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Company LOGO 1 Internet Option in the 2010 Census of Korea Counting the 7 Billion: The Future of Population and Housing Censuses Challenges and Benefits.

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Presentation on theme: "Company LOGO 1 Internet Option in the 2010 Census of Korea Counting the 7 Billion: The Future of Population and Housing Censuses Challenges and Benefits."— Presentation transcript:

1 Company LOGO 1 Internet Option in the 2010 Census of Korea Counting the 7 Billion: The Future of Population and Housing Censuses Challenges and Benefits of Using Modern Technologies Ki-Jong Woo Commissioner Statistics Korea

2 2 Contents M otivators 1 I nternet Option for the 2010 Census 2 I nternet Uptake Rates 3 D ata Quality 4 L essons Learned 5

3 3 1. Motivators

4 4 Rising cost of census-taking - on average, cost increases by 1.5 times between censuses $46.8M $72.5M $112.1M $157.2M 1$ = 1,150 Won A need to reduce the cost of census-taking (1) More adverse census-taking environment

5 5 Changes in household patterns (2010) - one-person households : 23.9% - dual-earner households : 37.2% - elderly aged 65+ : 11.3% Making it difficult to interview households 15.5% 20.0% 12.7% 23.9% (In ‘000)

6 6 Growing awareness of privacy - Increasing non-response rate More and more people are reluctant to cooperate with government 1.7% % 2.8% 3.6%

7 7 70.2% % 78.4% 80.6% 81.6% (2) Opportunities for introducing modern technologies Internet penetration rate: % (May, 2010) Improved quality of administrative data - Population register - Building register - New address system, etc.

8 8 Ample experience of conducting electronic surveys by Statistics Korea (2010) 27 (2009) 25 (2006) 6 (2005) 3

9 9 2. Internet Option for the 2010 Census

10 10 History Census Day Enumeration Period Census Questionnaire (1) Outline of the 2010 Census Conducted every five years since Population Census (18 th ) As of 0:00, November 1, 2010 November 1 – 15 (15 days) (e-Census : Oct , 10 days) 50 items (short form: 19, long form: 31)

11 11 Citizenship Year/Month of Arrival Child care Number of children mothers plan to have Impairment care Heating facility Main means of commuting Use of transportation means IT facilities Social activities MulticulturalFamily Low Birth Rate & Aging Society SocialParticipation DigitalBroadcasting Low Carbon Green growth

12 12 Results Release Budget Workforce 119,000: 6,000 officials + 113,000 enumerators Preliminary: Dec Short form: Jul / Long form : Oct $157.2 M * 1995: $46.8M, 2000: $72.5M, 2005: $112.1M. Labor cost $106.1M 67.5% 17.9% 7.0% Census activity & supplies $28.1M Data processing $11.9M Publicity cost $11.0M 7.6%

13 13 Oct Oct Nov (2) Timeline for Internet Option Period PreparatoryPeriod InternetOption Door-to-door Visits

14 14 DB (3) Work Flow of the Internet Option Address DB, Household list, Housing DB Pull & Push Strategy Thank You Note ( ) Yes No Create Internet Access Code Intent to participate Send SMS to encourage response Give Internet Access Code Preparation Automatic editing Public Campaign Public Campaign Fill Out the Form ConfirmConfirm Finished?Finished? Electronic management Re-contact those who haven’t completed the form

15 15 CountryInternet Access CodeDigit Canada * Internet Access Code(15-digit) Australia * Census Form Number(13-digit) * E-Census Number(12-digit) Japan * Government approval number(4- digit) * Questionnaire ID(11-digit) * Verification Number(8-digit) (4) Internet Access Code

16 16 Access the Internet For foreigners Begin the e-Census (5) Accessing the Online Form Enter Internet Access Code

17 17 CoverCover HouseholdHousehold Household Members HousingHousing (6) Census Questionnaire for the Internet

18 18 Range and logic checks Range and logic checks Number of edit specifications : 88 for short form, 227 for long form Number of edit specifications : 88 for short form, 227 for long form (7) Input and Automatic Editing

19 19 these households have completed the form Shown here This household has not completed the form (8) Automated Response Management Automatically manage the input process and report the status Automatically manage the input process and report the status

20 20 Encoding SSL External Network Internal Firewall WEB Sever WAS Sever DB Sever WEB EXT WEB WAS DB Internet (9) Ensure Security e-Census System InternetRouter Web Firewall ExternalFirewallWEBFirewallWASFirewallDBFirewall User Security PC Security User Security (Level 1) Network Security (Level 2) Web Service (Level 3) Server Security (Level 4) DB Security (Level 5) Access Control Web Service Security Security OS Encoding Data  PC keyboard  Web browser  No capture  Encoding SSL  Web Firewall  Encoding personal information  Controlling accesses to server  Separating internal and external network  Control irregular traffic

21 21 3. Internet Uptake Rate

22 %47.7% 49.3%49.3% Short Long 100% 49.6%49.6% 40.4%40.4% Urban Rural 100% (1) Overall Internet Uptake Rate : 47.9% (2) By questionnaire and region

23 Beginning period 5.4%, Ending Period 5.0% 10/ ,000 10/2010/2110/2210/2310/2410/2510/2610/2710/2810/2910/3010/3111/111/211/311/411/511/611/ Weekend effect Beginning Period Ending Period Preparation Internet option period Extension (Thousand Households) Daily internet response rate (3) Characteristics of Internet Participants 23

24 24 Response rate by the time of day 8 pm~10 pm(16.4%), 10 pm~midnight(12.6%), 10 am~noon(12.1%) (%)

25 25 Age group (Internet respondents) Age 54.9% 35.7% 59.8% 48.2% 34.5% 20~2930~39 40~49 50~59 60~ 35.3% ~19

26 26 Education of household head (Internet respondents) Education

27 27 Size and type of household 1-person hhs 2-person hhs 5+person hhs 3-person hhs 4-person hhs Married couple w/ children 31.3% 39.2% 53.9% 64.1% 64.4% 62.1% 38.3% Married couple w/o children Size Type

28 28 Type of housing and occupancy 59.3% 36.0% 47.9% 43.5% Detached dwelling ApartmentRow house Apartment unit in a house Others 47.1% Housing Occupancy 51.7% 49.8% 47.5% Owned Tenement Rent-free 37.3% Rent

29 29 4. Data Quality

30 30 (1) Coverage Error The Internet option shows lower omission and duplication rates Post-enumeration Survey of the 2010 Census InternetInterview Net omission rate Omission rate Duplication rate

31 31 (2) Content Error The Internet responses show lower error rates Edit and Imputation

32 32 ANCOVA (Analysis of Covariance) analysis Controlling for age, education, sex, occupancy, and the type of living quarters, Internet responses show less errors.

33 33 5. Lessons Learned

34 (1) Prove to be a cost-effective tool for census ,000 fewer enumerators: $3.9M saved - Shorter enumeration period: 19 days 16 days $10.3M saved Reduce personnel expenditure: by $14.2M 1,774 fewer data capture operators : $3.5M saved Save data processing cost: by $3.5M

35 35 (from add-on questionnaire on Internet option in 2010 Census) Reduce enumerator’s visits to households 2.5% Convenience Safety Dislike visit by enumerators Incentive 10.5% 11.7% 72.2% (2) Proven to be a convenient tool for surveys

36 36 - Of them, 73.5% responded “Satisfied” Overall Degree of Satisfaction 1-5 Scale Very Satisfied Satisfied Neither Satisfied Nor dissatisfied Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied No response Total Short Long (Unit: %) Most participants were satisfied with the Internet option 70.9% (5.72M households) of the Internet participants responded.

37 37 (3) Prove to obtain more accurate responses Higher coverage according to the PES The range and logic check functions of the Internet option worked effectively to secure accurate response. Respondents with higher education are more likely to choose the Internet option # of edit specifications : Long-form 227, Short-form 88 - # of mean error in short-form : 0.08 for Internet response vs1.83 for Interview - # of mean error in long-form : 1.27 for Internet response vs 3.56 for Interview

38 38 (4) Success Factors As of 2010, the highest level in the world 0.5% in the 2005 Korean Census Singapore(15.0%, 2000; 38.0%, 2010), Canada(18.5%, 2006), Norway(9.9%, 2001), Australia(9.0%, 2006; 37%, 2011), New Zealand(7.0%, 2006), Switzerland(4.2%, 2000) 54.4% in the 2011 Census of Canada 4.2% 7.0% 8.0% 37.0% 38.0% 47.9% Switzerland (2000) New Zealand (2006) Norway (2001) 9.9% Japan (2010) Australia (2011) Singapore (2010) Korea (2010) Seven months later, 54.4% in the 2011 Census of Canada Canada (2011)

39 39 Stability of e-Census system User-friendly, well-designed questionnaire → convenient to respond High Internet penetration rate for households : 81.6% as of 2010 Competitive sprit for higher Internet participation among provinces (4) Success Factors

40 40 Strategy for enhancing Internet responses Pull - Hand out gifts by drawing : LED TV(20), Notebook (80), Bicycle(240) … - Give students two hour credits for volunteer work Internet first Incentives - Campaign for e-Census Publicity Campaign InternetInterview Push (4) Success Factors

41 Thank you!


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