Presentation on theme: "RTI and Eligibility: A Comprehensive Review of Best-Practices"— Presentation transcript:
1 RTI and Eligibility: A Comprehensive Review of Best-Practices 2011 ODE/COSA Fall Conference for Special Education Administrators
2 Introduction Welcome & Introductions Overview of the day Nov 2010IntroductionWelcome & IntroductionsOverview of the dayComprehensive review of essential features (“Best practices “ approach; Checklist)Session EtiquetteSession will describe essential components of LD ID with RTI—there is no “test”, but rather systems components that need to be in place. It requires participation
3 Big Ideas little rti and BIG RTI, or “The Tail that Wagged the Dog” RTI focuses directly on core requirements of ALL SLD evaluations, regardless of methodRTI & LD Eligibility: We are all members of the assessment team
4 Essential Requirements for LD Eligibility Regardless of Method Low SkillsAppropriate core instructionHas always been an exclusionary criteriaProgress MonitoringExclusionary CriteriaStudent has an SLD AND Educational Need that Requires Specially Designed Instruction
5 The Historical Reality of SLD: Doing the Right Thing “For more than 25 years, accumulated evidence has strongly suggested that most students labeled SLD are those students with severe educational needs, regardless of the stated eligibility criterion… What is unique about RTI is that educational need is a necessary but not sufficient requirement for SLD identification” (Shinn, 2007)
6 RTI Adds…Low Skills And Slow Progress Need for specially designed instruction
7 RTI Also Provides… Focus on core curriculum Universal screening for early identification and interventionResearched based interventionsEffective progress monitoring used to guide decision makingSystematic approach to determiningEducational Need
8 Who is Using RTI? Zirkel & Thomas, Teaching Exceptional Children, 2010 All but a handful of states explicitly Require or Recommend RTIDegree to which components are clearly defined ranges wildly
9 SLD Rates (Education Week, Sept 8) SLD rates declined from 6.1% in to 5.2% in (15% decline)(US Dept. of Ed Digest of Ed. Statistics)Not identifying for financial accountability?Shift in eligibility categories?Likely related to RTI , early intervention, improvement in instruction
10 Legal Implications* Cases involving RTI are limited Some favorable No Supreme Court cases; only 1 Federal Circuit Court of AppealsMost cases lower Federal courts or State Hearings OfficersSome favorableStudents are not Eligible for SPED if weaknesses are successfully addressed through Gen EdMost decisions against LEAs:Child-findTime before evaluationNo cases regarding lack of cognitive assessment*Yell, M. & Walker, D. (2010). Legal Basis Of RTI: Analysis and Implications. Exceptionality, 18:
11 Bottom Line Comprehensive system of support that benefits all students Early and sustained instructional support and intervention are integral componentsSystematic approach that directly addresses eligibility criteriaBy definition identifies students with demonstrated need for specially designed instruction
12 FrameworkEssential Features of an SLD eligibility system using Response to Intervention.ScreeningCore Instruction with fidelityInterventions with fidelityProgress MonitoringTeaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Tier 2 or 3 Group InterventionsTeaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Individual Problem SolvingSpecial Ed Referral and Evaluation Report
14 3. Interventions with Fidelity 7. Special Ed Referral and Evaluation Report6. Teaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Individual Problem Solving5. Teaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Group Interventions4. Progress Monitoring3. Interventions with Fidelity2. Core Instruction with Fidelity1. Screening
16 Universal Screening: Why Required for all studentsDetermine sufficiency of core for evaluation questions“Lack of appropriate instruction” checkboxStandardizing the process
17 1. Universal ScreeningResearch-based screener used with ALL students 3 times per yearFidelity checks used to ensure validity of dataWho conducts fidelity checks?How often?How is that data used?Refresher trainings for staff?Retest some students?
18 1. Universal ScreeningScreening data used to evaluate core effectivenessDo you have schoolwide meetings to systematically improve core instruction?80% proficient is the goalLess than 80% proficient should not prevent you from determining a child’s academic deficits are due to lack of instruction.Are you providing instruction in the Big 5?What do observations of core instruction tell you?
19 1. Universal ScreeningScreening data used to identify at-risk studentsDo you have decision rules?Which students receive interventions?How many receive interventions?
23 Core Instruction: Why Required for all students Determine sufficiency of core for evaluation questions“Lack of appropriate instruction” checkboxStandardizing the process
24 2. Core Instruction… 90 minute core block (reading) Research-based core programExplicit, effective instructional practices trained and usedInstruction is more important than curriculumHow do you provide training on effective instruction, active engagement, and behavior management?
25 2. …with FidelityProcess for ensuring fidelity of core program implementationProcess for ensuring effective instructional practices in classroomsWhat is “fidelity”?
26 The BIG 5 of Reading The scope and sequence State standards Fidelity to…The BIG 5 of ReadingThe scope and sequenceState standards
28 2. …with FidelityProcess for ensuring fidelity of core program implementationProcess for ensuring effective instructional practices in classroomsWho ensures fidelity?What standards/criteria do you set for fidelity?
30 Talk TimeHas your district defined “fidelity to the core” and does your staff have a clear understanding of what that is?
31 3. Interventions with Fidelity 2. Core Instruction with Fidelity1. Screening
32 Interventions: Why “Research-based” interventions are required Defining an “intervention”Puts the “intervention” in “Response-to-Intervention”Ensures all students are getting targeted instructionIt helps you know “what works” for struggling studentsHelps demonstrate the need for specially designed instruction
33 3. Interventions Interventions are research-based Implemented interventions are chosen from district protocolInterventions occur outside of 90 minute core instructionInterventionists have appropriate trainingProcess for ensuring fidelity of intervention implementation
34 Resources for Evaluating Interventions Florida Center for Reading ResearchWhat Works Clearinghouse
36 Talk TimeHas your district/school established a protocol with clearly defined interventions?
37 3. Interventions with Fidelity 4. Progress Monitoring3. Interventions with Fidelity2. Core Instruction with Fidelity1. Screening
38 Progress Monitoring: Why Under any SLD identification model, “frequent monitoring” is the lawHelps objectively evaluate a student’s “response-to-intervention”
39 4. Progress MonitoringResearch-based progress monitoring measures usedFrequency of monitoring is appropriate (i.e. at least 2x monthly for students receiving intensive support and 1x monthly for students receiving strategic support)Progress monitoring data is graphedStaff member(s) identified who is/are responsible for organizing and storing the progress monitoring data
41 Talk TimeHas your district/school established guidelines for the frequency of progress monitoring?Is data graphed?
42 3. Interventions with Fidelity 5. Teaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Group Interventions4. Progress Monitoring3. Interventions with Fidelity2. Core Instruction with Fidelity1. Screening
43 Teaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Why Ensures appropriate interventions provided prior to or during evaluationStandardizes the processDecision making as a team
44 5. Teaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Group Interventions System for matching interventions to student need based on multiple data sourcesCBM’s: DIBELS, AIMSWEB, easyCBMIn-program assessments: weekly tests, unit tests, checkouts, mastery testsInformal diagnostics: phonics screener, DRA, QRI, CORE assessments, Curriculum-Based EvaluationSystematic teacher observational data
45 5. Teaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Group Interventions Grade level teams meet to review progress data regularly (e.g. every 4-8 weeks)Decision Rules created AND followed around:When to change interventionsWhat qualifies as an “intervention change”Intervention plan or tracking form used to document interventions and intervention changes for all student in interventions
52 Teaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Why Determine what the problem is and why it is happening…… in order to individualize and intensify instructionRule out alternative hypotheses and exclusionary factorsHelps demonstrate the need for specially designed instruction
53 6. Teaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Individual Problem Solving Individual problem-solving team meeting occurs after group interventions are unsuccessful (Number of unsuccessful group interventions prior to initiating problem-solving is based on district policies & procedures)Meetings occur as neededHow many group interventions before initiating problem solving?
54 6. Teaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Individual Problem Solving Notice provided to parents regarding district’s RTI procedures and parent’s right to request an evaluationOregon Department of Education Guidance:Note: If using a response to intervention model, the parents must have been notified of the following prior to initiation: ODE and district policies regarding the amount and nature of student performance data to be collected and the general education services to be provided; strategies for increasing the child’s rate of learning; and the parent’s right to request an evaluation.
55 Office of Special Education Programs Memo, Jan 2010 Indicates that a school’s RTI system cannot be used to delay an Evaluation for Eligibility under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).“States and LEAs have an obligation to ensure that evaluations of children suspected of having a disability are not delayed or denied because of implementation of an RTI strategy”
56 Office of Special Education Programs Memo, Jan 2010 A parent request for evaluation can still be denied by the school district if the child is not suspected of having a disability. However…“It would be inconsistent with the evaluation provisions… for an LEA to reject a referral and delay provision of an initial evaluation on the basis that a child has not participated in an RTI framework”
57 6. Teaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Individual Problem Solving Staff with pertinent information about target student attend the problem-solving meetingLiteracy SpecialistClassroom TeacherSchool Psych and/or CounselorParentsOthers as needed (ELL Teacher, Principal, Special Education Teacher, Speech Pathologist)
58 Problem Solving Meetings are Solution Focused Nov 2010Problem Solving Meetings are Solution FocusedFocus is on:DataEducationally Relevant/Alterable FactorsWhat changes can WE make that will provide the best chance of success for the child?Data are used to determine the best hypothesis as to why the student isn’t making sufficient progress.
61 Variables Related to Student Achievement Within the studentExternal to the studentQuality of instructionPedagogical knowledgeContent knowledgeQuality of curriculumQuality of learning environmentQuality of evaluationQuality and quantity of time/contentDesire to learnStrategies for learningKnowledgeSkillsPrior content knowledgeSelf-efficacy/helplessnessAlterableRaceGenetic potentialGenderBirth OrderDispositionHealthPhysical differenceIQDisability categoryPersonal historyFamily income and resourcesFamily housingParent years of schoolingMobilityMembers of familyFamily valuesSocioeconomic statusFamily historyUnalterable(hard to change)
62 Is it alterable? Is it educationally relevant? Nov 2010Kristin’s DIBELS scores indicate she was in the “low risk” range last year.Sarah’s file indicates that her parents are divorced and her father lives in Missouri.The special education director told you that Erin’s brother receives special education services.Javon missed 24 days of school last year.Pam’s teacher indicated that her noncompliant behavior began just after winter break.This can be an activity. Let them do it in pairs first then ask for answers. You can also do thumbs up/ thumbs down for educationally relevant or alterableYesnoyesThese are all just starting points. These aren’t final answers. The answers really depend upon the problem and your research questions.Polishing Our Practice
63 The Problem Solving Process I-LEARNNov 2010The Problem Solving ProcessDefine the Problem:What is the problem and why is it happening?Design Intervention:What are we going to do about the problem?Implement and Monitor:Are we doing what we intended to do?Evaluate Effectiveness:Did our plan work?Give some examples of using these steps to solve a problem.July 2006
64 Defining the ProblemNeed to further define the problem to know how to develop an individualized interventionGather as much information as needed to define the problem prior to the Problem Solving MeetingUse existing data first, then determine if you need more
65 6. Teaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Individual Problem Solving The following information is brought to the problem-solving meeting:Documentation of prior interventions with progress monitoring dataA file reviewA developmental historyEnglish Language Learner information is collected (if appropriate)Data comparing student to intervention cohortOther relevant diagnostic data (if appropriate)
66 Cohort Data Aimline Isaiah Mary Amy Chase Nov 2010 1 2 3 4 D e c . S o 234Dec.SorsFbJanMhApilyu65IsaiahMaryAimlineAmyChase
67 Cohort Data Aimline Amy Isaiah Chase Mary Nov 2010 1 2 3 4 D e c . S o 234Dec.SorsFbJanMhApilyu65AimlineAmyIsaiahMaryChase
68 Is additional diagnostic data needed? Nov 2010Is additional diagnostic data needed?
69 What do you know? What do you still need to know? Reading ComprehensionVocabularyOral ReadingFluency & AccuracyPhonics(Alphabetic Principle)Phonemic Awareness
70 What do you know? What do you still need to know? Is there an attendance issue?Are there health/vision issues?Are there language issues?Are there acculturation issues?
71 6. Teaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Individual Problem Solving Documented problem definition, problem hypothesis, and intervention plan are developed at the individual problem-solving meeting
72 Problem Definition: Example Harry (2nd grader) is currently reading a median of 44 words correct per minute (wcpm) with 83% accuracy when given 2nd grade level text. He also answers an average of 3/10 comp questions correct on weekly in-class tests. 2nd grade students in his school are reading an average of 85 wcpm with 97% accuracy on 2nd grade text and answering 9/10 comp questions correct.
73 Problem Definition: Non-Example Harry struggles with being a fluent reader and is not meeting the 2nd grade reading benchmark. He makes a lot of mistakes and is currently reading at a 1st grade level. He also has difficulties answering comprehension questions at grade level and does poorly on his weekly reading tests.
74 Nov 2010Problem Hypothesis“Why is the student not performing at the expected level?” (Problem Hypothesis) “What is the student’s instructional need?” (Designing an Intervention)
75 Hypothesis Development Data-Based Hypothesis:Harry’s reading fluency and comprehension problems occur because he does not have strategies for decoding consonant digraphs (ch, sh, etc), silent-e words, and r-controlled vowels (ar, ir, er, or). His fluency and comprehension will improve if he receives additional intensive instruction in these decoding strategies.
77 Develop an Intervention Plan What skill is needed?What curriculum will be used?What instructional strategies will be used?How long will the student receive the intervention?Who will provide the intervention?
78 Develop an Intervention Plan Before beginning your final intervention you must answer the question:How will your team define a successful intervention?
79 How do you document your: Problem definition?Problem hypothesis?Intervention plan?
80 Problem Solving Worksheet Sample Tigard-Tualatin School District
81 Intervention Plan Sample Heartland Area Education Agency (Iowa)
83 Fidelity of Implementation Fidelity to curriculumAll lesson parts taught following outlined proceduresCurriculum decision rules followed (lesson checkouts, mastery tests, etc)Fidelity to research-based instructional proceduresHigh pacing (high rate of student opportunities to respond)Corrective feedbackBehavior management system evidentStudents are accurate before moving on to new material
84 Talk TimeDo you currently have a system for intensifying and individualizing interventions when students continue to struggle?
86 6. Teaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Individual Problem Solving Individualized intervention plans are reviewed and further steps determined based on district policies & procedures.When does the team come back together to review the intervention’s effectiveness?Progress monitoring dataFidelity DataCohort Data
87 6. Teaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Individual Problem Solving Individualized intervention plans are reviewed and further steps determined based on district policies & procedures.If student continues to have low skills and slow progress after at least ___ weeks of individualized intervention (see district decision rules), the student is automatically referred for Special Education Evaluation.TTSD SPED Policies & Procedures
88 LD Checklist: Teaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Individual Problem Solving
89 3. Interventions with Fidelity 7. Special Ed Referral and Evaluation Report6. Teaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Individual Problem Solving5. Teaming/Data-Based Decision Making: Group Interventions4. Progress Monitoring3. Interventions with Fidelity2. Core Instruction with Fidelity1. Screening
90 Comprehensive Evaluation “It’s a data-gathering process that includes child observation. It may or may not use standardized tests…. If you’re in an RTI context, its to understand why the child has not responded to instruction. “Jack Fletcher, Ph.D.
91 Comprehensive Evaluation (10) "Evaluation" means procedures used to determine whether the child has a disability, and the nature and extent of the special education and related services that the child needs.Oregon Administrative Rules,
92 Comprehensive SLD Eval: Regardless of Eval Model Academic assessmentReview of recordsObservation (including regular education setting)Progress monitoring dataOther:If needed, developmental historyIf needed, an assessment of cognition, etc.If needed, a medical statementAny other assessments to determine impact of disabilityOregon Administrative Rules,
93 Comprehensive SLD Eval: RTI Model …documentation of:The type, intensity, and duration of scientific, research-based instructional intervention(s)……rate of progress during the instructional intervention(s);A comparison of the student's rate of progress to expected rates of progress.Progress monitoring on a schedule that:Allows a comparison of the student's progress to… peers;Is appropriate to the student's age and grade placement;Is appropriate to the content monitored; andAllows for interpretation of the effectiveness of intervention.Oregon Administrative Rules,
94 SPED Referrals and Evaluations All staff need to understand:There is a standardized legal process to followSpecific questions must be answered to determine a student is eligible for special education:The student has low achievementThe student has made limited progress despite receiving interventionsThe student has an instructional need
95 SPED Referrals and Evaluations All staff need to understand:Determining whether or not a student has a disability is one of the most high stakes decision a school can make for a child
96 Special Education Process ReferralEvaluation Planning MeetingEligibility Determination Meeting
97 What should be included in the referral? The information gathered from the problem solving meetingFile reviewStudent Intervention ProfileDevelopmental historyRecent progress monitoring dataELL informationData comparing student to intervention cohortDiagnostic data if neededHypothesis worksheetCompleted special education referral form
98 What do you do after you receive the referral? Review referral data to determine what other information is needed to complete the SLD Eligibility FormLow skillsSlow progressDocumentation of interventionsObservation of student in general education settingInformation about Exclusionary FactorsSet date and notify parents about the Evaluation Planning Meeting
99 Evaluation Planning Meeting Conduct Evaluation Planning MeetingDetermine if you need to evaluateDo you need any additional information?Is the student exhibiting low skills and slow progress across data sources?Determine and document what additional information you need as a team (Permission to Evaluate Form)Get parent permission to evaluate in the areas you determinedProvide care giver with Parents Rights brochure
101 How do you know ifa student has SLD?Low academic skillsSlow ProgressInstructional Need
102 Determining if the student has low skills: Data indicating the student has significantly low skills as compared to research-based norms and benchmarks.State SLD Eligibility Form
103 Low skills Low skills CBM: DIBELS, AIMSweb, easyCBM What is the student’s current performance?Where should the student be at for the grade level? (norm or benchmark)State Testing: OAKSWhat is the student’s percentile?Achievement Tests: WIAT-2, WJ-IIIWhat is the student’s standard score and percentile?
104 How Low is Low? General Guidelines (district determines guidelines) CBMsIntensive range?Below the 16th percentile?More than 2 times discrepant?OAKSAchievement Tests
105 What if the data are mixed? CBM data: indicate intensive rangeANDOAKS data: indicate average rangeWhat data do you place more emphasis on?CBM dataLook at in program assessments too
106 Talk TimeWhat assessments can your school/district use to determine if a student’s academic skills are significantly low?
107 Determining if a student is making slow progress: Data indicating the student has not made significant progress to close their achievement gap…State SLD Eligibility Form: Slow Progress…
108 What is slow progress?Data indicating the student has not made significant progress to close his/her achievement gap…Decision rule about points below the aimlineTypically 4 consecutive data points below the aimlineTrendlineWhat is adequate growth?National growth ratesCohort growth rates
109 National Growth Rates Grade Realistic Ambitious 1 2.0 words/week 31.0 words/week4.85 words/week1.1 words/week5.50 words/week.80 words/weekSource: Fuchs et al, (1993)
110 Cohort Data Aimline Isaiah Mary Amy Chase 1 2 3 4 D e c . S o r s F b 234Dec.SorsFbJanMhApilyu65IsaiahMaryAimlineAmyChase
111 Evaluation Report includes the following: Slow Progress Progress monitoring dataChart and graphComparison of the expected rate of progressInterventions providedIn conjunction with the progress monitoring data
112 Determining Instructional Need: Data indicating the student has an instructional need for special education services (included description of needed instructional supports)
113 How you determine instructional need? It comes down to the balance: How does the weight of the intervention compare to the rate of progress?
114 Evaluation report includes the following: Instructional Need Data indicating the student has an instructional need for special education services (included description of needed instructional supports)Student has been provided with an explicit research based interventionStudent has made limited progress despite receiving the explicit research based intervention
115 Evaluation report includes the following: Observation An observation of the child’s academic performance and behavior in a regular education setting (related to the area of concern)State SLD Eligibility Form
116 What is the focus of the observation?: An observation of the child’s academic performance and behavior in a regular education setting (related to the area of concern)What observational data do you have that can help instructional planning?Opportunities to RespondCorrect Academic RespondingStudent Engagement (On-Task vs. Off-Task)Comparison to classroom peers
117 Evaluation report includes the following: Data indicating exclusionary factors (language, health, another disability, lack of instruction etc) are not the primary cause of the student’s learning deficit
118 How do you determine if there is a lack of appropriate instruction? AttendanceInstructionRemember……Less than 80% at benchmark for the grade level should not prevent you from determining a child’s academic deficits are due to lack of instruction.Examine classroom instructionAre students engaged in the instruction?Is the student engaged in the instruction?Is it explicit enough?
119 LD Checklist: Special Ed Referral & Evaluation Report