Pacific
38The Philippines Spanish colony since the 1500s Filipino rebels unite with US soldiers to overthrow Spanish imperial govtUS Navy devastates Spanish Fleet in Manila BayFilipinos want independenceNot independent until 1946No independence: Became a US territory/colonySpain “sold” the colony to the US for $20 millionCauses Filipino rebellion led by Emilio AguinaldoTakes 3 years and many lives to put down
40Practice QuestionDuring the Spanish-American War, the U.S. Navy destroyed the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay in the Philippines. The U.S. Congress later voted for annexation of the Philippines. What was one reason for this act of U.S. imperialism?A. to provide the U.S. with new markets in the Pacific and a become world power.B. to provide the U.S. with a place to relocate its immigrant populationC. to decrease the U.S. need to export raw materials for industrializationD. to increase the U.S. population by extending citizenship to the Filipinos
41End of the War with Spain Naval Blockade: US troops and Cuban rebels trap Spanish fleet in harborThey break out and US fleet destroys themSpanish realize they can no longer defend islands and surrender to USPeace Treaty in Paris Dec. 1898:John Hay calls it a “splendid little war”Spain gave US most of their colonies
42Results of the War Spain gave US: Puerto Rico and Guam Both become US territoriesCuba is granted independence, but becomes US protectorate:The Platt Amendment: US gets naval base in CubaGuantanamo BayUS is the only country allowed to intervene in CubaPhilippines are a territory: no independence
43US Debate over the US Imperialism Anti-Imperialist: William Jennings BryanHypocritical: US is abandoning everything we stand for like freedom and democracyPhilippines: Might involve US in Asian warsImmoral: It’s wrong to take away people’s rightsPro-Imperialist: Teddy RooseveltUS has a duty to involve itself in world affairsNeed territory to become a world powerBetter off under our care than another country’s rule
44Practice QuestionWhat was one of the results of the Spanish American War?A. U.S. became a world power.B. Spain granted Cuba their Independence.C. Spain sold the Philippines to the United States.D. All of the above.
46Practice QuestionBy acquiring the Philippines and Puerto Rico following the Spanish-American War, the United States was trying toA. Preserve indigenous languages in those two cultures.B. Protect the nature preserves of those two nationsC. Encourage religious tolerance throughout the world.D. Demonstrate its presence as a world power.
47Roosevelt’s Foreign Policy US foreign policy should “speak softly but carry a big stick”Big Stick DiplomacyMany Central American countries were in debt to EuropeansEuropeans sent in troops to collectTR sees this as a threat to US power in the western hemisphere
49Big Stick DiplomacyMonroe Doctrine (1823): European countries can’t intervene in Western HemisphereNo colonizingRoosevelt Corollary (1904): US has “international police power” in the Western HemisphereUS will send in troops to collect debts
50Practice QuestionWhich statement best describes President Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy position toward the Western Hemisphere in the early 1900’s?A. The United States should reduce its involvement in Latin American affairs.B. The Monroe Doctrine permits the United States to intervene actively in the affairs of Latin American nations.C. European nations are allowed to intervene and help the countries in the Western Hemisphere.D. The United States will protect any country in the world.
51The Panama CanalUS wants to build the Panama Canal to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceansEconomic benefits: Faster, safer trade routes to transport goodsMilitary benefits: Faster naval troop movementsColumbia owns Panama: TR offers $10 million to lease land to build canalThey refuse, so US supports Panama rebellion for independence from Columbia
53The Panama CanalHay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty: Panama gives US control of the canal zone1904: Construction begins headed by Col. Goethals, takes 10 years to buildMosquitoes carrying malaria and yellow fever kills 5,500 canal workers10 miles wide: clear land, great feat of engineering
55-Latin Americans resent US control in the region -Control of the canal is given to Panama in 1999-Neutral territory, US protected
56Practice QuestionDuring the late 19th and early 20th centuries, U.S. foreign policy was closely tied to domestic economic concerns. The annexation of Hawaii, the Open Door Policy with China, and the construction of the Panama Canal in LatinAmerica were all motivated by an interest in:A. breaking up monopolies and trusts.B. extending land grants for railroad construction.C. acquiring new markets and sources of raw materials.D. limiting the power of labor unions to strike.
57US Foreign PolicyRoosevelt Corollary influences diplomacy of the future:US presidents continue to intervene in Latin AmericaTaft’s “Dollar Diplomacy”: Becomes involved in Nicaragua to protect US business investmentsWilson’s “Moral Diplomacy”: Intervenes in Haiti, Honduras, Mexico and Dominican RepublicSupport movements/govt that US likesLatin Americans resent US intervention/control