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1 The op-amp Differentiator

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2 Frequency response of a differentiator with a time-constant CR.

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3 The Antoniou Inductance- Simulation Circuit

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5 The Op amp-RC Resonator An LCR second order resonator.

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6 The Op amp-RC Resonator An op amp–RC resonator obtained by replacing the inductor L in the LCR resonator of a simulated inductance realized by the Antoniou circuit.

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7 The Op amp-RC Resonator Implementation of the buffer amplifier K.

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8 The Op amp-RC Resonator Pole frequency Pole Q factor

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9 Bistable Circuit The output signal only has two states: positive saturation(L + ) and negative saturation(L - ). The circuit can remain in either state indefinitely and move to the other state only when appropriate triggered. A positive feedback loop capable of bistable operation.

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10 Bistable Circuit The bistable circuit (positive feedback loop) The negative input terminal of the op amp connected to an input signal v I.

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11 Bistable Circuit The transfer characteristic of the circuit in (a) for increasing v I. Positive saturation L + and negative saturation L -

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12 Bistable Circuit The transfer characteristic for decreasing v I.

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13 Bistable Circuit The complete transfer characteristics.

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14 A Bistable Circuit with Noninverting Transfer Characteristics

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15 A Bistable Circuit with Noninverting Transfer Characteristics The transfer characteristic is noninverting.

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16 Application of Bistable Circuit as a Comparator Comparator is an analog-circuit building block used in a variety applications. To detect the level of an input signal relative to a preset threshold value. To design A/D converter. Include single threshold value and two threshold values. Hysteresis comparator can reject the interference.

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17 Application of Bistable Circuit as a Comparator Block diagram representation and transfer characteristic for a comparator having a reference, or threshold, voltage V R. Comparator characteristic with hysteresis.

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18 Application of Bistable Circuit as a Comparator Illustrating the use of hysteresis in the comparator characteristics as a means of rejecting interference.

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19 Making the Output Level More Precise For this circuit L + = V Z 1 + V D and L – = –(V Z 2 + V D ), where V D is the forward diode drop.

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20 Making the Output Level More Precise For this circuit L + = V Z + V D 1 + V D 2 and L – = –(V Z + V D 3 + V D 4 ).

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21 Generation of Square Waveforms Connecting a bistable multivibrator with inverting transfer characteristics in a feedback loop with an RC circuit results in a square-wave generator.

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22 Generation of Square Waveforms The circuit obtained when the bistable multivibrator is implemented with the positive feedback loop circuit.

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23 Waveforms at various nodes of the circuit in (b). This circuit is called an astable multivibrator. Time period T = T 1 +T 2

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24 Generation of Triangle Waveforms

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25 Generation of Triangle Waveforms

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