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Candace S. Bos Memorial Lecture Series University of Texas September 16, 2002.

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Presentation on theme: "Candace S. Bos Memorial Lecture Series University of Texas September 16, 2002."— Presentation transcript:

1 Candace S. Bos Memorial Lecture Series University of Texas September 16, 2002

2 “A doctor can bury his mistakes, but an architect can only advise his client to plant vines.” Frank Lloyd Wright

3 “What matters most in the work that we do?”

4 C LOSING THE P ERFORMANCE G AP

5 The Performance Gap Demands/ Skills Years in School

6 Closing the Performance Gap The “Core” Continuum of Content Literacy Strong Administrative Leadership results from attending to is promoted by the only happens through Inclusive Education is about

7 Focus of Presentation Actions that lead to the biggest improvements in student outcomes > Validated practices implemented with fidelity > Coordinated programming across teachers and sites > Quality professional development > Strong administrative leadership

8 Closing the Performance Gap The “Core” Continuum of Content Literacy Strong Administrative Leadership results from attending to is promoted by the only happens through Inclusive Education is about

9 What’s Should be at the Core? Vision Efficacy/Beliefs Validated instructional practices Administrative Leadership

10 Visio n

11 Efficacy/Beliefs

12 Validated instructiona l practices

13

14

15 Vaughn, Gersten, & Chard (2000) Interventions that benefit SLD also benefit average and high achievers Instruction that is visible & explicit Instruction that is interactive between students & teacher & between students Instruction that controls of task difficulty Strategies that guide student learning

16 Direct Instruction Small steps Probes Feedback Diagrams/pictures Independent practice Clear Explanations Teacher models Reminders to use strategies Step-by-step prompts Review the learning process Strategy Instruction Swanson (1999)

17 Responsive Instruction Continuous Assessment Instructional Accommodations Elaborated Feedback

18 Systematic Instruction Structured Connected Scaffolded Informative

19 Intensive Instruction Sufficient Time High Engagement

20 My, how time can slip away!! 10 minutes lost/block (4 blocks/day) –40 minutes lost/day –200 minutes (3.3 hours) of lost/week –105 hours/year or about 17 days!!!

21 Closing the Performance Gap The “Core” Continuum of Content Literacy Strong Administrative Leadership results from attending to is promoted by the only happens through Inclusive Education is about

22 . A Continuum of Action Key Components for Content Literacy Component 1: Ensure mastery of critical content. Component 2: Weave shared strategies across classes. Component 3: Support mastery of shared strategies for targeted strategies. Component 4: Develop more intensive course options for those who need it. Component 5: Develop more intensive clinical options for those who need it.

23 . Component 1: Ensure mastery of critical content. All students learn critical content required in the core curriculum regardless of literacy levels. Teachers compensate for limited literacy levels by using explicit teaching routines, adaptations, and technology to promote content mastery. all most some For example: The Unit Organizer Routine

24 Content Enhancement Teaching Routines Planning and Leading Learning Course Organizer Unit Organizer lesson Organizer Explaining Text, Topics, and Details Framing Routine Survey Routine Clarifying Routine Teaching Concepts Concept Mastery Routine Concept Anchoring Routine Concept Comparison Routine Increasing Performance Quality Assignment Routine Question Exploration Routine Recall Enhancement Routine

25 A mammal is a warm-blooded vertebrate that has hair and nurses its young. CONCEPT DIAGRAM CONVEY CONCEPT NOTE KEY WORDS OFFER OVERALL CONCEPT CLASSIFY CHARACTERISTICS: 2 1 Always PresentSometimes PresentNever Present Examples: Nonexamples: PRACTICE WITH NEW EXAMPLE TIE DOWN A DEFINITION EXPLORE EXAMPLES Key Words Mammal Vertebrate warm-blooded nurse their young has hair walks on 2 legs walks on 4 legs cold-blooded human snake elephant whale duckbill platypus swims in water alligator shark bird elephant human warm-blooded nurse their young whale bird shark walks on 4 legs can fly cold-blooded bat can fly moves on the ground O Concept Diagram

26 Concept Mastery Results Test scores of students with disabilities on unit tests

27

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29 . A Continuum of Action Key Components for Content Literacy Component 1: Ensure mastery of critical content. Component 2: Weave shared strategies across classes. Component 3: Support mastery of shared strategies for targeted strategies. Component 4: Develop more intensive course options for those who need it. Component 5: Develop more intensive clinical options for those who need it.

30 . Component 2: Weave shared strategies across classes. Teachers embed selected learning strategies in core curriculum courses through direct explanation, modeling, and required application in content assignments. For example: Teachers teach the steps of a paraphrasing strategy (RAP), regularly model its use, and then embed paraphrasing activities in course activities through the year to create a culture of “reading to retell.”

31 “It’s strange that we expect students to learn, yet spend so little time teaching them about learning!” Norman, 1980

32 “In times of change learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists!” Eric Hoffer Eric Hoffer

33 Embedded Strategy Instruction

34 Large Group Instruction I Do It! Review the steps of the strategy Explain how it will help them learn Specify what they need to do Think out loud Problem solve Attack the challenge in different ways Address errors from previous day’s work

35 Large Group Instruction We Do It! Ask for strategy steps Ask students to explain how they’re thinking Shape student responses Encourage students with authentic praise Evaluate student understanding Re-instruct if necessary

36 Large Group Instruction You Do it! Let students perform independently Give brief, specific, constructive feedback Identify categories of error to identify the focus for the next day’s session Have students record their grade on a progress chart

37 Learning Strategies Curriculum Acquisition Word Identification Paraphrasing Self-Questioning Visual Imagery Interpreting Visuals Multipass Storage First-Letter Mnemonic Paired Associates Listening/Notetaking LINCS Vocabulary Expression of Competence Sentences Paragraphs Error Monitoring Themes Assignment Completion Test-Taking

38 Self-Questioning Strategy A ttend to clues as you read S ay some questions K eep predictions in mind I dentify the answer T alk about the answers

39 Self-Questioning-2001 n= 133 7th Grade Science Class: Growth Scores

40 State Writing Assessment

41 . A Continuum of Action Key Components for Content Literacy Component 1: Ensure mastery of critical content. Component 2: Weave shared strategies across classes. Component 3: Support mastery of shared strategies for targeted strategies. Component 4: Develop more intensive course options for those who need it. Component 5: Develop more intensive clinical options for those who need it.

42 . Component 3: Support mastery of shared strategies for targeted strategies. Students who have difficulty mastering the strategies presented in courses by content teachers are provided more instruction in the strategies through specialized, more intensive instruction delivered by support personnel. For example: When core curriculum teachers notice students having difficulty learning and using strategies such as paraphrasing they work with support personnel to provide more intensive instruction.

43 Intensive Strategy Instruction

44 Eight Stage Instructional Process 1. Pretest and Make Commitments 2. Describe 3. Model 4. Verbal Practice 5. Controlled Practice 6. Advanced Practice 7. Posttest and Make Commitments 8. Generalization Daily instruction for 6 to 8 weeks in each strategy.

45 Small-Group Instruction Pre-test Describe Model Verbal Elaboration Controlled Practice Grade-appropriate practice Post-test Generalization

46 Word Identification D iscover the context I solate the prefix S eparate the suffix S ay the stem E xamine the stem C heck with someone T ry the dictionary

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48 . A Continuum of Action Key Components for Content Literacy Component 1: Ensure mastery of critical content. Component 2: Weave shared strategies across classes. Component 3: Support mastery of shared strategies for targeted strategies. Component 4: Develop more intensive course options for those who need it. Component 5: Develop more intensive clinical options for those who need it.

49 Component 4: Develop more intensive course options for those who need it. Students learn literacy skills and strategies through specialized, direct, and intensive instruction in listening, speaking, reading, and writing through carefully designed and delivered courses. For example: Courses in researched-based reading Programs such as the SRA Corrective Reading Program are created for students.

50 . A Continuum of Action Key Components for Content Literacy Component 1: Ensure mastery of critical content. Component 2: Weave shared strategies across classes. Component 3: Support mastery of shared strategies for targeted strategies. Component 4: Develop more intensive course options for those who need it. Component 5: Develop more intensive clinical options for those who need it.

51 Component 5: Develop more intensive clinical options for those who need it. Students with underlying language disorders learn the linguistic, metalinguistic, and metacognitive underpinnings they need to acquire content literacy skills and strategies. For example: Speech and language pathologists work with students whose language disorders to teach the language skills needed to acquire critical literacy skills and strategies.

52 Curriculum-relevant therapy Curriculum-relevant therapy is a kind of intervention that engages adolescents in meaningful, relevant, results oriented work, leading to academic success. The Speech-Language Pathologist Provides Curriculum-Relevant Therapy Practice Principles: 1. Intervention provided by the SLP should be therapeutic, or clinical, in nature. 2. Intervention should relate directly to what students have to learn in school.

53 What is Strategic Tutoring? Usually one-to-one instruction With a highly skilled instructor Who assesses, constructs, weaves, and plans for transfer using Strategies for learning how to learn While helping youth complete class assignments

54 Student Strategy Knowledge “Tell me everything you do when you......” Pre Strategic Tutoring Post Strategic Tutoring Andre’: Math Strategy Oct. 13, 1998 I take notes from the overhead. I use the notes if I don’t remember. Andre’: Math Strategy Dec. 7, 1998 First, I have a separate folder for math assignments. I read the problem aloud. I underline information Compare to other problems(look at example in the book). Make up a guess Solve parts of the problem. Check my work

55 Pre Strategic Tutoring Post Strategic Tutoring Andre’: Organizational Strategy Nov 2, 1998 Put my papers for class in each textbook(science assignment in science text). overhead. Also put papers in bottom of backpack. Andre’: Organizational Strategy Dec. 7, 1998 Use a notebook and separate folder for each subject. The tutor checks my weekly/ daily planner. Use a grid for the planner and put sports stickers for each daily schedule that was complete. I look at the board each class for notes written by the teacher. Copy the dates and assignments from the board and due dates. Student Strategy Knowledge

56 Summary of Key Ideas Related to Content literacy 1.The purpose of literacy is to increase the learning of critical information. 2.Content literacy requires fluent decoding. 3.Common strategies are taught and reinforced by all teachers. 4.Responsive and systematic instruction is provided on a continuum of intensity. 5.Students must master critical content regardless of literacy competence.

57 What Can the Content Literacy Continuum Do for Schools?

58 The Performance Gap Demands/ Skills Years in School

59 Content: Rigorous academic standards

60 Helps professionals differentiate complementary roles.

61 Focuses on change at the school level.

62 Addresses, national, state, and district priorities in literacy.

63 You want me to do what?

64 Closing the Performance Gap The “Core” Continuum of Content Literacy Strong Administrative Leadership results from attending to is promoted by the only happens through Inclusive Education is about

65 Administrativ e Leadership

66 Ensure right conditions are in place for student success Create a professional culture of “calling,” high expectation, and success

67 Student Success Validated practices Fidelity implementation Coordinated implementation Quality Professional Development Strong Administrative Leadership =

68 “What matters most in the work that we do?”

69 The answer to that question will impact the degree to which the “performance gap” is closed.


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