2TermsAutotrophcreates their own food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis These organisms are producers.Heterotrophdepends upon other organisms for nutrition. These organisms are consumers. Some organisms, such as the Euglena, will be photosynthetic in the presence of light and heterotrophic without light.ChemosyntheticOrganisms that obtain cellular energy by breaking down inorganic chemicals
3Energy Carriers ATP temporary energy storage molecule in all cells NADHH+ and e- carrier moleculeNAD + + H+ + e NADHFADH2FAD + 2H+ + e FADH2Think of NADH and FADH2 as taxi cabs!
5All Cells Need Energy Cells need energy to do a variety of work: Making new moleculesBuilding membranes and organellesMoving molecules in and out of the cellMovement
6Where Does A Cell Get Energy? Food is broken down to a form the cell can use.Extra energy is stored in an ATP molecule, a nucleotide.
7What Is ATP?ATP – adenosine triphosphate is a molecule made up of an adenine, ribose, and 3 phosphate groups.AdenineRibosephosphate groups
8A Simple ReviewAdenineRibosePWhat basic unit of what organic compound is pictured to the right?
9How Does ATP Work?Energy is stored in the bond between the second and third phosphate group.When the bond is broken, energy is released and ADP is formed.AdenineRibose
10ATP – Energy CurrencyWithin a cell, formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate occurs over and over, storing energy each time.As the cell uses energy, ATP breaks down repeatedly to release energy and form ADP and phosphate.
11Making Energy Cells make energy in two ways: Photosynthesis – takes place in the chloroplasts.Respiration – takes place in the mitochondria.
12PhotosynthesisAutotrophs make their own food by trapping light energy and converting it to chemical energy (carbohydrates).
13PhotosynthesisUsing light from the sun, plants combine water and carbon dioxide to make sugar .General Equation:6CO2 + 12H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6 H2OReactants Productslight
14ChemosynthesisSome autotrophs can convert inorganic substances to energy.Most are adapted to live in conditions where there is no oxygen.MarshesLake sedimentsDigestive tracts of mammalsDeep in the ocean
15This is a Black Smoker in the Pacific This is a Black Smoker in the Pacific. A tubular hydrothermal vent that releases hot water,known as a "black smoker", in the Pacific Ocean.
16Cellular RespirationThe process of breaking down food molecules to release energy.Aerobic respiration occurs in the mitochondria.Two types:Aerobic – requires oxygen.Anaerobic – requires an absence of oxygen.
17Cellular Respiration – Chemical Equation enzymesC6H12O O _ CO2 + _ H2O ATP
20Glycolysis Chemical Equation Glucose is split to form pyruvate.Takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell.ATP and NADH are byproducts.Glycolysis Chemical EquationGlucose + 2 NAD+ + 2 ADP + 2 Pi2 pyruvate + 2 NADH + 2 ATP + 2 H2OEnzymes
222 ATP C6H12O6 (6 carbon molecule) 2 NAD+ (coenzyme) 2 ADP+P ReviewWhat are the inputs for Glycolysis?Glucose2 ATP C6H12O6 (6 carbon molecule) 2 NAD+ (coenzyme) 2 ADP+PWhat are the outputs for Glycolysis?2 pyruvic acid (3 carbon molecules) 2 NADH 2 ATP (makes 4 but 2 are needed in the process)
23Anaerobic Respiration Two types of anaerobic respiration:FermentationOccurs when bacteria break down plants (vegetables and fruit) and release alcohol or vinegar.Lactic Acid Fermentation Occurs in muscles – a buildup of lactic acid causes soreness.
24Aerobic Respiration 2. Citric Acid Cycle A.K.A. Kreb’s Cycle Pyruvate is used to build citric acid (a carbon compound), which is broken down to release ATP. (# Net 2 ATP)Takes place in the cristae (the folded membrane in the mitochondrion)CO2 is released, and NADH & FADH2 carry electrons and hydrogen ions to the electron transport chain.Each glucose molecule takes two trips around the cycle!
25Each glucose molecule takes 2 turns through the cycle! InputsPyruvateNAD+FADADP + PiOutputs4 NADH1 FADH21 ATP3 CO2Outputs8 NADH2 FADH22 ATP6 CO2
263. Electron Transport Chain Electrons are reduced, and that energy forms large amounts of ATP. (#32-34 ATP)Takes place in the inner membrane of the mitochondrionThe used ions are combined with oxygen to form H2O.
27Electron Transport System NADHH2ONAD+O2FADH2FAD36-38 ATP
29Review What are the inputs for the Krebs cycle? 1 Pyruvate (3 carbon molecule)4 NAD+1 FAD1 ADP + PiWhat are the outputs for the Krebs cycle?(Per 1 pyruvate – 1 glucose yields 2X)4 NADH1 FADH21 ATP3 CO2
30Review What are the inputs for the ETS per one molecule of glucose? 10 NADH: 8 from Krebs, 2 from glycolysis2 FADH2 : from Krebs cycleO2What are the outputs for the ETS?32-24 ATP moleculesH2O
31Total ATP Production 36 -38 ATP molecules enzymesC6H12O O CO2 + 6 H2O ATP
32Heat O2 ATP H2O CO2 Glucose ATP Pyruvate MITOCHONDRION Electron TransportSystemO2ATPH2ONAD+FADNADHFADH2CO2citric acidcycleGlucoseATPPyruvateATPMITOCHONDRION
37Oxidation - ReductionOxidation is the loss of elecrons from an atom or molecule. It is also the loss (removal) of hydrogen atoms from a molecule. A loss of energy is associated with the loss of electrons or hydrogen atoms.Reduction is the gain of electrons or the gain of hydrogen atoms. This process stores energy.
38Oxidation - ReductionOxidation and reduction occur together. When a atom or molecule is oxidized, another must be reduced.Example: Na + Cl ® Na+Cl- - The Na is oxidized; the Cl is reduced.