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Environmental Bio-remediation Programmes in China Dr. Wang Qiming Counsellor for Science and Technology Embassy of P. R. China to India March 7, 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Bio-remediation Programmes in China Dr. Wang Qiming Counsellor for Science and Technology Embassy of P. R. China to India March 7, 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Bio-remediation Programmes in China Dr. Wang Qiming Counsellor for Science and Technology Embassy of P. R. China to India March 7, 2008

2 2 Priority of food and steel Looking back the Chinese history over last 150 years, much of the time was in wars, invasions, turmoil, revolutions and class struggles Therefore, for a long period, food and steel placed as top priority in the national policies This has caused the country’s large areas for mountains, lakes, grasslands and forests being cultivated for development of food yielding As the result, by the year of 1970’s, China’s eco- system had suffered a great deal of deterioration to a critical point --- dust-storms threatening Beijing in a pace much faster than before

3 3 In recent 30 years, China’s development so fast that the pressure of environment and natural resources ever enhanced Major environmental degradation includes: Soil and water erosions Land desertification Grassland degradation Forests shrinking Water resource shortage

4 4 Soil and water erosion Total soil and water erosion area 3.56 million km 2 37% of total national territory water erosion: 1.65 million km 2 wind erosion: 1.91 million km 2

5 5 Land desertification Total land desertification area 1.6 million km 2, 16.7% national territory Changes in last 50 years Land desertification increases 1,560 km 2 / year from 1950s to 1970s Land desertification increases 2,100 km 2 / year from 1970s to 1980s Land desertification increases 2,460 km 2 / year in 1990s

6 6 Grassland degradation Natural grassland area 2.8 million km 2, 28% of total national territory Percentage of degraded grassland 10% in 1970s 20% in early 1980s 30% in mid 1990s

7 7 Water resources shortage Water shortage: 100 billion m 3 Crop loss by drought: 80 million tons/year Water shortage in cities There are 669 cities in China 400 cities have water shortage problem Water pollution Eutrophication: a major threat of water pollution 56% lakes in China polluted with eutrophication, such as Algae blooms

8 8 A task for survival In order to protect the ecological environment, the Chinese government has launched a number of mega bio-remediation programmes: Protection of nature-reserves Three-North Shelterbelt Programme: Green Great Wall Conversion of cropland to forests and grassland Restoration of lakes through conversion of cropland

9 9 Protection of nature reserves Legislations on nature reserve protection State Council on China Conservation Strategy released in 1987 Regulations on nature reserves protection in 1994 Rules for land management of nature reserves in 1995 Regulation for wild species protection in 1997

10 10 National programmes on wild life protection and nature reserves development  State Administration of Forests Initiated “National Programmes on Wild Life Protection and Nature Reserves Development” in 2001  Goals: to rescue the endangered wild animal and plant species; to expand and improve the development of nature reserves, sanchary ; and to restore and develop rare wild life resources  Objectives: by the year 2020, construct a total of 2,500 nature reserves with total area of million hm 2, 18% of the national territory

11 11 National programmes on wild life protection and nature reserves development The first stage (from 2001 to 2010) focusing on projects saving 15 key endangered wild lives including:  Animals: panda, crested Ibis, tiger, golden monkey, Tibetan antelope, Yangtze River crocodile, elephant, gibbon, musk deer, Przewalski’s gazelle, wild deer, crane  Plants: cycad, orchid plants

12 12 Achievements A total of 2,349 nature reserves set up as of June 2006 Total area of nature reserves: 1.5 million km 2, 15% of total territory 14 wild animal conservation and breeding centers, 400 rare plants breeding centers constructed Endangered wild life species a steady increase Wild panda population: 1,000 Wild elephant population: 270 Wild musk deer: 1,300 Wild tiger: 100 Wild Tibetan antelope: 75,000

13 13 Distribution of national nature reserves (core areas shown in green dots)

14 14 The tiger breeding centre in Northeast China, the biggest in the world, having 800 tigers

15 15 Panda conservation and breeding center in Sichuan Province, China

16 16 Tibetan Antelope Reserve in Qinghai Province, China

17 17 Migration bird reserves at Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Province

18 18 Three-North Shelterbelt Programme Goals: developing forest shelterbelts ; reducing sand-storms, soil and water erosions ; protecting eco-system in northern China Objectives:  In mountain area: to restore and increase forest coverage  In plain and oasis: to build crop-shelter forest network  In loess plateau: to build soil and water conservation forest  In grassland: to plant shrubs for protection of grassland  In desert areas: to develop diversified ecosystem by planting wind-break and sand-fixing trees

19 19 Three-North Shelterbelt Programme Scope of project The Three-North Includes Northeast China, North China and Northwest China 4,480 km length from west to east 500-1,400 km width from north to south Total project area: 4.07 million km 2 40% of the total territory area Biggest nation-wide afforestation project in China

20 20 Three-North Shelterbelt Programme

21 21 Project tasks To increase forest area from 23 million hectares to 60 million hectares To increase forest coverage from 5% to 15% To increase total wood stock volume from 720 million m 3 to 4.27 billion m 3, a 6-time increase To enlarge the area of economic forest from 1 million hectares to 3 million hectares To build a farm-shelter forest network, increasing crop yield by 10%-15% To control soil and water erosion To stop expanding of land desertification

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23 23 Three-North Shelterbelt Program: so far A total wood stock volume raises from 720 million m 3 to 990 million m 3, an increase of 270 million m 3, far less than planned Planting economic forest 3.71 million hectares, higher than planned Fruit production Mt Farmer income increased up to ¥ 17.5 billion Yuan Yuan and Rupees 1:5

24 24 Three-North Shelterbelt Program: Results  Planting 0.91 million hm 2 of fire wood forest  Producing 5.47 MT of fire wood every year  Meeting demand of 6 million farmer households for cooking fuels  Inter-cropping model of forests mixed with crops, vegetables, grass  Greatly improving productivity

25 25 Three-North Shelterbelt Program: results Desertification control effects △ 4.76 million hm 2 of wind-break and sand-fixing forest planted in stage 1, △ 20% of desertification land under control △ Not a good indicator Soil & water conservation effects △ 5.52 million hm 2 of soil and water conservation forest planted in stage 1 △ 40% of the eroded area under control △ A good indicator

26 26 Restoring forests and grassland from low yielding cropland Project goals: converting low and unstable yielding, sloppy and sandy farmland into forests and grasslands by planting trees/ grass ; increasing vegetation coverage ; and improving ecological environment Main players: individual household of farmers A model of public private partnership ---- a much difficult task

27 27 Project of converting cropland to forests and grassland A pilot project initiated in 1999 in Sichuan, Shanxi and Gansu 3 provinces Implementing with a large scale in 174 counties of 13 provinces in 2000 Expanding to 25 provinces in 2003 All sloppy land with degree above 25°needs to be converted

28 28 Converting Cropland to Forests and Grassland A differentiated subsidy policy: government provides grains and monetary subsidies to farmers Yangtze River watershed region and southern China: 2,250 kg / hm 2 ·a (rich farmers) Yellow River watershed region and northern China: 1,500kg / hm 2 ·a (poor farmers) Monetary subsidy: ¥ 300 Yuan / hm 2 ·a Subsidy period: 2-year for grassland conversion, 5- year for economic forests, and 8-year for eco-forests Government provides compensation for afforestation: ¥ 750 Yuan / hm 2 ·a Yuan and Rupees 1:5

29 29 Cropland to forests and grassland Problems: Farmers prefer to economic forests (fruit trees) Policy 1: Planting ecological forests no less than 80% while economic forest no more than 20% Policy 2: No grains or cash subsidy for economic forests beyond 20%. only afforestation compensation fee applies Challenges:

30 30 What is after? After due time, living allowance offered to project farmers, all in cash: Yangtze River watershed region and southern China: ¥ 1,575 Yuan / hm 2 ·a Yellow River watershed region and northern China: ¥ 1,050 Yuan / hm 2 ·a Allowance period: 2-year for grassland, 5-year for economic forests, 8-year for eco-forests

31 31 Results so far In Tenth Five-Year Plan ( ), a total area for conversion to grassland: 12.6 million hm million hm 2 of cropland restored to forests Afforestation on barren land: 13.6 million hm 2 Sealed hills for afforestation: 1.33 million hm 2 Fixed CO 2 equals to emission of 3 million cars in 11 years Forest coverage in the project area increased by 2% Total government subsidies: ¥ 130 billion Yuan; average ¥ 3,500 Yuan per household; % of farmers total income

32 32 Results so far Donting, Poyang and Honghu Lakes, the three largest in the central China, increased by 1,400 km 2, flood holding capacity increased by 10 billion m 3 After project completion, water area of the three lakes is expected to increase by 2,900 km 2

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