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70 Years of Radioactive Risks in America and Japan Kevin Kamps Beyond Nuclear Medical and Ecological Consequences of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident New.

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Presentation on theme: "70 Years of Radioactive Risks in America and Japan Kevin Kamps Beyond Nuclear Medical and Ecological Consequences of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident New."— Presentation transcript:

1 70 Years of Radioactive Risks in America and Japan Kevin Kamps Beyond Nuclear Medical and Ecological Consequences of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident New York Academy of Medicine March 11-12, 2013

2 Hiroshima to Fukushima

3 March 10, 2011

4 Days later

5 Fukushima Daiichi, after

6 Dec. 2, 1942

7 Hiroshima and Nagasaki

8 Fallout Oppenheimer and Groves at “Trinity” test blast site, July 1945 Destroyed Nagasaki Buddhist temple, with flattened city in background, August 1945

9 Operation Crossroads

10 Dejà vu, 65 years later July 25, 1946Mid-March, 2011

11 “Atoms for Peace”

12 “Castle Bravo,” March 1, 1954

13 Anti-nuclear groundswell in Japan Daigo Fukuryū MaruFatal fallout

14 Radioactively contaminated seafood Lucky Dragon’s catch, 1954Fukushima fallout, 2011

15 CIA deployed to Japan Lewis Strauss Matsutaro Shoriki

16 Japan’s infamous “Nuclear Village” is born

17 Atomic America

18 Atomic Japan

19 Workers over-exposed Tsuruga NPP, Fukui Prefecture, 1981 Bruce NGS, Ontario, Canada, Nov., 2009

20 Sodium fires Monju, Fukui Prefecture, Dec. 8, 1995 Fermi 1, Monroe County, Michigan, May 20, 2008

21 Reprocessing plant fires/explosions Tokai-mura, Ibaraki Prefecture, March 1997 West Valley, NY,

22 Inadvertent nuclear criticalities Shika NPP, Ishikawa Prefecture, June 18, 1999 Tokai-mura, Ibaraki Prefecture, Sept. 30, 1999

23 Inadvertent criticality: Fermi 2, Monroe Co., MI

24 Safety cover-ups TEPCO, , 2002 Davis-Besse, Oak Harbor, Ohio, 2002

25 Deadly steam explosions Mihama-3, Fukui Prefecture, Aug. 9, 2004 Surry NPP, VA, 1972, 1986

26 Radioactive steam releases Fukushima Daiichi, 2006 San Onofre, San Clemente, CA, Jan. 2012

27 Earthquakes Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant, Niigata Prefecture, July 16, 2007 Entergy’s Indian Point Units 2 & 3, Buchanan, NY

28 Nuclear earthquakes (and tsunamis)

29 Additional Risks: RPV Embrittlement Genkai-1, Saga Prefecture Entergy’s Palisades atomic reactor, Covert, MI

30 Additional Risks: High-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Pools Fukushima Daiichi Unit 4 on brink of collapse U.S. pools contain much more HLRW than Japanese pools Many warnings about risk of catastrophic pool fires

31 Additional Risks: High-Level Radioactive Waste Leaks Hanford underground tanks Indian Point HLRW storage pools

32 False solutions: Reprocessing and Centralized Interim Storage Rokkasho reprocessing facility, Aomori Prefecture Savannah River Site, South Carolina

33 Some good news: shutdowns Oi, Fukui Prefecture, July 2012 (the only 2 reactors in all of Japan to be restarted post-Fukushima) Kewaunee, WI, June 2013

34 Some inspiring news: showdowns Tokyo, Indian Point,

35 GE BWR Mark Is & IIs: Early Warnings “ Recent events have highlighted the safety disadvantages of pressure-suppression containments…What are the safety advantages of pressure suppression, apart from the cost saving?... I recommend that the AEC adopt a policy of discouraging further use of pressure-suppression containments, and that such designs not be accepted for construction permits filed after a date to be decided.” Contained in a memo to his boss by AEC Safety Officer, Stephen Hanauer, Sept. 20,1972

36 GE Mark I/II: Early Warnings, Ignored “The acceptance of pressure suppression containment concepts by all elements of the nuclear field…is firmly embedded in the conventional wisdom. Reversal of this hallowed policy, particularly at this time, could well be the end of nuclear power. It would throw into question the continued operation of licensed plants…and would generally create more turmoil than I can stand thinking about.” Contained in a response by AEC Safety Head, Joseph Hendrie, September 25, 1972

37 GE 3 blow the whistle In 1976 Gregory C. Minor, Richard B. Hubbard, and Dale G. Bridenbaugh blew the whistle on safety problems with atomic reactors designed by General Electric. The three resigned from their jobs after becoming increasingly convinced that the atomic reactor design they were reviewing — the Mark 1 — was so flawed it could lead to a devastating accident.

38 Post-Chernobyl soul searching In 1986, Harold Denton, then the NRC's top safety official, told an industry trade group that the "Mark I containment, especially being smaller with lower design pressure, in spite of the suppression pool, if you look at the WASH 1400 safety study, you'll find something like a 90% probability of that containment failing.”

39 Freeze Our Fukushimas There are 31 still operating GE Mark I and II BWRs in U.S.: Mark Is (23 units): Browns Ferry 1, 2 and 3, Decatur, AL -- Brunswick 1 & 2, Southport, NC – Cooper, Brownville, NE -- Dresden 2 & 3, Morris, IL -- Duane Arnold, Palo, IA --Edwin Hatch 1 & 2, Baxley, GA -- Fermi 2, Monroe, MI -- Hope Creek, Artificial Island, NJ – Fitzpatrick, Scriba, NY – Monticello, Monticello, MN -- Nine Mile Point Unit 1, Scriba, NY -- Oyster Creek, Lacey Township, NJ -- Peach Bottom 2 & 3, Delta, PA – Pilgrim, Plymouth, MA -- Quad Cities 1 & 2, Cordova, IL -- Vermont Yankee, Vernon, VT. Mark IIs (8 units): LaSalle 1 & 2, Ottawa, IL -- Nine Mile Point 2, Scriba, NY -- Limerick 1 & 2, Pottstown, PA -- Susquehanna 1 & 2, Salem Twp., PA -- Columbia Generating Station, Richland, WA.

40 Collusion

41 Three Mile Island…

42 Chernobyl…

43 Fukushima…

44 Where Next?!


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