Presentation on theme: "PKI: A High Level View from the Trenches Ken Klingenstein, Project Director, Internet2 Middleware Initiative Chief Technologist, University of Colorado."— Presentation transcript:
PKI: A High Level View from the Trenches Ken Klingenstein, Project Director, Internet2 Middleware Initiative Chief Technologist, University of Colorado at Boulder
Agenda Fundamentals - Components and Contexts The missing pieces - in the technology and in the community Current Activities - feds, chime, anx, overseas, pkiforum, etc. Higher Ed Activities (CREN, HEPKI-TAG, HEPKI-PAG, PKIlabs)
PKI : A few observations Think of it as wall jack connectivity, except it’s connectivity for individuals, not for machines, and there’s no wall or jack…But it is that ubiquitous and important Does it need to be a single infrastructure? What are the costs of multiple solutions? Subnets and ITP’s... Options breed complexity; managing complexity is essential
A few more... IP connectivity was a field of dreams. We built it and then the applications came.. Unfortunately, here the applications have arrived before the infrastructure, making its development much harder. Noone seems to be working on the solutions for the agora.
Uses for PKI and Certificates authentication and pseudo-authentication signing docs encrypting docs and mail non-repudiation secure channels across a network authorization and attributes and more...
A framework PKI Components - hardware, software, processes, policies Contexts for usage - community of interests Implementation options (in-source, out-source, roll- your-own,etc.) Note changes over time...
PKI Components X.509 v3 certs - profiles and uses Validation - Certificate Revocation Lists, OCSP, path construction Cert management - generating certs, using keys, archiving and escrow, mobility, etc. Directories - to store certs, and public keys and maybe private keys Trust models and I/A Cert-enabled apps
PKI Contexts for Usage Intracampus Within the Higher Ed community of interest In the Broader World
PKI Implementation Options In-source - with public domain or campus unique In-source - with commercial product Bring-in-source - with commercial services Out-source - a spectrum of services and issues what you do depends on when you do it...
X.509 certs purpose - bind a public key to a subject standard fields extended fields profiles client and server cert distinctions
Standard fields in certs cert serial number the subject, as x.500 DN or … the subject’s public key the validity field the issuer, as id and common name signing algorithm signature info for the cert, in the issuer’s private key
Extension fields Examples - auth/subject subcodes, key usage, LDAP URL, CRL distribution points, etc Key usage is very important - for digsig, non-rep, key or data encipherment, etc. Certain extensions can be marked critical - if an app can’t understand it, then don’t use the cert Requires profiles to document, and great care...
Cert Management Certificate Management Protocol - for the creation and management of certs Revocation Options - CRL, OCSP Storage - where (device, directory, private cache, etc.) and how - format escrow and archive - when, how, and what else needs to be kept Cert Authority Software or outsource options Authority and policies
Certificate Management Systems Homebrews OpenSSL and OpenCA Baltimore, Entrust, etc. W2K, Netscape, etc.
Directories to store certs to store CRL to store private keys, for the time being to store attributes implement with border directories, or acls within the enterprise directory, or proprietary directories
Inter-organizational trust model components Certificate Policy- uses of particular certs, assurance levels for I/A, audit and archival requirements Certificate Practices Statement- the nitty gritty operational issues Hierarchies vs Bridges a philosopy and an implementation issue the concerns are transitivity and delegation hierarchies assert a common trust model bridges pairwise agree on trust models and policy mappings
Certificate Policies Address (CP) Legal responsibilities and liabilities (indemnification issues) Operations of Certificate Management systems Best practices for core middleware Assurance levels - varies according to I/A processes and other operational factors
Certificate Practice Statements (CPS) Site specific details of operational compliance with a Cert Policy A single practice statement can support several policies (Chime) A Policy Management Authority (PMA) determines if a CPS is adequate for a given CP.
Trust chains Path construction to determine a path from the issuing CA to a trusted CA heuristics to handle branching that occurs at bridges Path validation uses the path to determine if trust is appropriate should address revocation, key usage, basic constraints, policy mappings
Trust chains When and where to validate off-line on a server at the discretion of the application depth of chain some revocations better than others - major (disaffiliation, key compromise, etc.) and minor (name change, attribute change) sometimes the CRL can’t be found or hasn’t been updated
Mobility Options smart cards usb dongles passwords to download from a store or directory proprietary roaming schemes abound - Netscape, Verisign, etc SACRED within IETF recently formed for standards integration of certificates from multiple stores
More current activities HEPKI the Grid
Current Activities PKIX (http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/pkix- charter.html) Federal PKI work (http://csrc.nist.gov/pki/twg/) State Govs (http://www.ec3.org/) Medical community (Tunitas, CHIME, HIPAA) Automobile community (ANX) Overseas Euro government - qualifying certs EuroPKI for Higher Ed (http://www.europki.org/ca/root/cps/en_index.html)
All the stuff we don’t know… Revocation approaches Policy languages Standard profiles Mobility Path math User interface
PKI and Higher Ed ah, the public sector life… Key issues Current activities
ah, the public sector… almost universal community of interests cross-agency relationships complex privacy and security issues limited budgets and implementation options sometimes ahead of the crowd and the obligation to build a marketplace
Key issues trust relationships among autonomous organizations interoperability of profiles and policies interactions with J.Q. Public international governance issues