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1 The op-amp Differentiator. 2 Frequency response of a differentiator with a time-constant CR.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The op-amp Differentiator. 2 Frequency response of a differentiator with a time-constant CR."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The op-amp Differentiator

2 2 Frequency response of a differentiator with a time-constant CR.

3 3 The Antoniou Inductance- Simulation Circuit

4 4

5 5 The Op amp-RC Resonator An LCR second order resonator.

6 6 The Op amp-RC Resonator An op amp–RC resonator obtained by replacing the inductor L in the LCR resonator of a simulated inductance realized by the Antoniou circuit.

7 7 The Op amp-RC Resonator Implementation of the buffer amplifier K.

8 8 The Op amp-RC Resonator Pole frequency Pole Q factor

9 9 Bistable Circuit The output signal only has two states: positive saturation(L + ) and negative saturation(L - ). The circuit can remain in either state indefinitely and move to the other state only when appropriate triggered. A positive feedback loop capable of bistable operation.

10 10 Bistable Circuit  The bistable circuit (positive feedback loop)  The negative input terminal of the op amp connected to an input signal v I.

11 11 Bistable Circuit  The transfer characteristic of the circuit in (a) for increasing v I.  Positive saturation L + and negative saturation L -

12 12 Bistable Circuit The transfer characteristic for decreasing v I.

13 13 Bistable Circuit The complete transfer characteristics.

14 14 A Bistable Circuit with Noninverting Transfer Characteristics

15 15 A Bistable Circuit with Noninverting Transfer Characteristics The transfer characteristic is noninverting.

16 16 Application of Bistable Circuit as a Comparator Comparator is an analog-circuit building block used in a variety applications. To detect the level of an input signal relative to a preset threshold value. To design A/D converter. Include single threshold value and two threshold values. Hysteresis comparator can reject the interference.

17 17 Application of Bistable Circuit as a Comparator  Block diagram representation and transfer characteristic for a comparator having a reference, or threshold, voltage V R.  Comparator characteristic with hysteresis.

18 18 Application of Bistable Circuit as a Comparator Illustrating the use of hysteresis in the comparator characteristics as a means of rejecting interference.

19 19 Making the Output Level More Precise For this circuit L + = V Z 1 + V D and L – = –(V Z 2 + V D ), where V D is the forward diode drop.

20 20 Making the Output Level More Precise For this circuit L + = V Z + V D 1 + V D 2 and L – = –(V Z + V D 3 + V D 4 ).

21 21 Generation of Square Waveforms Connecting a bistable multivibrator with inverting transfer characteristics in a feedback loop with an RC circuit results in a square-wave generator.

22 22 Generation of Square Waveforms The circuit obtained when the bistable multivibrator is implemented with the positive feedback loop circuit.

23 23 Waveforms at various nodes of the circuit in (b). This circuit is called an astable multivibrator. Time period T = T 1 +T 2

24 24 Generation of Triangle Waveforms

25 25 Generation of Triangle Waveforms


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