Presentation on theme: "Helping Students Navigate"— Presentation transcript:
1 Helping Students Navigate Effective Math Learning Strategies/ Accommodations for Students with LD, ADHD, TBI and Wounded WarriorsHelping Students NavigateAcademic SuccessDr. Paul and Kimberly NoltingAcademic Success Press, Inc.(941)Copyright 2012
2 AgendaInformal QuizProcessing Deficits and Their Effects on the Learning ProcessLearning & Memory Processing DifferencePTSD, TBI and MTBITeaching/Tutoring Concerns – Best PracticeLearning Strategies to Help Students Process Math and Other Subjects
4 An Informal QuizBrainstorm as many ideas as you can about learning disabilities, ADHD and, PTSD TBIs .Wounded WarriorsProcessing Deficits and vs. Learning StyleSeparate the myths from the truths.List learning strategies that you have used to help students with disabilities.
5 The Myths and Truths Disabilities can go away Students with LD, ADHD, PTSD and TBI have low intelligence or are slow learnersIf they would just study harder or be exposed to more educational opportunities they would not be disabledStudents with disabilities have the same learning problems.Disabilities can be cured.Disabilities do not exist.TruthsDisabilities do not disappear but may range in expression and severity at different life stagesBy definition a student with LD has average to high intelligence.Disabilities are neurological in origin. They have a central nervous system basis. It doesn’t arise from lack of exposure to life experiences.There are many different disabilities that require different strategies. A student can have more than one disability type.Disabilities are permanent conditions.Disabilities do exist under ADA
6 Definitions of Math and Other Disabilities Acalculia – inability to read or write numbers in that individuals can not perform calculations or having impaired spatial organizationDyscalculia – failure to develop math (arithmetic) competences that is not due to a brain injury or mental impairmentDysalgebria – students with average to above average IQ can master calculations but can not master algebra (Nolting, 2000).Dyslexia – is not a math learning disability but may cause math learning problems due to misreading or miscopying numbers and letters.Dysgraphia – is not a math disability but may cause math learning problems due to poor hand writing and copying from the board.
7 PTSDPosttraumatic Stress Disorder can occur following a life-threatening event like military combat, natural disasters, terrorist incidents, serious accidents, or violent personal assaults like rapeThe traumatic events that lead to post-traumatic stress disorder are usually so overwhelming and frightening that they would upset anyone. Following a traumatic event, almost everyone experiences at least some of the symptoms of PTSD.
8 PTSD Acute Stress Disorder Within 30 days of traumatic event or exposure to trauma or abuse.Symptoms must be present for longer than a month; those with symptoms in the first month after a traumatic event may meet criteria for Acute Stress Disorder. Apart from symptoms specified in the diagnostic criteria, PTSD patients often have important associated symptoms such as shame, guilt and isolation.. But if you have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the symptoms don’t decrease. You don’t feel a little better each day. In fact, you may start to feel worse.
9 PTSDSHORT CIRCUITRYIn spite of the evolution/adaptation of the brain over the eons, and the increasing awareness of the pre-frontal Cortex, when confronted by worries, stressful and traumatic events, the response skips back to more primitive times and jumps to the limbic system.Intrusive, upsetting memories of the eventFlashbacks (acting or feeling like the event is happening again)Nightmares (either of the event or of other frightening things)
10 PTSDAvoiding activities, places, thoughts, or feelings that remind you of the traumaInability to remember important aspects of the traumaLoss of interest in activities and life in generalFeeling detached from others and emotionally numbSense of a limited future (you don’t expect to live a normal life span, get married, have a careerDifficulty falling or staying asleepIrritability or outbursts of angerDifficulty concentratingHyper vigilance (on constant “red alert”)Feeling jumpy and easily startled
11 PTSD Approaches to help Be patient and understanding. Try to anticipate and prepare for PTSD triggers.Don’t take the symptoms of PTSD personally.Don’t pressure someone into talking.(Don’t pursue a distancer)
12 TBI and MTBI Acquired brain injury Violent hit to the head May or may not lose consciousnessMovement of brain back and forth in skullSymptoms can be mild, moderate, severeSeveral MTBI is as bad as a TBICan change biochemistryMay or may not improve over timeSilent disability and growing
13 Stages of MemorySensory input is when an individual physically takes in the information. TBI, PTSDSensory register is when the mind neurologically accepts the information. TBI, PTSDShort-term Memory is when the brain receives information and stores it for a brief time. TBIForgetting =Information not input or registered.
14 Stages of MemoryWorking Memory is like RAM in a computer that can send or recall information and is part of executive function. TBI, PTSDLong-term memory is a storehouse of material that is retained for long periods of time.Abstract Reasoning uses recalled concepts to make new meaning and understanding without using language. TBIMemory Output is recall learned facts and/or concepts. TBI, PTSDForgetting =Information not Understood
15 Auditory Processing Disorder Definition: Students with auditoryprocess problems have difficultysynthesizing words and understandingwords in noisy classrooms. Thesestudents may misinterpret wordsor not “hear” the words. This is not ahearing problem or short term memoryproblem. It is a problem of misinterpretationof words spoken words.Primary Affected Areas: sensory register, short term memoryObservable Behaviors: students misunderstanding math vocabulary; difficulty solving word problems; difficulty reading the text and understanding lectures
16 Processing Speed Disorder Definitions: Students with a visual speed processing disorder have great difficulty quickly recognizing numbers and conceptually similar visual objects. A student with visual speed processing disorder is able to visually process but very slowly.Primary Affected Areas: sensory input & register; significantly related to math PTSDCommon Observable Behaviors: re-reading sentences & paragraphs; scanty notes or no notes at all; very slow in completing homework, very slow in doing on line homework, very slow in completing tests, having difficulty quickly recognizing variables and math symbols, problems with automoticity
17 Short-term Memory Processing Disorder Definition: Short-term memory disorder is categorized as auditory memory. It is the difficulty in keeping information in short term memory long enough to transfer it into working or long term memory. Also it is the automoticity of rearranging numbers in your head.Primary Affected Areas: Subsequent effects on the long-term retrieval, working memory, long term memory, and abstract reasoning. Students who cannot hold information for more than a few seconds cannot use it to rehearse or recall from working memory. TBIObservable Behaviors: Auditory: forget oral instructions; difficult to be group learner; ask questions about recent information; can’t hold on to steps long enough in mind to understand concept; difficulty in manipulating numbers in you head; difficulty in switching number in an equation presented verbally; some problems with abstract learning
18 Visual-Spatial Thinking Processing Disorder Definitions: A student with a visual- spatial processing disorder has great difficulty in recognizing and synthesizing visual information. The student also has difficulty remembering visual information andremembering it in the correct order.Primary Affected Areas: sensory input & register; short term memoryCommon Observable Behaviors: re-reading sentences & paragraphs; “chicken scratch” notes or no notes at all; problem solutions all over the page; numbers miss-aligned; copying down incorrectly; difficulty reading tutor/instructor handwriting; facial gestures while looking at something; misreading variables and numbers such as b for d or 9 as a 6 or + for x
19 Long-Term Retrieval Processing Disorders Definitions: Students with LTR disorders have minimal ability to input or retrieve information in active memory in order to understand concepts. The LTR process pertains to speed of putting information into/taking it out of long-term memory and abstract memory.Primary Affected Areas: Abstract/fluid reasoning, Long-term memory; Memory output; Any learning task that involves using several pieces of information or concepts; tired after a short period of studying. TBI, PTSDObservable Behavior: Confusion on multiple step assignments; Brain Traffic Jam; spaced out look; student understands step by step problem solving but can not put all the steps together to solve the next problem.
20 Working Memory Processing Disorders Definitions: Students with working memory disorders have minimal ability to retain a large amount of information in active memory in order to understand concepts. Students also have problems manipulating that information to solve problems. Low RAMPrimary Affected Areas: Abstract/fluid reasoning, Long-term memory; Memory output; Any learning task that involves using complex pieces of information or concepts; math problems that require using multiple concepts at the same time to solve; significantly related to math TBI, PTSDObservable Behavior: Confusion on multiple step assignments; Student may understand each concept but can not organize the steps in order to solve the problem. tired and frustrated after a short period of studying
21 Comprehension-Knowledge (LTM) Processing Disorders Definition: Students with long-termmemory problems have minimal abilityto store information for a long periodof time. The length of time for whichstudents can hold information mayvary. For instance, a student maylearn material during one monthly unit and not remember itduring the next unit. On the other hand it could be thata student remembers how to work a math problem oneday and then forget how to do it the next day.Primary Affected Areas: working memory, abstract reasoning and long term retrieval; significantly related to mathObservable Behaviors: holes in the foundation of concepts needed for further learning --- have to relearn information but remembers bits and pieces
22 Fluid /Abstract Reasoning Processing Disorder Definition: Abstract reasoning disorders keep students from being able to form concepts and solve abstract problems that include novel situations and extrapolating information. It is also the inability to identify relationships with unfamiliar concepts and making inferences.Atomic structurePrimary Affected Areas: working memory, long term memory, memory output, all dependent on the level of critical thinking required highly significantly related to math- TBICovalenceCovalent bonding compared to ionic means...ElectronsObservable Behaviors: need for repeated instruction as if information was never learned; repeated blank looks; ability to mimic processes but not apply them, not making inferential leaps; can’t generate alternate problem solving strategies
23 Additional COG Useful Clusters Verbal Ability: The student’s ability for language development that includes the comprehension of individual words and the comprehension word relationships.Thinking Ability: The student’s ability to process non language based information that is placed into short-term memory but needs additional processing to be understood. TBICognitive Efficiency: The student’s ability to cognitively process information accurately and automatically. For example, student’s visual/auditory speed in processing numbers (frees up working memory). TBI, PTSDCognitive Fluency: The student’s ease and speed in performing cognitive tasks of recalling information. Faster fluency means more working memory can be use to solve math problems. TBI, PTSDBroad Attention: The student’s ability to input and process auditory information for a short period of time. Students with low scores may have a memory input deficit.
24 Memory Bypasses/Accommodations TeachingVocabulary listsFormula sheets/cardsMental cheat sheetsThree column note takingLectures with immediate practice to break up the inputting time with rehearsal time.Structured, step by step process for reading the textbookOverhead on during class for individual reference use during lecture (post on website)Class recitationReview and reviewTutoringTape-record sequential steps or questions that the student and tutor have createdPlace same information on note cardsPut information cues to music or rhythmic recitationMental cheat sheetsConstruct tutoring session to include constant student verbal and/or visual feedback. Over and overDraw pictures for cueingReview and review
25 Visual Clarity/Accommodations Writing and ReadingComputer programs with visual alterationsColor coding parts of sentences, paragraphsPhysically cut and pasteLots of white spaceTyping with large simple fontNote cards for organization of paper and sentence structuresTests and readings with larger fonts and more white space.Pictures for organization of ideasMathematicsGraph paperColor assignment to different numerical functions and symbolsProblem on left side of paper and extra math calculations on the right with line dividing down the middleUse of capital letters instead of small lettersLots of white spaceStudents use whiteboardTest format with larger fonts and more white spacePictures/graphs for word problems
26 Teaching and Tutoring Concerns Students will remember information correctly when they go to study on their own.Students must learn math study skillsStudents will reduce anxietyStudents will learn how to self-regulate.Students will persist when studying gets tough.How can we help them mature into independent learners? Can we?We must focus as much on how to learn the discipline content as learning the content.
27 Alternative Math Course Sequence Elementary Algebra StatisticsElementary Algebra Liberal Arts MathElementary Algebra Topics in Math
28 Significant CHC Factors & Clinical Clusters for Course Substitution Working Memory Not Enough RAMLong-Term Memory Not Enough FactsAbstract Reasoning Not Enough Logic
29 Course Substitutions Introduction to Computers Accounting I Macro-economicsPhilosophyEnvironmental ScienceBusiness mathAstronomyOceanographyLogic
30 Developing a Course Accommodation and Substitution Policy What are you now using to process course substitutions?What are you now using to process course accommodations?Guidelines for developing these policiesHow do students find out about making a request?Who determines student eligibility to make the request?Who informs the student about documentation for the request?Who helps the student prepare the request?Who receives the students request?Who is on the committee? Faculty, counselor, DRC, chairs, expert?Who receives the recommendation for approval or non approval?Who receives the appeal for due process?How does the institution record the decision?How is the student notified about the decision?How can you be consistent in the decisions?
31 Mathematics Learning, Instruction and Tutoring Concerns What are your concerns?What can you do about it?
32 ConclusionEach student with disabilities is unique; therefore, it is important to continue learning about the processing deficits and how they affect learning in specific disciplines. As a result, an instructor or tutor can take the suggested strategies and adapt them to meet an individual’s special learning challenges.Let’s continue the conversation. us at whenever you have questions or when you have success stories!