Presentation on theme: "Implementation of UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol and CDM in Vietnam"— Presentation transcript:
1 Implementation of UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol and CDM in Vietnam Dr.Dao Duc TuanMr. Nguyen Khac HieuNational Office for Ozone Protection & Climate ChangeMinistry of Natural Resources & Environment
2 Content Background Climate change impacts United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Kyoto Protocol (KP) to UNFCCC and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)Main activities and results of UNFCCC implementation in VietnamUNEP Project on Capacity Building for CDM
3 BackgroundGreenhouse Gases (GHG) are vital because they act like a blanker around the earth to stabilize temperature. Without this natural blanket the surface average temperature of the earth would be -200C.Steam, CO2, CH4, N2O are main GHGsDue to industrialization to develop social-economic, anthropogenic GHG emissions are increasing significantly in the atmosphere.Increase of GHG concentration in the atmosphere leads to climate change.
6 Background (Cont.) Many human activities contribute to GHG emissions: Burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas)Exploiting mineIndustry activitiesFood production activitiesBurning and exploiting forestsLand use changeWasteDue to these activities, global average temperature increased 0.60C over the last 100 years.It is estimated that global temperature would increase from 1 to 3,50C.
11 Climate change impacts Harmfulness of climate change impacts:Human healthAgriculture and ForestryWater resourceCoastal zoneNatural habitat zones and floras and faunaSocial-economic systems
12 UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) More than 150 countries signed in June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)Including commitments of states to establish a framework for controlling and eliminating GHG emissions in order to stabilize GHG concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate systemAnnex I Parties (economic transitions transform countries): implement commitment on reducing GHG emissionsNon-Annex I Parties (developing countries)
13 Kyoto protocol Kyoto Protocol (KP): Protocol to UNFCCC, approved in Kyoto in 12/1997GHG controlled by KP including: CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6.Commitments of reducing GHG with special rate of parties (EU: 8%, USA: 7%, Japan: 6%)Condition to KP enter into force after 90 days when:55 Parties to the Convention have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.Annex I which ratify accounted in total for at least 55% of the total carbon dioxide emissions for 1990To 13 November 2002: 84 countries signed, 97 countries ratified. Annex 1 Parties which ratified represent 37,4%
14 CDM One of the mechanisms under KP (Article 12) The purpose of the CDM:To assist Parties not included in Annex I in achieving sustainable development and in contributing to the ultimate objective of the ConventionTo assist Parties included in Annex I in achieving compliance with their quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments under Article 3In the first commitment period ( ) : Annex I Parties shall reduce their overall emissions of GHG by at least 5% below 1990 levels
15 Main activities and results of implementation of UNFCCC Hydro-Meteorological Service of Vietnam (HMS) - at present belongs to Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) - is assigned by the Government as a National Authority for implementing UNFCCC and KP as well as a National Authority for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in Vietnam.HMS has coordinated with related Ministries, agencies to carry out climate change activities in the effort to promote implementation of UNFCCC and preparation for CDM activities in Vietnam.
16 Main activities and results of implementation of UNFCCC (Cont.) Establishing a Climate Change Country Team and National Technical Expert Team to manage and implement projects regarding climate change issues.HMS (MONRE)Ministry of Planning and InvestmentMinistry of Science & TechnologyMinistry of IndustryMinistry of TransportationMinistry of Agriculture and Rural DevelopmentMinistry of Training & EducationMinistry of Foreign AffairsMinistry of FinanceMinistry of Public HealthMinistry of JusticeVietnam Union of Science and Technology Association
17 Main activities and results of implementation of UNFCCC (CONT.) Vietnam has carried out the following climate change projects:Asian: Study on global impacts of climate changeCC:TRAIN“Asian Least Cost GHG Abatement Strategy” (ALGAS)Vietnam coastal zone vulnerability assessmentEconomic of GHG Limitation (Phase 1): “Formulization of methodology to assess GHG limitation “
18 Main activities and results of implementation of UNFCCC (CONT.) 6. Reduction of electricity consumption in Cement Ha Tien 2 Plant by using surplus thermal for additional generation7. Implementation of UNFCCC in Quang Ninh Province8. “Enabling Activities for the Preparation of Initial National Communication Related to UNFCCC”9. “Vietnam National Strategy Study on Clean Development Mechanism” (NSS)10. Use of biogas11. Increasing carbon sequestration in planted forest in Vietnam through use of genetically improved species12. Energy efficient in Public Lighting sector
19 Main activities and results of implementation of UNFCCC (CONT.) Main results: National GHG Inventories (1990, 1993, 1994):- Energy- Industrial Processes- Agriculture- Land use change and Forestry- Waste
22 Main activities and results of implementation of UNFCCC (CONT.) Develop and assess GHG mitigation optionsA/ Energy:Use of renewable energies (wind, solar)Energy efficiency improvement for Cooking StovesCompact Fluorescent LampEnergy efficiency improvement for old air-conditioning, fridge, engineFuel Efficiency Improvements with Lean Burn Engine in Transportation
23 Main activities and results of implementation of UNFCCC (CONT.) B/ ForestryLong-term rotation reforestationShort-term rotation reforestationAfforestationScatter plantationC/ AgricultureWater management on rice fieldsProcessing animal foodBiogas utilization in rural areas
24 Main activities and results of implementation of UNFCCC (CONT.) Vulnerability assessment and development of measures to cop with climate changeRaising awareness and knowledge- Workshops, seminars- Compilation of programmes, video to disseminateDevelopment of climate change project ideas to attract international supports.
25 Main activities and results of implementation of UNFCCC (CONT.) Formulation and development of climate change, CDM/PCF projects portfolioImprove energy efficiency in Small Medium Scale Enterprises (SME)Reducing CH4 emission by managing water level on rice fieldsFuel switching oil to gas (Thu Duc Plant )Recover CH4 from landfills (Hochiminh City, Hanoi, Haiphong City)Capacity Development for CDMDevelopment of renewable energies (wind, biogas, solar, geothermal power )Co-generation of electricity (Nghe An Tate & Lyle Company)Establishment of Protection Forest (Central Regional)
26 UNEP project on capacity development for CDM The project has launched by UNEP with the support from Dutch Government.Vietnam is one of the three countries in Asia has been selected to participate in the project.The project will assist Viet Nam to take advantages to joint CDM market through establishing GHG emission reduction projects that are consistent with national sustainable development goals.
27 UNEP project on capacity development for CDM Expected Outcomes:Define and improve a regulatory framework to support CDM activitiesEnhance CDM capacity building and skills for related organizationsIdentify prospective CDM projectsOperational information and guidelines for raising awareness and capacity building on CDM that can be applied in the project.
28 UNEP project on capacity development for CDM Project Preparation Phase:Review national experiences on AIJ / CDM projectsOrganize and participate in CDM national workshop with participation of main national stakeholders involved on CDMEstablish a country specific strategy approach in order to obtain the highest degree of political supportDesignate an appropriate focal point agency that will coordinate national CDM activities and investments.Develop a multi-year work plan for promoting nationals CDM activities and investments in Vietnam
29 Conclusion Vietnam has interested in climate change activities Vietnam signed and ratified UNFCCC in 1994Vietnam signed KP in 1997 and ratified it on 25 September 2002.In 1994, Vietnam issued Environment Law and Decree of Government guiding implementation of environment protection law. These documents affirm that Vietnam would implement its commitment in International Convention on environment protection which it signed
30 Conclusion (Cont.)The UNEP Project: “Capacity Development for CDM” will contribute an important part to facilitating CDM activities and sustainable development in Vietnam in the future.