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© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. “Every individual that we can inspire, that we can guide, that we can help to start a new company, is vital to the future of our economic welfare.” — Ewing Kauffman What Does Not Work, What May Work Yasuyuki Motoyama, Ph.D. Senior Scholar Research and Policy Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation
© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. Supporting Entrepreneurship? 1. Money 2. Place/Infrastructure 3. Talent (Entrepreneurs) Venture funds Incubation centers, accelerators Business schools
© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. Outline 1.Why each approach does not work a)Venture funds b)Incubation centers c)Business schools 2. Reality of entrepreneurs 3. What may work to support entrepreneurship
© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. Reasons for failure (Kauffman, 2008; Lerner, 2009 ) Hard to pick winners 50% out within 5 years Politics overtake investment decisions Failure of private venture funds 80% of VCs unable to return 3%/yr (Bradley et al., 2012) 1. Failure of (Public) Venture Funds
© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. 1.5 Alternative to Venture Funds? Findings from Inc firms in Kansas City (Motoyama et al., 2013) Inc firms: Successful, high-growth (Motoyama & Danley, 2012) Companies can be successful without VC money! Neglected bootstrapping strategy TypesCases Self-Finance13 Friends & Family6 Venture Capital2 Angel Investors2 Banks2 Government (SBA)2
© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. 2. Failure of Incubation Centers Reality of incubation centers Over 1,400 incubation centers (NBIA, 2011) Average incubator: 1.8 full-time staff & 25 client firms Support services? AccountingLegal services Management adviceIntellectual property assistance Description of incubator staff (Hannon, 2003): A computer expert, social worker, trusted counselor, front of all knowledge, endless source of contacts, fundraiser, and rent collector Only prolonging dying firms (Amezcua, 2010)
© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. 2.5 Accelerators? Accelerator bubble? Different from incubators? Highly competitive application process Pre-seed investment, with equity exchange Create a cohort of entrepreneurs, and focus on teams Connect to mentors 1,436 companies accelerated; $1.18 billion raised (Konzcal, 2012) 30 programs, 200+ startups in Canada (MaRS, 2013) No data available; No evaluation research yet Outliers (Y-Combinator & Foundry) What happened after funded?
© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. 3. Failure of Business School Training Rationale Need more entrepreneurs Especially in places with low entrepreneurial culture MBA course/certificate in entrepreneurship Focus on writing business plans (to sell to VCs or angels) Need to teach them skills to execute and modify business plans, survive and run a company FastTrac, Startup Wheel, NxLevel Launch Pad at Univ. of Miami One-on-one consultation to students, faculty, and alumni Syracuse Univ, Washington U in St. Louis
© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. Challenges Faced by Entrepreneurs An entrepreneurs faces a number of problems Entrepreneurs cannot solve by themselves Entrepreneurs are not born, but must acquire various skills through learning & experience and through other people Less about money, but more about knowledge Not university/scientific knowledge, but practice knowledge
© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. Challenges Faced by Non-SV Regions Stories from Kansas City and St. Louis Lonely entrepreneurs seek investors in SV Investors seek potential entrepreneurs in SV
© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. Then, What Works? An environment where entrepreneurs can: Get constantly engaged with other entrepreneurs Learn to solve a number of problems Find mentors (serial entrepreneurs, angels, capitalists) Not for getting funds But for learning how to make products, find & manage people Tailored to stages and sectors Tailored to you Local
© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. Example 1: Startup Weekend “54-hour events where developers, designers, marketers, product managers and startup enthusiasts come together to share ideas, form teams, build products, and launch startups!” The final business plan is only means Where people get inspired and connected
© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. Upcoming Events in Startup Weekend
© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. Example 2: 1MC Weekly meeting of two entrepreneurs to present their startups to other entrepreneurs (Konzcal & Motoyama, 2013) 6 min presentation, 20 min Q&A
© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. Example 3: Pipeline Program “regional fellowship program designed to both equip high- growth entrepreneurs with the training, networks, resources and mentors to assist them over their entire career” To scale up: Company CEOs of $1 mil sales 3-month mentorship with bimonthly events (modules) To connect with peers, mentors, and supporters
© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. Example 4: Inc Firms 75% of them had mentors in the past (Motoyama et al., 2013) Many of them are willing to give back Connect Inc entrepreneurs and startup entrepreneurs
© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. Inc Map Atlanta
© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. Different Stages, One Ecosystem Before startup Viable startups Growing firms Big Companies Startup Weekend 1MC Pipeline Connecting w/ Inc firms
© 2010 by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. All rights reserved. References Amezcua, Alejandro S Boon or Boondoggle?: Business Incubation as Entrepreneurship Policy, Doctoral Dissertation in Public Administration, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY. Bradley, Harold S., Diane Mulcahy, and Bill Weeks We have met the enemy... and he is us. In Kauffman Foundation Research Series. Kansas City, MO: Kauffman Foundation. Hannon, Paul D "A conceptual development framework for management and leadership learning in the UK incubator sector." Education and Training no. 45 (8/9): Kauffman Foundation Entrepreneurship and urban success: Toward a policy consensus. In Kauffman Foundation Research Paper. Kansas City, MO: Kauffman Foundation. Konczal, Jared Evaluating the effects of accelerators? Not so fast. Forbes 2012 [cited Aug ]. Available from of-accelerators-not-so-fast/. Konczal, Jared, and Yasuyuki Motoyama Energizing an ecosystem: Brewing 1 Million Cups. In Kauffman Foundation Research Series. Kansas City, MO: Kauffman Foundation. Lerner, Joshua Boulevard of broken dreams: Why public efforts to boost entrepreneurship and venture capital have failed and what to do about it. Princeton: Princeton University Press. MaRS Seeding success: Canada's startup accelerators. Toronto: MaRS Data Catalyst. Motoyama, Yasuyuki, and Brian Danley The ascent of America's high-growth companies. In Kauffman Research Paper Series. Kansas City, MO: Kauffman Foundation. Motoyama, Yasuyuki, Brian Danley, Jordan Bell-Masterson, Kate Maxwell, and Arnobio Morelix Leveraging regional assets: Insights from high-growth companies in Kansas City. In Kauffman Foundation Research Paper. Kansas City, MO: Kauffman Foundation. NBIA Annual report. Athens, OH: National Business Incubation Association.
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